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  1. Kinfe TM, Buchfelder M, Chaudhry SR, Chakravarthy KV, Deer TR, Russo M, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Sep 24;20(19).
    PMID: 31554241 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20194737
    Chronic pain is a devastating condition affecting the physical, psychological, and socioeconomic status of the patient. Inflammation and immunometabolism play roles in the pathophysiology of chronic pain disorders. Electrical neuromodulation approaches have shown a meaningful success in otherwise drug-resistant chronic pain conditions, including failed back surgery, neuropathic pain, and migraine. A literature review (PubMed, MEDLINE/OVID, SCOPUS, and manual searches of the bibliographies of known primary and review articles) was performed using the following search terms: chronic pain disorders, systemic inflammation, immunometabolism, prediction, biomarkers, metabolic disorders, and neuromodulation for chronic pain. Experimental studies indicate a relationship between the development and maintenance of chronic pain conditions and a deteriorated immunometabolic state mediated by circulating cytokines, chemokines, and cellular components. A few uncontrolled in-human studies found increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to drive metabolic disorders in chronic pain patients undergoing neurostimulation therapies. In this narrative review, we summarize the current knowledge and possible relationships of available neurostimulation therapies for chronic pain with mediators of central and peripheral neuroinflammation and immunometabolism on a molecular level. However, to address the needs for predictive factors and biomarkers, large-scale databank driven clinical trials are needed to determine the clinical value of molecular profiling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chronic Pain/metabolism*
  2. Ismail CAN, Suppian R, Abd Aziz CB, Haris K, Long I
    Diabetes Metab J, 2019 04;43(2):222-235.
    PMID: 30604591 DOI: 10.4093/dmj.2018.0020
    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the role of NR2B in a modulated pain process in the painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) rat using various pain stimuli.

    METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n=8): control, diabetes mellitus (DM) rats and diabetic rats treated with ifenprodil at a lower dose (0.5 μg/day) (I 0.5) or higher dose (1.0 μg/day) (I 1.0). DM was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin at 60 mg/kg on day 0 of experimentation. Diabetic status was assessed on day 3 of the experimentation. The responses on both tactile and thermal stimuli were assessed on day 0 (baseline), day 14 (pre-intervention), and day 22 (post-intervention). Ifenprodil was given intrathecally for 7 days from day 15 until day 21. On day 23, 5% formalin was injected into the rats' hind paw and the nociceptive responses were recorded for 1 hour. The rats were sacrificed 72 hours post-formalin injection and an analysis of the spinal NR2B expression was performed.

    RESULTS: DM rats showed a significant reduction in pain threshold in response to the tactile and thermal stimuli and higher nociceptive response during the formalin test accompanied by the higher expression of phosphorylated spinal NR2B in both sides of the spinal cord. Ifenprodil treatment for both doses showed anti-allodynic and anti-nociceptive effects with lower expression of phosphorylated and total spinal NR2B.

    CONCLUSION: We suggest that the pain process in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat that has been modulated is associated with the higher phosphorylation of the spinal NR2B expression in the development of PDN, which is similar to other models of neuropathic rats.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nociceptive Pain/metabolism*
  3. Ismail I, Wahab S, Sidi H, Das S, Lin LJ, Razali R
    Curr Drug Targets, 2019;20(2):166-172.
    PMID: 28443503 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666170425154120
    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a naturally existing plant found in South-East Asia, is traditionally used as a herb to help elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (µ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathways linked to µ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons that express µ-opioid receptors were deliberated. However, kratom has been reported to be abused together with other illicit substances with high risk of potential addiction. There are also anecdotes of adverse effects and toxicity of kratom, i.e. tremor, fatigue, seizure, and death. Different countries have distinctive regulation and policy on the plantation and use of this plant when most of the countries banned the use of it because of its addiction problems and side effects. The aim of this review is to highlight on the potential use of kratom, unique 'herbs" as a substitution therapy for chronic pain and opioid addiction, based on the neurobiological perspective of pain and the underlying mechanism of actions of drug addiction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chronic Pain/metabolism
  4. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/metabolism
  5. Zakaria ZA, Mohd Sani MH, Cheema MS, Kader AA, Kek TL, Salleh MZ
    PMID: 24555641 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-63
    Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/metabolism*
  6. Khalid MH, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf DA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Sep 1;137(1):345-51.
    PMID: 21664960 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.05.043
    Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith, a wild edible ginger species or locally known as "lempoyang", commonly used in the Malays traditional medicine as an appetizer or to treat stomachache, toothache, muscle sprain and as a cure for swelling sores and cuts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/metabolism
  7. Pabreja K, Dua K, Sharma S, Padi SS, Kulkarni SK
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2011 Jul 1;661(1-3):15-21.
    PMID: 21536024 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.04.014
    Painful neuropathy, a common complication of diabetes mellitus is characterized by allodynia and hyperalgesia. Recent studies emphasized on the role of non-neuronal cells, particularly microglia in the development of neuronal hypersensitivity. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of minocyline, a selective inhibitor of microglial activation to define the role of neuroimmune activation in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Cold allodynia and thermal and chemical hyperalgesia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress were estimated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chronic administration of minocycline (40 and 80 mg/kg, i.p.) for 2 weeks started 2 weeks after diabetes induction attenuated the development of diabetic neuropathy as compared to diabetic control animals. In addition, minocyline treatment reduced the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, lipid peroxidation, nitrite and also improved antioxidant defense in spinal cords of diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control animals. In contrast, minocycline (80 mg/kg, per se) had no effect on any of these behavioral and biochemical parameters assessed in age-matched control animals. The results of the present study strongly suggest that activated microglia are involved in the development of experimental diabetic neuropathy and minocycline exerted its effect probably by inhibition of neuroimmune activation of microglia. In addition, the beneficial effects of minocycline are partly mediated by its anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and in part by modulating oxidative and nitrosative stress in the spinal cord that might be involved in attenuating the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in diabetic rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/metabolism
  8. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Jais AM, Somchit MN, Jayaraman KV, Balakhrisnan G, et al.
    Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2006 Aug;20(4):365-72.
    PMID: 16867020
    The present study was carried out to investigate on the possible involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (L-arginine/NO/cGMP) pathway in the aqueous extract of Muntingia calabura (AEMC) leaves antinociception in mice assessed by abdominal constriction test. The AEMC, obtained by soaking the dried leaves in distilled water (DH(2)O) (1 : 2; w/v) for 24 h, was prepared in concentrations of 10%, 50% and 100% that were approximately equivalent to doses of 27, 135 and 270 mg/kg, and administered subcutaneously (s.c.) 5 min after pre-treatment (s.c.) of mice with DH(2)O, L-arginine (20 mg/kg), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA; 20 mg/kg), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg), methylene blue (MB) (20 mg/kg), respectively. The AEMC was found to exhibit a concentration-dependent antinociception after pre-challenge with DH(2)O. Interestingly, pre-treatment with L-arginine was found to block significantly (P < 0.05) the AEMC antinociception but only at the highest concentration (100%) of AEMC used. On the other hand, pre-treatment with L-NAME was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance the low concentration but inhibit the high concentration AEMC antinociception. MB was found to significantly (P < 0.05) enhance AEMC antinociception at all concentrations used. Except for the higher concentration of AEMC used, co-treatment with L-NAME was found to insignificantly and significantly (P < 0.05) reverse the L-arginine effect when given alone or with low concentration AEMC, respectively. In addition, co-treatment with MB significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the L-arginine effect when given alone or with 10% concentration AEMC but failed to affect the activity of the rest of concentrations used. As a conclusion, this study has demonstrated the involvement of L-arginine/NO/cGMP pathway in AEMC antinociception.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pain/metabolism
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