The compatibility of the commercial aqueous Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B.t.i.) formulation, Vectobac 12AS, with the chemical insecticides Actellic 50EC, Aqua Resigen, Resigen, and Fendona SC, for the simultaneous control of Aedes larvae and adults was studied by dispersing nine different formulations using a portable mist blower, in single story half-brick houses. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by measuring the larval mortality, adult mortality, and droplet analysis at varying distances from the sprayer. Persistence of the larvicidal activity of the chemical insecticides and B.t.i was also determined by measuring the larval mortality in the test samples 7 days posttreatment. The sprayed particles in all the trials were 50-60 microns in size, indicating that the particles were those of mist spray. Test samples placed within 3 m from the sprayer gave the maximum larval and adult mortality. Chemical insecticides exhibited maximum larval mortality in the 1 h posttreatment test samples and it was comparable to the larvicidal activity of B.t.i. The larvicidal toxins of B.t.i were more stable and were able to affect sufficient larval mortality for 7 days posttreatment. The larvicidal activity of the mixtures, i.e., chemical insecticides with B.t.i, in the 1 h posttreatment test samples was not significantly different from the larvicidal activity of the chemical insecticides and it was comparable to the larvicidal activity of B.t.i alone. However, the larvicidal activity of the mixtures was significantly more than the chemical insecticides alone in the 7 days posttreatment test samples except for the Actellic 50EC and Vectobac 12AS mixture. In all the trials, with or without B.t.i, there was no significant difference in adult mortality, indicating that this B.t.i formulation, Vectobac 12AS, was not antagonistic to the adulticidal activity of the chemical insecticides. From this study, it can be concluded that chemical insecticides can be used effectively for both adult and larval control, but the chemical insecticides do not exhibit residual larvicidal activity. Hence, for an effective control of both Aedes larvae and adults, it is advisable to add B.t.i. to the chemical insecticides, as B.t.i is specifically larvicidal and is also able to effect extended residual larvicidal activity.
Forensically important entomological specimens recovered from 95 forensic cases of human cadavers from April 1993 to May 1996 in Malaysia were identified and analysed. The results indicated that 73.7% of these specimens were Chrysomya species, occurring either as single or mixed infestations. Of these, the most prominent species were Ch megacephala (F.) and Ch rufifacies (Macquart). Other fly maggots recovered included Sarcophaga spp., Lucilia spp. and Hermetia spp., mostly occurring together with other calliphorine flies. A member of Muscidae fly, Ophyra spp. was also recovered for the first time.
The female and larva of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) udomi Takaoka & Choochote from Thailand are described for the first time. The female of this species is similar to those of S. (G.) asakoae Takaoka & Davies from Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Vietnam, and S. (G.) chiangdaoense Takaoka & Srisuka from Thailand. The larva of this species is similar to S. (G.) curtatum Jitklang et al. and S. (G.) nr. asakoae 2 from Thailand in having a medium-long postgenal cleft. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this species from these related species. The COI gene sequence of S. (G.) udomi is compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. This species is transferred from the S. ceylonicum species-group to the S. asakoae species-group based on the adult female and male morphological characters, comparisons of the genetic distances and phylogenetic relationships inferred from the COI gene sequences.
The fundamental approach to the biological control of Aedes albopictus requires the mass rearing of mosquitoes and the release of highly competitive adults in the field. As the fitness of adults is highly dependent on the development of immatures, we aimed to identify the minimum feeding regime required to produce viable and competitive adults by evaluating three response parameters: development duration, immature mortality, and adult wing length. Our study suggests at least 0.60 mg/larva/day of larval diet composed of dog food, dried beef liver, yeast, and milk powder in a weight ratio of 2:1:1:1 is required to maximize adult fitness. With standardized protocols in mass rearing, intensive studies can be readily conducted on mosquito colonies to facilitate comparisons across laboratories. This study also evaluated the differences in response of laboratory and field strains under different feeding regimes. We found that strain alone did not exert substantial effects on all response parameters. However, the field strain exhibited significantly lower immature mortality than the laboratory strain under the minimum feeding regime. Females and males of the laboratory strain had longer wing lengths under nutritional constraint due to the higher mortality that resulted in reduced interactions with the remaining larvae. Meanwhile, the field strain exhibited heterogeneous duration of immature development compared with the laboratory strain. The disparities demonstrated by the two strains in this study suggest the effect of inbreeding surfaced after a long term of laboratory colonization. Despite the trade-offs resulting from laboratory colonization, the competitiveness of the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus is comparable to the field strain, provided the larvae are fed optimally.
The stomach contents of Omobranchus sp. (family Blenniidae) larvae were investigated in a seagrass-mangrove based ecosystem in Johor Strait, Malaysia from October 2007 to September 2008. Specimens of larval fish were collected through subsurface towing of a Bongo net from five different stations. The stomach sacs of 267 Omobranchus sp. larvae were separated and observed, which comprised of 24 significant food stuffs belonging to 6 main groups viz. phytoplankton (62.45%), zooplankton (18.24%), algae (5.56%), plant-like particles (5.75%), debris (4.22%) and unidentified particles (2.03%). In situ water parameters were also measured throughout the sampling cruises. There was a strong and significant positive correlation between stomach phytoplankton and salinity (r = 0.658, p < 0.05).? Canonical correlation analysis indicated a weak relationship (29.8%) between stomach contents and physico-chemical parameters. Only salinity appeared to be the controlling factor for the stomach contents of Omobranchus sp. larvae in the investigated area. Based on the stomach content analysis, it could be concluded that Omobranchus sp. were mainly herbivorous during the larval stages. ?
A standardized larval dipping method was used to determine the infestation rates of Culex and other species of mosquitoes in stagnant water at 20 residential areas. This study also examined the associations between Culex distribution and various habitat characteristics across all states in Malaysia. Identification of 7,848 specimens yielded 6 species dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (82.74%), followed by Cx. vishui (14.39%), Cx. gelidus (2.70%), Lutzia fuscanus (0.11%), Armigeres subalbatus (0.05%), and Anopheles separatus (0.01%). The Culex larvae occurred in stagnant water with pH ranging from 6.4 to 8.2; conductivity, 139.7 to 6635.2 micros/cm; salinity, 0.07 to 3.64 ppt; total dissolved solids, 0.09 to 4.27g/liter; and dissolved oxygen, 5.11 to 8.11 mg/liter. The mean number of Culex larvae was positively correlated with pH, conductivity, salinity, and total dissolved solids. In contrast, the elevation and dissolved oxygen were found negatively correlated with mean number of Culex larvae. This study documented baseline information on the habitat characteristics of Culex species for the 1st time at different residential areas in Malaysia. The findings of this study will be a timely reminder to local authorities that effective control measures should be monitored regularly in order to reduce the nuisance of these mosquitoes and the risks of disease transmission.
Methods are described for the laboratory colonization of Mansonia uniformis, Ma. indiana and Ma. bonneae in Malaysia. Gravid females oviposited in 500 ml beakers with a layer of water covered with small leaves of Salvinia. Newly hatched larvae were set up in a basal medium of guinea pig dung and water or liver powder, yeast powder and water. Larvae attached to aquatic plants or 'Keaykolour' ruffia snow white paper. The cultures with paper gave better yields than those with plants. Production of Ma. uniformis was higher than the other two species. Twelve generations of Ma. uniformis and 11 generations of Ma. indiana and Ma. bonneae were monitored in the laboratory.
A burned human remain was found outdoor (5º 27' N, 100º 16' E) in Penang Island. The deceased was last seen alive on 23 April 2010 at 2230 h and was found burned on 24 April 2010 at 1920 h. Larval aggregation of second instar Chrysomya megacephala was observed on the chest of the deceased.
A study on insect succession of monkey carcass in a forested area in Ulu Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia was conducted from 9 May to 18 June 2007. The third instar of the housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) were only found on dry stage of a decomposed (Day-33) monkey carcass (Macaca fascicularis Raffles). This observation revealed that M. domestica maggots were found together with other muscid fly maggots, Hydrotaea (=Ophyra) spinigera (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) on dry stage of a carcass. However, the role of M. domestica on forensic entomological study remains unknown. This study recorded the first finding of M. domestica maggots on primate carcass in Malaysia.
The bioefficacy of a commercial formulation of temephos, Creek against Aedes aegypti larvae was studied in the laboratory. Earthen jars were filled with 10 L tap water each. One g of temephos (Creek) sand granule formulation was added into each earthen jar as recommended by the manufacturer. The final test concentration of Creek was 1 mg a.i./L. One earthen jar was filled with 10 L tap water and served as a test control (untreated). Thirty late 3(rd) or early 4(th) instar of lab-bred Ae. aegypti larvae were added into each earthen jar. Mortality of the larvae was recorded after 24 hours and percent mortality was calculated. Test was repeated every week. The results showed that complete larval mortality was achieved after 24 hours. The residual effect lasted 15 weeks (105 days), indicating that Creek is effective at the dosage recommended by the manufacturer which is 1 mg a.i./L.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) leparense sp. nov. is described from females, males, and pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the ceylonicum species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the female and male scuta covered with dark-brown short hairs, smaller number of male upper-eye facets, presence of shiny paired spots on the male abdominal segments 2-8, and absence of grapnel-shaped hooklets on the pupal abdominal segment 9. The male and pupa of S. capillatum Takaoka, which was originally described from larvae collected from Sarawak and Sabah, are described for the first time. Keys to identify all 32 species of the Simulium ceylonicum species-group including 27 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae, and mature larvae.
Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) brinchangense and S. (G.) tanahrataense, are described on the basis of reared adult females, males, pupae and larvae from Cameron's Highlands, Peninsular Malaysia. These new species are assigned to the asakoae species-group within Simulium (Gomphostilbia) and taxonomic notes are given to distinguish each new species from six known species in Malaysia. Revised keys to identify all 21 species including 13 species from other countries are provided for females, males, pupae and mature larvae. The species diversity of the asakoae species-group in Cameron's Highlands is briefly noted.
Cutaneous larva migrans is a common parasitic skin disease that can be easily prevented by wearing 'protective' footwear. However, this has been under-emphasized in terms of what constitutes the protective footwear. Even though the disease resolves spontaneously, the significant duration of the disease along with severity of pruritus make treatment unavoidable. Here, we present a very long-standing creeping eruption, which puzzled many attending clinicians handling the case, and the possibility of long socks as a causal effect on the development of cutaneous larva migrans infection.
Despite being a common skin dermatosis in the tropics, physicians in the tropics may miss the diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans for other pruritic skin manifestation. This is especially in those who live in urban housing with no history of travel. Cutaneous larva migrans, an intensely pruritic skin pathology is mainly contracted by people with history of beach holiday or contact with moist soft sand which had been contaminated with dog or cat faeces. This article reports a patient who presented with intensely itchy papular spots over the dorsum of his foot after walking barefooted in an urban toilet soiled with cat faeces. The patient had initially seen an urban general practitioner who diagnosed the papular skin lesion as an allergic reaction, and prescribed antihistamines. The patient subsequently developed creeping skin lesions and was seen by the author who prescribed albendazole 400 mg twice daily for three days. The patient reported reduction in itching after two days of albendazole treatment and a follow up at ten days revealed a healed infection.
Simulium (Nevermannia) khunklangense sp. nov. is described from females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Doi Inthanon National Park, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This new species is placed in the vernum species-group of the subgenus Nevermannia and is similar to S. (N.) chomthongense Takaoka & Srisuka described from Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand, but is distinguished in the male by the number of enlarged upper-eye facets and the relative width of the hind basitarsus against the hind tibia and femur, and in the pupa by the short common basal stalk of the gill and the cocoon with an anterodorsal bulge or a short anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from five other known species of the vernum species-group, which share an accessory sclerite on the larval abdomen, a rare characteristics in this species-group.
Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development