Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

  1. Ariffin AF, Yusof N, Mohd S, Rahman SA, Ramalingam S, Mansor A, et al.
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2019 Dec;20(4):527-534.
    PMID: 31456097 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-019-09785-4
    Calcium contents of demineralised human cortical bone determined by titrimetric assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique were verified by comparing to neutron activation analysis which has high recovery of more than 90%. Conversion factors determined from the comparison is necessary to correct the calcium content for each technique. Femurs from cadaveric donors were cut into cortical rings and demineralised in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid for varying immersion times. Initial calcium content in the cortical bone measured by titration was 4.57%, only 21% of the measurement by neutron activation analysis; while measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer was 13.4%, only 61% of neutron activation analysis. By comparing more readings with the measurements by neutron activation analysis with 93% recovery, a conversion factor of 4.83 was verified and applied for the readings by titration and 1.45 for atomic absorption spectrophotometer in calculating the correct calcium contents. The residual calcium content started to reduce after the cortical bone was demineralised in hydrochloric acid for 8 h and reduced to 13% after 24 h. Using the linear relationship, the residual calcium content could be reduced to less than 8% after immersion in hydrochloric acid for 40 h. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique is the method of choice for calcium content determination as it is more reliable compared to titrimetric assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  2. Thwin SS, Soe MM, Myint M, Than M, Lwin S
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Feb;51(2):e40-2.
    PMID: 20358142
    We report a unique variation in the origin and branches of both the left and right external carotid artery (ECA) found during the dissection of a human cadaver. Knowledge of the possible anatomical variations of the ECA is especially important in facio-maxillary and neck surgeries. Surgeons need to be aware of the possibility of encountering such variations, as they may lead to difficulties in differentiating between the external and internal carotid arteries, and in identifying the branches and origins. This knowledge is also important for radiologists in the image interpretation of the face and neck regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  3. Naveen K, Jyothsna P, Nayak SB, Mohandas RK, Swamy RS, Deepthinath R, et al.
    Ethiop J Health Sci, 2014 Jan;24(1):93-6.
    PMID: 24591805
    BACKGROUND: Axillary artery is known to show different variations mostly in its branching pattern. Similarly, the origin of profunda brachii is often encountered with abnormality. Therefore, when the vascular variations in the upper limb persist, mostly it is confined to its branching pattern followed by its variant origin. But, among all the reported variations of profunda brachii, its variant origin from the 3rd part of the axillary artery with common trunk for the branches of axillary artery is unique.

    CASE DETAILS: We report here an anomalous origin of profunda brachii as continuation of an arterial trunk arising from 3rd part of the axillary artery. This common trunk at its commencement passed between 2 roots of median nerve and gave branches of 3rd part of axillary artery before it continued as profunda brachii artery. The further course and branching pattern of profunda brachii were normal.

    CONCLUSION: Since the axillary artery is next choice of artery for arterial cannulation in cardiopulmonary bypass procedures, prior knowledge of existence of such variation in its branching pattern helps in avoiding possible diagnostic or interventional therapeutic errors.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  4. Mohandas Rao KG, Somayaji SN, Ashwini LS, Ravindra S, Abhinitha P, Rao A, et al.
    Acta Med Iran, 2012;50(8):572-6.
    PMID: 23109033
    Variations in the origin of axillary artery branches are common. But, distinctly abnormal course of its posterior circumflex humeral branch is rare. We are reporting a case of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) originating from the axillary artery, passing through lower triangular space to reach the scapular region where it accompanied the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral vein to pass around surgical neck of humerus, deep to the fibers of deltoid. Other variations observed in this specimen were the radial collateral artery arising from the PCHA, middle collateral artery arising directly from the brachial artery and absence of profunda brachii artery. PCHA forming a hair pin loop, traversing through lower triangular space instead of quadrangular space taking a long course is being reported for the first time. Further, the clinical and surgical importance of this case especially in relation with quadrangular space syndrome and relevant literature is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  5. Tadipi S, Sadashiv R, Muralidharan S, Pimid M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2015 Nov;22(6):67-70.
    PMID: 28223889
    Variations in the urogenital vascular anomalies in the abdomen are very common. However, they warrant attention due to their importance in operative, diagnostic, and endovascular procedures. During routine dissection of abdomen in a male cadaver, unique urogenital vascular anomalies were observed. On the right side, the right renal artery was found to be originated from the abdominal aorta at the level of L2 and divided into five branches; the right testicular artery and inferior suprarenal artery originated from the lower branch. We also observed, accessory renal artery arising from abdominal aorta at the level of L3 and double renal veins on right side. On the left side, we found left renal artery originating from the abdominal aorta at the level of L2 and divided into two branches. Double testicular (medial and lateral) arteries were also observed. In addition to these vascular variations, bilateral kinking of ureter at the pelviureteric junction was also observed. Although the variations in the origin of urogenital vessels in the abdomen are common, deeper understanding of the urogenital vascular variations and their relations to adjacent structures is significant during surgical and radiological procedures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  6. Thwin SS, Zaini F, Than M, Lwin S, Myint M
    Singapore Med J, 2012 Jun;53(6):e128-30.
    PMID: 22711051
    The presence of anatomical variations of the peripheral nervous system often accounts for unexpected clinical signs and symptoms. We report unusual variations of the lateral and posterior cords of the brachial plexus in a female cadaver. Such variations are attributed to a faulty union of divisions of the brachial plexus during the embryonic period. The median nerve lay medial to the axillary artery (AA) on both sides. On the right, the lateral root of the median nerve crossing the AA and the median nerve in relation to the medial side of the AA was likely the result of a faulty development of the seventh intersegmental artery. We discuss these variations and compare them with the findings of other researchers. Knowledge of such rare variations is clinically important, aiding radiologists, anaesthesiologists and surgeons to avoid inadvertent damage to nerves and the AA during blocks and surgical interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  7. Hansdak R, Arora J, Sharma M, Mehta V, Suri RK, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(2):65-7.
    PMID: 25945432 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1817
    Variations in the arterial pattern of upper limb are of colossal importance to the surgeons as they are liable to iatrogenic injuries. During routine dissection for undergraduate medical students, an anomaly of brachial artery was discovered. The brachial artery terminated at higher level into ulnar and radial artery. The common interosseus artery took origin arising from radial artery. The ulnar artery did not give any branches in the forearm. Both radial and ulnar artery displayed a superficial course in the forearm. The anatomical knowledge of these variations may be of great help for the clinicians in planning and conducting flap harvesting during reconstructive surgeries and in arteriography.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  8. Hlaing KP, Thwin SS, Shwe N
    Singapore Med J, 2011 Dec;52(12):e262-4.
    PMID: 22159949
    The cystic artery (CA) is known to exhibit variations in its origin and branching pattern. This is attributed to the developmental changes occurring in the primitive ventral splanchnic arteries. During routine dissection of a male cadaver, we observed that the CA originated from the middle hepatic artery (MHA) at a distance of about 1 cm from its origin, and the MHA originated from the right hepatic artery at a distance of 2.1 cm from its origin. The CA traversed for a distance of 1.5 cm, giving off a branch to the cystic duct. It then passed anterior to the cystic duct. The origin of the CA was located to the left of the common hepatic duct, outside the Calot's triangle. The topographical anatomy of the arterial system of the hepatobiliary region and their anomalous origin should be considered during hepatobiliary surgeries. This knowledge is also important for interventional radiologists in routine clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  9. Ramanadham S, Kalthur SG, Pai SR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2011 Jan;18(1):68-71.
    PMID: 22135576
    Knowledge of muscular, vascular, and neural variations in the axilla is of great clinical importance, especially in mastectomies, breast reconstruction, and axillary bypass operations. In the present paper, we report unilateral variations observed in the axillary region of a male cadaver. A fibromuscular axillary arch was observed on the right side. On the same side, there was a bifurcated axillary vein; a medial cutaneous nerve of the arm passed through and later ran beneath this axillary vein. In addition, the intercostobrachial nerve was absent on the right side. The clinical significance of the variations observed and their embryological basis are discussed in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  10. Srijit D, Shipra P
    Rom J Morphol Embryol, 2008;49(2):257-8.
    PMID: 18516336
    The present study examines the gross anatomical features of anomalous lunate sulcus detected incidentally in a cadaveric brain and discusses its clinical importance. The absence of lunate sulcus was carefully studied in a dissected brain specimen. The absence of lunate sulcus was observed unilaterally on the right side of a cadaveric brain specimen. The lunate sulcus was clearly appreciated on the left side whilst on the right side it was absent. The right hemisphere of the cerebellum was also bigger in size as compared to the left. The absence of lunate sulcus is a rare finding, which may be detected incidentally. The anatomical knowledge of the lunate sulcus may be important for neurosurgeons operating on the occipital lobe and the radiologists interpreting CT scan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  11. Nayak SB, Soumya KV
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2020 Nov;42(11):1303-1306.
    PMID: 32328708 DOI: 10.1007/s00276-020-02471-1
    Azygos system of veins is the main source of venous drainage from the thoracic wall. Knowledge of azygos vein anomalies could be of importance to cardiothoracic surgeons and radiologists. We report a rare variation of azygos vein as seen in an adult male cadaver aged 65 years approximately. The azygos vein was formed by the union of left ascending lumbar and subcostal veins. It coursed upwards on the left side of descending thoracic aorta and crossed the left subclavian artery and the left vagus to terminate into the left brachiocephalic vein. It received left superior intercostal vein and left fifth to eleventh posterior intercostal veins. The hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins were situated on the right side of the vertebral column. They received the right posterior intercostal veins and terminated into the azygos vein at the level of eighth thoracic vertebra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  12. Choy KW, Kogilavani S, Norshalizah M, Rani S, Aspalilah A, Hamzi H, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(1):17-9.
    PMID: 23455736 DOI: 10.7417/T.2013.1504
    Femoral nerve (FN) is the largest branch of lumbar plexus. It lies lateral to femoral artery (FA) and it is located outside the femoral sheath. Profunda femoris artery (PFA) is a branch of the FA. The present study aimed to observe the topographical anatomy and relationship of the PFA and the FN.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  13. Rahman NA, Das S, Maatoq Sulaiman I, Hlaing KP, Haji Suhaimi F, Latiff AA, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2009;160(2):129-31.
    PMID: 19452102
    The sternalis is an anomalous muscle located in the anterior wall of thorax and several past reports have described its presence with clinical implications. The sternalis muscle may be incidentally detected during routine cadaveric dissections and autopsies. We observed the presence of anomalous sternalis muscle on both sides of the anterior chest wall in 25 cadavers (n = 50), over a span of three years. Out of a 50 cases, we observed a single case of sternalis on the right side of the 55-year-old male cadaver (2%). The sternalis was found to be absent in the rest 49 cases (98%). The sternalis muscle displayed an oblique course in the anterior wall of the thorax. The muscle originated near the seventh costal cartilage extending obliquely upwards to insert into the second costal cartilage close to the sternum. The originating portion of the muscle was located at a distance of 3.5 cm lateral to the mid-sternal plane. The vertical length and the maximum width of the anomalous sternalis muscle measured 9 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. The fibers of the muscle vertically ascended upwards. No other associated anomalies were observed in the same cadaver. The presence of sternalis muscle is considered to be a rare variation with no earlier studies being performed in the Malaysian population. The anomalous sternalis muscle may be important for reconstructive surgeons performing mastectomy and radiologists interpreting mammograms. Thus, the sternalis muscle may be academically, anthropologically and surgically important.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  14. Khan AA, Asari MA, Pasha MA
    Folia Morphol (Warsz), 2015 12 29;75(3):306-310.
    PMID: 26711654 DOI: 10.5603/FM.a2015.0130
    Variations of the sciatic nerve have been extensively studied in the past including its relationship with the piriformis muscle and associated clinical conditions like piriformis syndrome and sciatica. In the present study we noticed some interesting variations of the sciatic nerve, which were slightly different from the cases described earlier. In the previous studies most of the authors described the higher division of sciatic nerve and none of them discussed its formation. In this study we tried to look its formation from the sacral plexus and its divisions in the thigh. We noticed that in one cadaver the two components of the sciatic nerve originated directly from the sacral plexus and coursed down without merging in the thigh. Should this be called a higher division or non formation of the sciatic nerve? On the other hand in two other cadavers, the two divisions after emerging separately from the sacral plexus, united in the gluteal region and in the thigh respectively. Should we call this as higher division or low formation of the sciatic nerve? In two other cadavers the sciatic nerve emerged from the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis and divided in the gluteal region itself. Ideally this should be called as higher division of sciatic nerve.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  15. Marpalli S, Mohandas Rao KG, Venkatesan P, George BM
    Morphologie, 2021 Feb 09.
    PMID: 33579637 DOI: 10.1016/j.morpho.2021.01.001
    BACKGROUND: Posterior layer of thoracolumbar fascia (PTLF) is the deep fascia of back of the trunk, which connects the trunk, upper limb and lower limb muscles. Very few cadaveric studies of posterior layer of thoracolumbar fascia (PTLF) are found in the literature, which mention the presence of nerve receptors in it but, quantification of the nerve receptors where not found. Providing the morphological and morphometrical data of PTLF may help the exercise physiologists, sports physicians, occupational health assistants and, physiotherapists to modify or invent new protocol of treatment to help the society.

    METHODS: In this study, twenty formalin embalmed human cadavers were used and we have documented the orientation of the PTLF and quantified the number of peripheral nerve endings at the different vertebral levels.

    RESULTS: Mean distance of PTLF from vertebral spines to the musculofascial junction was at thoracic region 3.38cm and 3.34cm; at lumbar region, it was 7.4cm and 7.36cm and at sacral region it was 2.98cm and 2.96cm on right and left side, respectively. The angulation of PTLF varies from 18-110 degrees at different vertebral levels. The microscopic data shows the thickness of PTLF and number of nerve endings in the sacral level is increased compared to that of thoracic vertebral levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: We have contributed the novel morphological and microscopical details to the limited existing data on PTLF. We also have provided the quantitative data of nerve fibers, which are possible nociceptors of PTLF.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  16. Rasiah R, Manikam R, Chandarsekaran SK, Thangiah G, Puspharajan S, Swaminathan D
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2014 Nov;93(23):e126.
    PMID: 25415665 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000126
    The growing shortage in human organs has raised serious concerns. To address this problem, we examine in this article the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and respondents' willingness to donate cadaveric organs using a large survey of Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above.A convenience sampling method was used to extract information from a total of 10,350 participants from Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur over the period of April 2, 2013 to February 29, 2014. In addition to analyzing the data using incidence of willingness to donate by demographic and socioeconomic factors, we carried out logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio of respondents' willingness to become cadaveric organ donors controlling for age.About less than a third of the participants pledged to donate their organs upon death with women (35.6%) showing a higher incidence compared with men (33.2%). The Chinese (35.7%) and Malays (35.0%) pledged to contribute more than the Indians (31.6%) and the logistic regressions show that Malays (adjusted odds ration [OR] = 1.18) and Chinese (adjusted OR = 1.21) are more likely to donate than Indians (reference group). The results by religion were significant among Muslims and Hindus but not Buddhists. The likelihood of Muslims donating was the lowest (adjusted OR = 0.26). Income was also highly significant but the relationship with willingness to donate was negative. Against tertiary education, all other occupations were significant. However, the respondents with primary education enjoyed the highest adjusted OR (5.46) whereas that of secondary (0.48) and higher secondary (0.83) education was low. Among occupations (against supervisory, clerical, and direct workers), it was significant only among the unemployed and managers with adjusted OR of 1.50 and 1.58, respectively.Sex, education, ethnicity, religion, and income are important demographic and socioeconomic influences on the likelihood of Malaysians willing to become cadaveric organ donors. The Malaysian evidence suggests that awareness programs should be targeted at men, Muslims, Hindus, Malays, and the rich more than the others.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  17. Kumara TK, Abu Hassan A, Che Salmah MR, Bhupinder S
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Apr;26(1):73-9.
    PMID: 19696730 MyJurnal
    A human corpse at an advanced stage of decomposition was found in a house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. Entomological specimens were collected during the post-mortem and the live specimens were subsequently reared at room temperature. The time of death was estimated to have been 14 days previous to the discovery of the body based on the police investigation. Both adult and larvae of the beetle Dermestes ater (De Geer) were found to be infesting the corpse and from the stage of decomposition of the body and the estimated time of death it would appear that infestation may have begun at a relatively early stage of decomposition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver*
  18. Rozaidi SW, Sukro J, Dan A
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Dec;55(4):478-85.
    PMID: 11221161
    One of the main reasons for poor response in organ donation is the lack of positive attitudes and knowledge present in health care professionals. Definite legislation, policies and programmes dealing with brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation have shown some favourable results in terms of increasing donor rates. These programmes are mainly Western based; therefore adopting such programmes to be used locally may not be adequate or proper. To address this issue, we decided to carry out a questionnaire in two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia, one with a well establish brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation programme and one with none.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  19. Azwandi A, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Dec;29(4):638-41.
    PMID: 23202610
    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
  20. Omar N, Abidin FZ, Das S, Abd Ghafar N, Haji Suhaimi F, Abd Latiff A, et al.
    Morphologie, 2010 May;94(305):36-9.
    PMID: 20359930 DOI: 10.1016/j.morpho.2010.03.001
    The latissimus dorsi is a muscle of the back which forms the posterior fold of the axilla and its tendon twists to insert into the floor of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus. Occasionally, the muscle has a muscular slip which crosses the axilla to insert into the pectoralis major. This muscular slip is often termed as "axillary arch." In the present study, we report bilateral axillary arch detected in a 45-year-old male cadaver. The average vertical length of the axillary arch measured 7 cm. The average maximum width of the uppermost, middle and lower part of the arch measured 2, 3.5 and 3.2 cm, respectively. The presence of the axillary arch is an uncommon finding in humans, considering the fact that it is solely found in the animals who prefer to hang on the trees. A histological study of the axillary arch was also performed and it showed skeletal muscle fibres which was uniformly arranged. The presence of the axillary arch may assist in the adduction of the shoulder. It may also compress the axillary vessels and nerves thereby causing resultant symptoms. Prior anatomical knowledge of the presence of axillary arch may be helpful for surgeons performing radical dissection of the axillary lymph nodes and ligation of axillary vessels, clinicians diagnosing abduction syndromes and interventional radiologists interpreting axillary mass in day to day clinical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cadaver
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