Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1318 in total

  1. Abd Ghani MK, Bali RK, Naguib RN, Marshall IM, Nilmini S. Wickramasinghe
    Int J Electron Healthc, 2008;4(1):78-104.
    PMID: 18583297
    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  2. Abdullah WA, Jamaluddin NB, Kham SK, Tan JA
    PMID: 9031421
    The spectrum of beta-thalassemia mutations in Malays in Singapore and Kelantan (Northeast Malaysia) was studied. Allele specific priming was used to determine the mutations in beta-carriers at -28, Codon 17, IVSI #1, IVSI #5, Codon 41-42 and IVSII #654 along the beta-globin gene. The most common structural hemoglobin variant in Southeast Asia, Hb E, was detected by DNA amplification with restriction enzyme (Mnl1) analysis. Direct genomic sequencing was carried out to detect the beta-mutations uncharacterized by allele-specific priming. The most prevalent beta-mutations in Singaporean Malays were IVSI #5 (45.83%) followed by Hb E (20.83%), codon 15 (12.5%) and IVSI #1 and IVSII #654 at 4.17% each. In contrast, the distribution of the beta-mutations in Kelantan Malays differed, with Hb E as the most common mutation (39.29%) followed by IVSI #5 (17.86%), codon 41-42 (14.29%), codon 19 (10.71%) and codon 17 (3.57%). The beta-mutations in Kelantan Malays follow closely the distribution of beta-mutations in Thais and Malays of Southern Thailand and Malays of West Malaysia. The AAC-->AGC base substitution in codon 19 has been detected only in these populations. The spectrum of beta-mutations in the Singaporean Malays is more similar to those reported in Indonesia with the beta-mutation at codon 15 (TGG-->TAG) present in both populations. The characterization of beta-mutations in Singaporean and Kelantan Malays will facilitate the establishment of effective prenatal diagnosis programs for beta-thalassemia major in this ethnic group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  3. Abeysinghe T
    J Appl Stat, 1991;18(2):275-86.
    PMID: 12343764
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  4. Ahamad Jama' Amin Yang
    Fabian Society is a type of political think tank which was founded by a group of students and
    intellectuals at London School of Economics (LSE), United Kingdom in the late of 19 centuries. The
    Fabian political thought is a new manifestation of socialist ideology in United Kingdom emerged through the role of Labour Party Partiat that time. After the World War II, the influence of this political
    thought began to widespread throughout Malaya via British-educated Malayan students. This
    development brought about a new form of political idealism based on social-democrat orientation
    which emphasized on class struggles and civil issues in Malaya. Thus, the aim of this article is to
    scrutinize objectively and descriptively the influence of the Fabian political thought in the Malaysian
    political development from 1952 to 1970. Using the approach of history reconstructionist, the analysis
    discussion was developed based on the use of primary sources as the argument base. The research
    findings indicate that the influence of the Fabian political thought developed in Malaya by the role of
    the socialist intellectual-progressive group throughout the research. The development did not only
    involve labour movements and left-wing political parties such as Malayan Democratic Union (MDU)
    and the Malayan Labour Party, but it also influenced students movements at universities through
    University of Malaya Socialist Club in Singapore around 1950s and students societies in Universiti
    Malaya, Kuala Lumpur around 1960s. In fact, at the same time the progressive Fabian group slipped in
    right-conservative group through their direct involvement in UMNO and the Perikatan regime at the
    time. This indirectly proves that there is a different side of the socialist role through the role of the
    Fabian group in the development of democracy and politics in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  5. Ahmad AA, Samsuddin S, Oh SJWY, Martinez-Perez P, Rasedee A
    J Vet Med Sci, 2018 Dec 11;80(12):1867-1874.
    PMID: 30333379 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.17-0585
    The Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) population in Southeast Asia faces threats such as poaching and deforestation. Health assessments of rescued individuals including physical examination and blood work are crucial for clinicians to determine the health status of these animals. The establishments of reference intervals of hematology and serum biochemistry are important for identifying clinical abnormalities. The objectives of our study were to establish blood reference intervals for Sunda pangolins, to determine if there are age and sex related differences in hematology and serum biochemistry, and to compare our results with those of a previous study on confiscated Sunda pangolins in Thailand. Fifty-eight Sunda pangolins were rescued between January 2011 and December 2015. The hematology and serum biochemistry results of 51 clinically normal Sunda pangolins were selected for the establishment of the blood reference intervals. No sex related differences were noted in this study. Age-related differences were observed, in which adult Sunda pangolins had a significantly higher mean corpuscular volume than juveniles, and juvenile Sunda pangolins had significantly higher red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels than those of the adults (P<0.05). Age-related differences were also noted in several serum biochemistry parameters: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly higher in juveniles, and total protein was significantly higher in adult Sunda pangolins. Compared to a previous study the white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and ALP were higher, and the lymphocyte counts were lower in the present study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  6. Ahmad Hatib NA, Chong CY, Thoon KC, Tee NW, Krishnamoorthy SS, Tan NW
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2016 Jul;45(7):297-302.
    PMID: 27523510
    INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever is a multisystemic infection which largely affects children. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric enteric fever in Singapore.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of children diagnosed with enteric fever in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore was conducted from January 2006 to January 2012. Patients with positive blood cultures for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi were identified from the microbiology laboratory information system. Data was extracted from their case records.

    RESULTS: Of 50 enteric fever cases, 86% were due to Salmonella typhi, with 16.3% being multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. Sixty-two percent of S. typhi isolates were of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS). Five cases were both MDR and DCS. The remaining 14% were Salmonella paratyphi A. There were only 3 indigenous cases. Ninety-four percent had travelled to typhoid-endemic countries, 70.2% to the Indian subcontinent and the rest to Indonesia and Malaysia. All patients infected with MDR strains had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. Anaemia was a significant finding in children with typhoid, as compared to paratyphoid fever (P = 0.04). Although all children were previously well, 14% suffered severe complications including shock, pericardial effusion and enterocolitis. None had typhoid vaccination prior to their travel to developing countries.

    CONCLUSION: Enteric fever is largely an imported disease in Singapore and has contributed to significant morbidity in children. The use of typhoid vaccine, as well as education on food and water hygiene to children travelling to developing countries, needs to be emphasised.

    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  7. Alcantara VS, Lim GH, Lim SH, Sultana R, Lee JA
    J Surg Oncol, 2017 Apr;115(5):523-537.
    PMID: 28168712 DOI: 10.1002/jso.24559
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) carries a worse prognosis compared to the other subtypes. There have been conflicting studies that race may impact the prognosis of TNBC patients. We aim to determine the incidence and prognosis of TNBC among the different ethnic races in Singapore, and to determine its associated risk factors for prognosis.

    METHODS: Patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (BC) from 2005 to 2013 at our tertiary institution were included and divided according to race and subtypes. Demographic and clinical information of non-metastatic TNBC patients were analyzed. Log-rank test, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to find associated risk factors related with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS).

    RESULTS: Among 1227 BC patients, 129 (10.5%) had TNBC. TNBC patients had the worst OS (P: 0.0005) and DFS (P: 0.0016) among the subtypes. However, variations in race did not have any difference in OS or DFS among TNBC patients. Axillary lymph node involvement, invasive lobular histology, larger tumor size, and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) were factors associated with both poor DFS and OS among TNBC patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Racial variation did not have any impact on the prognosis of the TNBC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  8. Alexander S, Jasuja S, Gallieni M, Sahay M, Rana DS, Jha V, et al.
    Int J Nephrol, 2021;2021:6665901.
    PMID: 34035962 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6665901
    Background: The association between economic status and kidney disease is incompletely explored even in countries with higher economy (HE); the situation is complex in lower economies (LE) of South Asia and Southeast Asia (SA and SEA).

    Methods: Fifteen countries of SA and SEA categorized as HE and LE, represented by the representatives of the national nephrology societies, participated in this questionnaire and interview-based assessment of the impact of economic status on renal care.

    Results: Average incidence and prevalence of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) per million population (pmp) are 1.8 times and 3.3 times higher in HE. Hemodialysis is the main renal replacement therapy (RRT) (HE-68%, LE-63%). Funding of dialysis in HE is mainly by state (65%) or insurance bodies (30%); out of pocket expenses (OOPE) are high in LE (41%). Highest cost for hemodialysis is in Brunei and Singapore, and lowest in Myanmar and Nepal. Median number of dialysis machines/1000 ESKD population is 110 in HE and 53 in LE. Average number of machines/dialysis units in HE is 2.7 times higher than LE. The HE countries have 9 times more dialysis centers pmp (median HE-17, LE-02) and 16 times more nephrologist density (median HE-14.8 ppm, LE-0.94 ppm). Dialysis sessions >2/week is frequently followed in HE (84%) and <2/week in LE (64%). "On-demand" hemodialysis (<2 sessions/week) is prevalent in LE. Hemodialysis dropout rates at one year are lower in HE (12.3%; LE 53.4%), death being the major cause (HE-93.6%; LE-43.8%); renal transplants constitute 4% (Brunei) to 39% (Hong Kong) of the RRT in HE. ESKD burden is expected to increase >10% in all the HE countries except Taiwan, 10%-20% in the majority of LE countries.

    Conclusion: Economic disparity in SA and SEA is reflected by poor dialysis infrastructure and penetration, inadequate manpower, higher OOPE, higher dialysis dropout rates, and lesser renal transplantations in LE countries. Utility of RRT can be improved by state funding and better insurance coverage.

    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  9. Ali HS, Abdul-Rahim AS, Ribadu MB
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Jan;24(2):1967-1974.
    PMID: 27798805 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7935-z
    The main aim of this article is to examine empirically the impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in Singapore from 1970 to 2015. The autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach is applied within the analysis. The main finding reveals a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Singapore, which means that urban development in Singapore is not a barrier to the improvement of environmental quality. Thus, urbanization enhances environmental quality by reducing carbon emissions in the sample country. The result also highlighted that economic growth has a positive and significant impact on carbon emissions, which suggests that economic growth reduces environmental quality through its direct effect of increasing carbon emissions in the country. Despite the high level of urbanization in Singapore, which shows that 100 % of the populace is living in the urban center, it does not lead to more environmental degradation. Hence, urbanization will not be considered an obstacle when initiating policies that will be used to reduce environmental degradation in the country. Policy makers should consider the country's level of economic growth instead of urbanization when formulating policies to reduce environmental degradation, due to its direct impact on increasing carbon dioxide emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  10. Alibudbud R
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2022 Dec;78:103311.
    PMID: 36335844 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2022.103311
    This infodemiological study utilized Relative Search Volumes (RSV) from Google Trends. It determined changes in public interest in mental health after the implementation of the mental health laws of Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand using search volumes from 2004 to 2021. It found that public interest in mental health increased in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore after implementing their mental health laws. On the contrary, public interest in mental health continued to decrease in Thailand despite its mental health law implementation. This can be explained by the unequal prioritization of mental health among these countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  11. Amarra, Sofia, Chan, Pauline
    Malays J Nutr, 2013;19(1):139-142.
    Introduction: The Infant and Early Childhood Nutrition Task Force, International Life Sciences Institute Southeast Asia (ILSI SEA) Region, organised the 1st and 2nd Expert Consultation and Planning Meeting on Infant and Early Childhood Nutrition in 2009 and 2011, respectively. The goal of the consultations was “to generate and promote relevant science-based information that will help improve nutritional status, growth and development of infants and young children in Southeast Asia.” Methods: An Expert Panel Core Group was created whose role is to provide advice and recommendations through a review of current scientific knowledge regarding issues related to early childhood growth and nutrition. The Panel is composed of experts representing 7 countries (China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam). In July 2012, the Panel convened the 3rd Expert Consultation and Planning Meeting on Infant and Young Child Nutrition in Singapore. This report presents the highlights of the meeting and recommendations made by the Panel on ways to improve infant and young child nutrition in Southeast Asia. Results and Conclusion: The effective use of WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices, mitigating the effects of maternal employment on breastfeeding, using behaviour change communication, updating the education of health personnel, and improving maternal health were considered important actions to be taken. Since current feeding practices in Southeast Asia fall short of WHO recommendations, studies are needed to develop strategies which take into consideration the diverse cultural settings that characterise the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  12. Amerasinghe N, Wong TY, Wong WL, Mitchell P, Shen SY, Loon SC, et al.
    Arch. Ophthalmol., 2008 Aug;126(8):1101-8.
    PMID: 18695105 DOI: 10.1001/archopht.126.8.1101
    To describe the distribution and determinants of the optic cup to disc ratio (CDR) in Malay adults in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  13. Ampil ER, Fook-Chong S, Sodagar SN, Chen CP, Auchus AP
    Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, 2005 Oct-Dec;19(4):184-5.
    PMID: 16327344
    The diversity of Singapore's population affords a unique opportunity to study ethnic variability in the dementias. We sought to explore the effects of ethnicity on the frequency of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia in a large Singaporean sample. A total of 357 patients were studied: 190 with vascular dementia and 167 with Alzheimer disease. Vascular dementia was more common among Chinese and Malays, whereas Alzheimer disease was more common in Indians and Eurasians. Factors that may contribute to the observed ethnic variability in dementia etiologies include differential frequency of the ApoE-e4 allele, frequency of vascular risk factors, lifestyle choices, and cultural attitudes toward health care utilization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  14. Anantham D, Ong SJ, Chuah KL, Fook-Chong S, Hsu A, Eng P
    Respirology, 2007 May;12(3):355-60.
    PMID: 17539838
    The aim of this study is to better understand the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with sarcoidosis in Singapore and to ascertain if ethnic differences exist.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  15. Ang BSP, Lim TCC, Wang L
    J Clin Microbiol, 2018 06;56(6).
    PMID: 29643201 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01875-17
    Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India. In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals. There are currently no effective therapeutics, and supportive care and prevention are the mainstays of management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  16. Ang HC, Sornarajah R, Lim SE, Syn CK, Tan-Siew WF, Chow ST, et al.
    Forensic Sci Int, 2005 Mar 10;148(2-3):243-5.
    PMID: 15639622
    Allele frequencies for the 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System, USA) STR loci included in the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus and AmpFISTR Cofiler kits (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were determined in a sample of 197 unrelated Malays in Singapore.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore
  17. Ang KC, Lee EH, Lee PY, Tan KL
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1997 Jul;26(4):456-8.
    PMID: 9395810
    The incidence of congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) in Singapore and Malaysia has been reported as being lower than in the West. In our hospital, we have seen an increasing number of congenital hip dislocation as well as dysplastic hips. We undertook a prospective study from December 1989 to December 1994 of 20,000 live births. The neonates were all screened by a consultant neonatologist and the findings were confirmed by a consultant paediatric orthopaedic surgeon. All babies had plain X-rays at 3 months and an acetabular index (AI) of 30 degrees or more was considered dysplastic. All babies with positive signs were followed up for 1 year and again had radiographs taken at 1 year. Comparison of plain X-rays and ultrasound assessment in a subgroup of 130 neonates showed that 64% of patients with AI > 20 degrees had hip dysplasia by ultrasonographic (alpha angle < 60 degrees) The incidence of dysplastic hips was 16.8 per 1000 live births. The overall incidence of neonates with dislocated hips was 4.7 per 1000 live births. The Malays were most affected with an incidence of 5.4 per 1000 live births. The incidence of developmental dysplasia of the hip in Singapore is higher than previously reported, with the Malays having the highest incidence. A significant number of babies with clicking hips have radiological evidence of acetabular dysplasia (AI > 30 degrees). One-third of the babies' hips were still dysplastic at 1 year of age. A well-organised screening programme with experienced examiners has proved to be useful in making early and accurate clinical diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
  18. Ang LW, Cutter J, James L, Goh KT
    Epidemiol Infect, 2015 Jun;143(8):1585-93.
    PMID: 25245094 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268814002507
    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Singapore/epidemiology
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