Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 619 in total

  1. Zolkefli Y
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Dec;27(6):144-147.
    PMID: 33447141 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.6.13
    We recognise that people lie to health professionals for several reasons. However, these incidents endanger the well-being of the professionals and bring us to the question of whether people have an exclusive moral duty to always profess the truth about their health and other facts, particularly in a pandemic crisis. This review argues that an honest patient is a key to undertaking their roles as health professionals and delivering the best services possible to meet the needs of the patient. Greater awareness and comprehension of the potential ramifications of dishonesty, not only helps establish the moral obligation, to tell the truth, particularly in a pandemic situation, but also translates into a better relationship with health professionals. It also enforces an ethical solidarity on every single of us to show tangible moral response to ensure that those most vulnerable to risks from the pandemic illness such as health professionals are protected as far as possible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  2. Zin, Thant, SabaiAung, Tin, Sahipudin Saupin, Myint, Than, KhinSN, Daw, Aung, Meiji Soe, et al.
    The lower percentage of water, sanitation and hygiene are the root causes of diarrhoea and cholera. Cholera is a sudden onset of acute watery diarrhoea which can progress to severe dehydration and death if untreated. The current pandemic, Vibrio Cholera O1 started in 1961. This study explores water, sanitation, hygiene and cholera and diarrhoea in three affected villages of Beluran District, Sabah Malaysia to support effective and timely public health intervention. This cross sectional study uses purposive sampling. All (114) households were interviewed and household water samples collected. The study reported lower coverage improved sanitation facilities (35.3% to 52.3%), no latrine at home (37% to 63%), improved water supply (52% to 60%), and prevalence of hand washing after toilet (57% - 74%). For water quality, Ecoli was present in household water (32% to 37%) but Vibrio cholerae was not isolated in any of the water samples tested. Statistically significant associations were found for; 1) occupation−nonagriculture and unimproved sanitation facility and 2) house ownership and correct knowledge of ORS preparation. Predictors for household water quality were: latrine at home, and improved household toilet. Aggressive strategies to improve water supply, sanitation and hygiene−hand washing after toilet−were recommended for future prevention of cholera and diarrhoea in the affected area.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  3. Zin, Thant, Myint, Than, Htay, Kyaw, Shamsul, B. S.
    Island health differs from other health care systems, particularly in that there are limited resources and referral faculties available. With globalisation and climate change, island populations have become increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters and global pandemics. This study will identify, explore, compare and report on island health issues facing in the western Pacific, before making appropriate recommendations. A review of selected health indicators in Pacific islands was collected from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other publicly available resources. In the Pacific region, 15 islands saw lower health expenditure (
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  4. Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z
    Curr Biol, 2020 04 06;30(7):1346-1351.e2.
    PMID: 32197085 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022
    An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) began in the city of Wuhan in China and has widely spread worldwide. Currently, it is vital to explore potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 to control COVID-19 spread. Therefore, we reinvestigated published data from pangolin lung samples from which SARS-CoV-like CoVs were detected by Liu et al. [1]. We found genomic and evolutionary evidence of the occurrence of a SARS-CoV-2-like CoV (named Pangolin-CoV) in dead Malayan pangolins. Pangolin-CoV is 91.02% and 90.55% identical to SARS-CoV-2 and BatCoV RaTG13, respectively, at the whole-genome level. Aside from RaTG13, Pangolin-CoV is the most closely related CoV to SARS-CoV-2. The S1 protein of Pangolin-CoV is much more closely related to SARS-CoV-2 than to RaTG13. Five key amino acid residues involved in the interaction with human ACE2 are completely consistent between Pangolin-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but four amino acid mutations are present in RaTG13. Both Pangolin-CoV and RaTG13 lost the putative furin recognition sequence motif at S1/S2 cleavage site that can be observed in the SARS-CoV-2. Conclusively, this study suggests that pangolin species are a natural reservoir of SARS-CoV-2-like CoVs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  5. Zhang SX, Graf-Vlachy L, Looi KH, Su R, Li J
    Epidemiol Infect, 2020 10 23;148:e261.
    PMID: 33092675 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268820002575
    Although handwashing is an effective way to prevent infections, there is scarce evidence on predictors of handwashing during a pandemic. This paper aims to identify behavioural and demographic predictors of handwashing. The study surveyed 674 adults in Malaysia in May 2020 regarding whether the time spent on social media predicted handwashing contingent on gender and number of children. More time spent on social media was positively associated with handwashing for males with three or more children. However, for males without children, social media use was negatively associated with handwashing. The association was not significant for males with one or two children. For females, more time spent on social media was significantly linked to more handwashing only for females with one child. Gender, a traditional predictor of handwashing, was a useful predictor only for those who spent more than three hours per day on social media and had at most one child. Number of children was a novel negative predictor for males who did not use social media and who averaged one hour per day on social media, a positive predictor for males who spent lots of time on social media, but not a predictor for females. In sum, social media use predicts handwashing, and is thus a helpful variable for use in targeted health communication during a pandemic - particularly through social media. Further, more conventional predictors like gender and number of children exhibit contingency effects with social media use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  6. Zarei M, Rahimi K, Hassanzadeh K, Abdi M, Hosseini V, Fathi A, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 10;201:111555.
    PMID: 34197816 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111555
    Several factors ranging from environmental risks to the genetics of the virus and that of the hosts, affect the spread of COVID-19. The impact of physicochemical variables on virus vitality and spread should be taken into account in experimental and clinical studies. Another avenue to explore is the effect of diet and its interaction with the immune system on SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality rate. Past year have witnessed extensive studies on virus and pathophysiology of the COVID-19 disease and the cellular mechanisms of virus spreading. However, our knowledge has not reached a level where we plan an efficient therapeutic approach to prevent the virus entry to the cells or decreasing the spreading and morbidity in severe cases of disease. The risk of infection directly correlates with the control of virus spreading via droplets and aerosol transmission, as well as patient immune system response. A key goal in virus restriction and transmission rate is to understand the physicochemical structure of aerosol and droplet formation, and the parameters that affect the droplet-borne and airborne in different environmental conditions. The lifetime of droplets on different surfaces is described based on the contact angle. Hereby, we recommend regular use of high-quality face masks in high temperature and low humidity conditions. However, in humid and cold weather conditions, wearing gloves and frequently hand washing, gain a higher priority. Additionally, social distancing rules should be respected in all aforementioned conditions. We will also discuss different routes of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cells and how multiple genetic factors play a role in the spread of the virus. Given the role of environmental and nutritional factors, we discuss and recommend some strategies to prevent the disease and protect the population against COVID-19. Since an effective vaccine can prevent the transmission of communicable diseases and abolish pandemics, we added a brief review of candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  7. Zandi G, Shahzad I, Farrukh M, Kot S
    PMID: 33138254 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17217961
    Measurement of job stress and employees' commitment are few of the admired topics in the corporate world amongst business writers. With a principal aim to trial the blow of exposure to COVID-19 patients on doctors' job stress and commitment, in Pakistan; data have been collected through 7-10 min telephonic interview from voluntary participants and a sample of 129 responses were analyzed by Structure Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) path modeling through Smart PLS 3.2. The results of the study indicated; direct positive & significant impact of Extent of Exposure on Job Stress while direct negative, significant association with Commitment. Job Stress also observed having direct negative impact on commitment. The Extent of Exposure-Job Stress relationship was also found stronger among group of doctors having Low level of Perceived Organizational Support and weaker among group of doctors having High level of Perceive Organizational support. Perceived Organizational Support showed a moderating effect on the Extent of Exposure-Job Stress relationship; while, Social Support showed no moderation. Researchers are required to investigate more and management of the medical services providers (both hospitals and government) needs to focus on doctors' perception about Organizational Support, as doctors show no concern about the support from society as long as their well-being is cared for by respective hospitals. This study is an effort to stimulate more empirical evidence towards the treating and handling of COVID-19 patients and the psychological well-being of doctors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  8. Zainudeen ZT, Abd Hamid IJ, Azizuddin MNA, Abu Bakar FF, Sany S, Zolkepli IA, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2021 08 11;11(8):e050523.
    PMID: 34380732 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050523
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 on Malaysian families.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional study performed using an anonymous online questionnaire distributed through social media, email and the Department of Social Welfare.

    SETTING: Malaysian families were invited to answer the questionnaires. The sampling was performed between 12 May 2020 and 9 June 2020.

    INTERVENTION: The psychological impact was assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES). The mental health status was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) 21.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: (1) Psychological impact on Malaysian families. (2) Prevalence of mental health status of Malaysian families during COVID-19 pandemic.

    RESULT: A total of 409 Malaysian families have responded (409 parents and 348 children), 154 respondents (38%) reported high psychological impact (score 14) for psychological construct and 189 respondents (46%) reported high psychological impact (score 6) for behavioural construct. A significantly higher proportion of respondents with not permanent employment status of the family lead reported high psychological impact. The prevalence of anxiety reported from family respondents was 23%. Forty-five children answered the DASS-21 questionnaire; 28.5% reported anxiety, 31.4% reported depression and 13.3% reported stress. The job security status of the family lead was found to be the predictive factor for the mean total IES-R score (psychological construct) and ethnicity for mean total CRIES-8 and CRIES-13.

    CONCLUSION: Rates of depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic were high. Findings suggest that urgent measures to ensure job security among Malaysian families are important to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial and mental health outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  9. Zainol Rashid Z, Othman SN, Abdul Samat MN, Ali UK, Wong KK
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):13-21.
    PMID: 32342927
    INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 outbreak as a world pandemic on 12th March 2020. Diagnosis of suspected cases is confirmed by nucleic acid assays with real-time PCR, using respiratory samples. Serology tests are comparatively easier to perform, but their utility may be limited by the performance and the fact that antibodies appear later during the disease course. We aimed to describe the performance data on serological assays for COVID-19.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of multiple reports and kit inserts on the diagnostic performance of rapid tests from various manufacturers that are commercially available were performed. Only preliminary data are available currently.

    RESULTS: From a total of nine rapid detection test (RDT) kits, three kits offer total antibody detection, while six kits offer combination SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG detection in two separate test lines. All kits are based on colloidal gold-labeled immunochromatography principle and one-step method with results obtained within 15 minutes, using whole blood, serum or plasma samples. The sensitivity for both IgM and IgG tests ranges between 72.7% and 100%, while specificity ranges between 98.7% to 100%. Two immunochromatography using nasopharyngeal or throat swab for detection of COVID-19 specific antigen are also reviewed.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is much to determine regarding the value of serological testing in COVID-19 diagnosis and monitoring. More comprehensive evaluations of their performance are rapidly underway. The use of serology methods requires appropriate interpretations of the results and understanding the strengths and limitations of such tests.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  10. Yusoff AR, Ahmad F, Obaid KJ
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):764-766.
    PMID: 33219198
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious, severe acute respiratory syndrome that poses significant health risks to healthcare providers. A delicate balance is needed between timely intervention for ill patients without apparent COVID-19 infection and the safety of healthcare personnel who provide essential treatment in the midst of the pandemic. We report our experience managing a 70-year-old man who presented with acute gallstone pancreatitis at our hospital during the COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia. We also describe the safety protocol measures that have been implemented in our institution to protect the healthcare personnel from this disease during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This case illustrates the importance of meticulous planning, risk assessment, effective team communication and strict adherence to recommendations when providing treatment during an unprecedented pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  11. Yusof ANM, Muuti MZ, Ariffin LA, Tan MKM
    Asian Bioeth Rev, 2020 Jun 25.
    PMID: 32837556 DOI: 10.1007/s41649-020-00132-4
    The COVID-19 pandemic has raised challenges in dealing with information sharing by the public and the authorities. There are two categories of information sharing on social media that are believed to be potentially problematic and unethical: the sharing of personal information of patients and the sharing of fake news or false information. We present a discussion on how the response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia can be ethically handled in terms of information sharing. It is recommended that the public should cultivate the basic skills to evaluate information and determine its validity. On the other hand, the authorities should refrain from placing the blame on patients to avoid them from being stigmatized. It is crucial that all parties are aware of their ethical duty to ensure only ethical and valid information gets shared on social media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  12. Yu CY, Chan KG, Yean CY, Ang GY
    Diagnostics (Basel), 2021 Jan 01;11(1).
    PMID: 33401392 DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics11010053
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began as a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China before spreading to over 200 countries and territories on six continents in less than six months. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts to limit the transmission of the virus, COVID-19 cases and deaths have continued to increase, leaving devastating impacts on the lives of many with far-reaching effects on the global society, economy and healthcare system. With over 43 million cases and 1.1 million deaths recorded worldwide, accurate and rapid diagnosis continues to be a cornerstone of pandemic control. In this review, we aim to present an objective overview of the latest nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 that have been authorized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under emergency use authorization (EUA) as of 31 October 2020. We systematically summarize and compare the principles, technologies, protocols and performance characteristics of amplification- and sequencing-based tests that have become alternatives to the CDC 2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. We highlight the notable features of the tests including authorized settings, along with the advantages and disadvantages of the tests. We conclude with a brief discussion on the current challenges and future perspectives of COVID-19 diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  13. Ying NY, Idris NS, Muhamad R, Ahmad I
    Korean J Fam Med, 2020 Jun 01.
    PMID: 32475104 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.20.0090
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The world is currently challenged to handle this pandemic. The common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. There are few reports on the association of SARS-CoV-2 with ocular abnormalities including conjunctivitis. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman who presented solely with conjunctivitis subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19. A lack of full history of her travel abroad was another issue leading to a delay in evaluating her COVID-19 status that increased the infection risk to her managing team. Thus, primary care practitioners should be suspicious of this atypical feature of COVID-19, thus enabling us to identify such patients at entry points. Maintaining safety measures while managing patients is also crucial.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  14. Yigitcanlar T, Butler L, Windle E, Desouza KC, Mehmood R, Corchado JM
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 May 25;20(10).
    PMID: 32466175 DOI: 10.3390/s20102988
    In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has started to manifest itself at an unprecedented pace. With highly sophisticated capabilities, AI has the potential to dramatically change our cities and societies. Despite its growing importance, the urban and social implications of AI are still an understudied area. In order to contribute to the ongoing efforts to address this research gap, this paper introduces the notion of an artificially intelligent city as the potential successor of the popular smart city brand-where the smartness of a city has come to be strongly associated with the use of viable technological solutions, including AI. The study explores whether building artificially intelligent cities can safeguard humanity from natural disasters, pandemics, and other catastrophes. All of the statements in this viewpoint are based on a thorough review of the current status of AI literature, research, developments, trends, and applications. This paper generates insights and identifies prospective research questions by charting the evolution of AI and the potential impacts of the systematic adoption of AI in cities and societies. The generated insights inform urban policymakers, managers, and planners on how to ensure the correct uptake of AI in our cities, and the identified critical questions offer scholars directions for prospective research and development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics*
  15. Yelamanchi R, Agrawal H, Durga CK
    Malays J Med Sci, 2020 Dec;27(6):187-189.
    PMID: 33447144 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2020.27.6.16
    Breast complaints are a very common cause of healthcare visits in the female population. They range in severity from benign to malignant, and treatment options vary from simple observation to mastectomy. As healthcare facilities are overburdened with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, properly triaging patients diagnosed with breast disorders is necessary for the optimal use of limited resources in developing countries. We are proposing a concise triage system for timely intervention among patients with breast disorders during the havoc of the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  16. Yee A, Hodori N'M, Tung YZ, Ooi PL, Latif SABA, Isa HM, et al.
    Ann Gen Psychiatry, 2021 May 24;20(1):31.
    PMID: 34030704 DOI: 10.1186/s12991-021-00352-4
    BACKGROUND: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease prompting extreme containment measures, including lockdown, travel restrictions, social distancing, and stringent personal hygiene. This study investigates the depression level and coping responses toward the lockdown, referred as the movement control order (MCO) during COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia and its impact on quality of life.

    METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2020. The outcomes were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21, Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory, and World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) in both English and validated Malay versions.

    RESULTS: Mild-to-severe depression was found in 28.2% (n = 149) of the 528 respondents. Respondents with mild-to-severe depression were significantly younger (33.09 ± 10.08 versus 36.79 ± 12.47 years), without partner (71.8% versus 45.6%), lived in the red zone (85.9% versus 71.0%), and had lower household income as defined in the category of B40 (51.7% versus 39.3%) compared to those without depression (all p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics
  17. Yashavantha Rao HC, Siddeeqh S, Taqui SN
    Int J Clin Pract, 2021 Jun;75(6):e14141.
    PMID: 33715304 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.14141
    The current global pandemic COVID-19 challenges oncologists to reorganise cancer care in order to strikingly reduce hospital visits and admissions. Cancer patients are more susceptible to infections and likely to get severe consequences compared with other patients. Health-care facility services are quickly changing their systems and workflow in response to the global pandemic COVID-19 crisis. These alterations mitigate infection risks and give profound effects on crucial aspects of care, including patients with cancer. Here, we discuss the current situations and a roadmap for cancer care during the COVID-19 crisis. In the prevalence of global cancer and higher transmission of pandemic COVID-19, there is an urgent need to realise the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their related life-threatening outcomes specifically for cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pandemics/prevention & control
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