Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 95 in total

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  1. Tan EL, Looi LM, Sam CK
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Sep;47(9):803-7.
    PMID: 16924363
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an important cancer in Malaysia and is one of the major causes of cancer mortality in this country. This study evaluates the diagnostic and prognostic values in the quantitative relationship between the cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) load and the tumour burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  2. Tan EL, Selvaratnam G, Kananathan R, Sam CK
    BMC Cancer, 2006;6:227.
    PMID: 16995954
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial neoplasm among the Chinese populations in Southern China and South East Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an important etiologic agent of NPC and the viral gene products are frequently detected in NPC tissues along with elevated antibody titres to the viral proteins (VCA and EA) in a majority of patients. Elevated plasma EBV DNA load is regarded as an important marker for the presence of the disease and for the monitoring of disease progression. However, other serum/plasma parameters such as the levels of certain interleukins and growth factors have also been implicated in NPC. The objectives of the present study are, 1) to investigate the correlations between plasma EBV DNA load and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, TGF-beta1 and SCF (steel factor) and 2) to relate these parameters to the stages of NPC and the effect of treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  3. Lim A, Tan D, Price P, Kamarulzaman A, Tan HY, James I, et al.
    AIDS, 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1525-34.
    PMID: 17630546
    To examine the relationships between blood CD4 natural regulatory T (Treg) cells, plasma HIV RNA level, CD4 T-cell count and immune activation in untreated HIV-infected patients and immunodeficient patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART), using a novel phenotype to define Treg cells (CD25CD127CD4). Data were compared with established Treg cell markers (FoxP3, CTLA-4 and GITR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  4. Lian YL, Heng BS, Nissapatorn V, Lee C
    Curr. HIV Res., 2007 Sep;5(5):484-9.
    PMID: 17896968
    Attempts to address the significant impact of HAART on medical variables on the Malaysian HIV/AIDS population have yet to be evaluated. This study aims to analyze the proportions of AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) before and after HAART. A retrospective study was carried out on 128 new cases of HIV infected patients who first commenced HAART in 2004 at the national HIV reference center. Before commencement of HAART, 76 clinical episodes of ADIs were recorded in 52 patients. Most common being pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (28.9%), PCP (27.6%) and disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (11.8%). During HAART, 8 clinical episodes of ADIs were documented in 7 patients with a median time of onset of 10 weeks after initiation of HAART (range, 4-36 weeks). The median CD4 count at the time of the commencement of HAART for these patients was 11 cells/mm(3). ADIs reported include PCP (2 episodes), disseminated and extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (2 episodes), extrapulmonary cryptococcosis (1 episode), esophageal candidiasis (1 episode), recurrent pneumonia (1 episode) and disseminated or extrapulmonary histoplasmosis (1 episode). Three (37.5%) of these occurred despite a reduction of viral load by at least 2 log(10) and an increased in the CD4 cell count. In conclusion, ADIs can still present after the initiation of successful HAART especially in those with CD4 counts below 100 cells/mm(3). In Malaysia, ADIs are the major causes of HIV/AIDS associated morbidity and mortality, thus increased awareness on the management of these illnesses is warranted especially in the months following HAART.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  5. Berhane Y, Weingartl HM, Lopez J, Neufeld J, Czub S, Embury-Hyatt C, et al.
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2008 May;55(3-4):165-74.
    PMID: 18405339 DOI: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2008.01021.x
    Nipah virus (NiV; Paramyxoviridae) caused fatal encephalitis in humans during an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998/1999 after transmission from infected pigs. Our previous study demonstrated that the respiratory, lymphatic and central nervous systems are targets for virus replication in experimentally infected pigs. To continue the studies on pathogenesis of NiV in swine, six piglets were inoculated oronasally with 2.5 x 10(5) PFU per animal. Four pigs developed mild clinical signs, one exudative epidermitis, and one neurologic signs due to suppurative meningoencephalitis, and was euthanized at 11 days post-inoculation (dpi). Neutralizing antibodies reached in surviving animals titers around 1280 at 16 dpi. Nasal and oro-pharyngeal shedding of the NiV was detected between 2 and 17 dpi. Virus appeared to be cleared from the tissues of the infected animals by 23 dpi, with low amount of RNA detected in submandibular and bronchial lymph nodes of three pigs, and olfactory bulb of one animal. Despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies, virus was isolated from serum at 24 dpi, and the viral RNA was still detected in serum at 29 dpi. Our results indicate slower clearance of NiV from some of the infected pigs. Bacteria were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of five NiV inoculated animals, with isolation of Streptococcus suis and Enterococcus faecalis. Staphylococcus hyicus was isolated from the skin lesions of the animal with exudative epidermitis. Along with the observed lymphoid depletion in the lymph nodes of all NiV-infected animals, and the demonstrated ability of NiV to infect porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro, this finding warrants further investigation into a possible NiV-induced immunosuppression of the swine host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/veterinary
  6. Tan DB, Yong YK, Tan HY, Kamarulzaman A, Tan LH, Lim A, et al.
    HIV Med., 2008 May;9(5):307-16.
    PMID: 18400078 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00565.x
    A proportion of HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop immune restoration disease (IRD). Immunological characteristics of IRD were investigated in a cohort of HIV patients beginning therapy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  7. Lu Y, Jacobson DL, Ashworth LA, Grand RJ, Meyer AL, McNeal MM, et al.
    Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2009 Feb;104(2):444-53.
    PMID: 19174786 DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2008.120
    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently receive immunosuppressive therapy. The immune response in these patients to vaccines has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective, open label study to evaluate the serologic response to influenza vaccine in children with IBD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  8. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Ray M, Logan R, Sterne JA, Hernández-Díaz S, Robins JM, et al.
    AIDS, 2010 Jan 02;24(1):123-37.
    PMID: 19770621 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication.

    DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.

    RESULTS: Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  9. Tan SS, Abu Hassan MR, Abdullah A, Ooi BP, Korompis T, Merican MI
    J. Viral Hepat., 2010 Jun;17(6):410-8.
    PMID: 19758272 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01191.x
    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in persons undergoing haemodialysis. This single-arm, open-label clinical trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an escalating dosage regimen of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alpha-2b in this patient population. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who were undergoing haemodialysis began treatment with PEG-IFN alpha-2b at a dose of 0.5 microg/kg/week, which was increased every 4 weeks to a maximum of 1 microg/kg/week. Treatment duration was 24 weeks for patients with genotype (G) 2 or 3 infection and 48 weeks for patients with G1 infection. The primary end point was sustained virological response (SVR). Of 46 patients screened, 34 (G1: 70.6%; G3: 29.4%) were treated and 23 (67.6%) completed treatment. Overall, 85.3% of patients experienced early virological response, 52.9% experienced end-of-treatment response, and 50% attained SVR, with a trend toward higher SVR rates in G3 compared with G1 patients (80%vs 37.5%; P = 0.06). Anaemia was the main reason for discontinuation of treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C who are undergoing haemodialysis can be successfully treated with an escalating dosage regimen of PEG-IFN alpha-2b monotherapy. G3-infected patients can attain high rates of SVR with only 24 weeks of therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  10. Ummul Haninah A, Vasan SS, Ravindran T, Chandru A, Lee HL, Shamala Devi S
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):611-23.
    PMID: 21399603 MyJurnal
    This paper reports the development of a one-step SYBR-Green I-based realtime RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantification of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in human, monkey and mosquito samples by targeting the E1 structural gene. A preliminary evaluation of this assay has been successfully completed using 71 samples, consisting of a panel of negative control sera, sera from healthy individuals, sera from patients with acute disease from which CHIKV had been isolated, as well as monkey sera and adult mosquito samples obtained during the chikungunya fever outbreak in Malaysia in 2008. The assay was found to be 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional RT-PCR with a detection limit of 4.12x10(0) RNA copies/μl. The specificity of the assay was tested against other related viruses such as Dengue (serotypes 1-4), Japanese encephalitis, Herpes Simplex, Parainfluenza, Sindbis, Ross River, Yellow fever and West Nile viruses. The sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of this assay were 100%, 100% and 96.8% respectively. This study on early diagnostics is of importance to all endemic countries, especially Malaysia, which has been facing increasingly frequent and bigger outbreaks due to this virus since 1999.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/methods*
  11. Meldal BH, Bon AH, Prati D, Ayob Y, Allain JP
    J. Viral Hepat., 2011 Feb;18(2):91-101.
    PMID: 20196797 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2010.01282.x
    Malaysia is a medium endemic country for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but little is known about HBV strains circulating in Malaysian blood donors. Viral load, HBsAg concentrations and nested PCR products from 84 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) positive samples were analysed in detail. Median viral load was 3050 IU/mL and median HBsAg 1150 IU/mL. Fifty-six full genome, 20 pre-S/S, 1 S gene and six basic core promoter/precore-only sequences were obtained. Genotypes B and C were present at a ratio of 2:1, and two genotype D samples were obtained, both from donors of Indian background. Phylogenetically, genotype B was more diverse with subgenotypes B2-5, B7 and B8 present, while most genotype C strains were from subgenotype C1. Genotypes B and C were equally frequent in ethnic Malays, but 80% of strains from Chinese were genotype B. HBsAg concentrations were higher in genotype C than in genotype B, in Chinese than Malays and in donors under the age of 30. HBV vaccine escape substitutions (P120S/T, I126N and G145G) were present in six strains. In the large surface protein, immuno-inactive regions were more mutated than CD8 epitopes and the major hydrophilic region. Strains of genotype B or from ethnic Malays had higher genetic diversity than strains of genotype C or from Chinese donors. Hence HBV strains circulating in Malaysia are phylogenetically diverse reflecting the ethnic mix of its population. Ethnic Malays carry lower HBsAg levels and higher genetic diversity of the surface antigen, possibly resulting in more effective immune control of the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  12. Kok YY, Chu WL, Phang SM, Mohamed SM, Naidu R, Lai PJ, et al.
    J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 2011 May;12(5):335-45.
    PMID: 21528487 DOI: 10.1631/jzus.B1000336
    This study aimed to assess the inhibitory activities of methanol extracts from the microalgae Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus, and Spirulina platensis against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in three Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cell lines, namely Akata, B95-8, and P3HR-1. The antiviral activity was assessed by quantifying the cell-free EBV DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The methanol extracts from Ankistrodesmus convolutus and Synechococcus elongatus displayed low cytotoxicity and potent effect in reducing cell-free EBV DNA (EC(50)<0.01 µg/ml) with a high therapeutic index (>28000). After fractionation by column chromatography, the fraction from Synechococcus elongatus (SEF1) reduced the cell-free EBV DNA most effectively (EC(50)=2.9 µg/ml, therapeutic index>69). Upon further fractionation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the sub-fraction SEF1'a was most active in reducing the cell-free EBV DNA (EC(50)=1.38 µg/ml, therapeutic index>14.5). This study suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds that can be used against EBV.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects
  13. Alhoot MA, Wang SM, Sekaran SD
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Nov;5(11):e1410.
    PMID: 22140591 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001410
    Dengue infection ranks as one of the most significant viral diseases of the globe. Currently, there is no specific vaccine or antiviral therapy for prevention or treatment. Monocytes/macrophages are the principal target cells for dengue virus and are responsible for disseminating the virus after its transmission. Dengue virus enters target cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis after the viral envelope protein E attaches to the cell surface receptor. This study aimed to investigate the effect of silencing the CD-14 associated molecule and clathrin-mediated endocytosis using siRNA on dengue virus entry into monocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  14. del Amo J, Moreno S, Bucher HC, Furrer H, Logan R, Sterne J, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2012 May;54(9):1364-72.
    PMID: 22460971 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis203
    BACKGROUND: The lower tuberculosis incidence reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is difficult to interpret causally. Furthermore, the role of unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is unclear. We aim to estimate the effect of cART on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries.

    METHODS: The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration consisted of 12 cohorts from the United States and Europe of HIV-positive, ART-naive, AIDS-free individuals aged ≥18 years with baseline CD4 cell count and HIV RNA levels followed up from 1996 through 2007. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for cART versus no cART, adjusted for time-varying CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: Of 65 121 individuals, 712 developed tuberculosis over 28 months of median follow-up (incidence, 3.0 cases per 1000 person-years). The HR for tuberculosis for cART versus no cART was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.72) overall, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.64-1.68) for individuals aged >50 years, and 1.46 (95% CI, 0.70-3.04) for people with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/μL. Compared with people who had not started cART, HRs differed by time since cART initiation: 1.36 (95% CI, 0.98-1.89) for initiation <3 months ago and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34-0.58) for initiation ≥3 months ago. Compared with people who had not initiated cART, HRs <3 months after cART initiation were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.38-1.18), 1.51 (95% CI, 0.98-2.31), and 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60) for people <35, 35-50, and >50 years old, respectively, and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.03-5.14) for people with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis incidence decreased after cART initiation but not among people >50 years old or with CD4 cell counts of <50 cells/μL. Despite an overall decrease in tuberculosis incidence, the increased rate during 3 months of ART suggests unmasking IRIS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load/drug effects
  15. Cain LE, Phillips A, Lodi S, Sabin C, Bansi L, Justice A, et al.
    AIDS, 2012 Aug 24;26(13):1691-705.
    PMID: 22546987
    OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either efavirenz or nevirapine and two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) among HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive, and AIDS-free individuals with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes.

    DESIGN: Prospective studies of HIV-infected individuals in Europe and the US included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

    METHODS: Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started an NRTI, efavirenz or nevirapine, classified as following one or both types of regimens at baseline, and censored when they started an ineligible drug or at 6 months if their regimen was not yet complete. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens on clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. Our models included baseline covariates and adjusted for potential bias introduced by censoring via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 336 individuals initiated an efavirenz regimen (274 deaths, 774 AIDS-defining illnesses) and 8129 individuals initiated a nevirapine regimen (203 deaths, 441 AIDS-defining illnesses). The intention-to-treat hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens were 1.59 (1.27, 1.98) for death and 1.28 (1.09, 1.50) for AIDS-defining illness. Individuals on nevirapine regimens experienced a smaller 12-month increase in CD4 cell count by 11.49 cells/μl and were 52% more likely to have virologic failure at 12 months as those on efavirenz regimens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our intention-to-treat estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a larger 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for efavirenz compared with nevirapine.

    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  16. Clayton BA, Middleton D, Bergfeld J, Haining J, Arkinstall R, Wang L, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2012 Dec;18(12):1983-93.
    PMID: 23171621 DOI: 10.3201/eid1812.120875
    Human infections with Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh are associated with markedly different patterns of transmission and pathogenicity. To compare the 2 strains, we conducted an in vivo study in which 2 groups of ferrets were oronasally exposed to either the Malaysia or Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus. Viral shedding and tissue tropism were compared between the 2 groups. Over the course of infection, significantly higher levels of viral RNA were recovered from oral secretions of ferrets infected with the Bangladesh strain. Higher levels of oral shedding of the Bangladesh strain of Nipah virus might be a key factor in onward transmission in outbreaks among humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  17. Candotti D, Lin CK, Belkhiri D, Sakuldamrongpanich T, Biswas S, Lin S, et al.
    Gut, 2012 Dec;61(12):1744-53.
    PMID: 22267593 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301281
    To investigate the molecular basis of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) in Asian blood donors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  18. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Bejo MH, Zerihun H, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2012;11:15.
    PMID: 22273277 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-15
    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) results in economic loss due to mortality, reduction in production efficiency and increasing the usage of antibiotics. This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory roles of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enrichment in immune response and performance of IBD challenged broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
  19. Mehrbod P, Ideris A, Omar AR, Hair-Bejo M, Tan SW, Kheiri MT, et al.
    Virol. J., 2012;9:44.
    PMID: 22340010 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-9-44
    The influenza virus is still one of the most important respiratory risks affecting humans which require effective treatments. In this case, traditional medications are of interest. HESA-A is an active natural biological compound from herbal-marine origin. Previous studies have reported that the therapeutic properties of HESA-A are able to treat psoriasis vulgaris and cancers. However, no antiviral properties have been reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Viral Load
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