Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Zarei, M., Abdul-Hamid, A., Muhialdin B. J., Saari, N.
    Palm kernel cake (PKC) proteins were hydrolysed in the presence of seven proteolytic enzymes.
    The antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of each protein hydrolysate were evaluated.
    Papain-generated protein hydrolysate showed the highest antioxidant effects measured by
    radical scavenging activity (65%), iron (Fe)(II)-chelating activity (65%), and antihypertensive
    activity (71%). The results revealed a strong correlation between the antioxidant activity of
    the protein hydrolysates with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (R2
    = 0.69 - 0.98), except for trypsin-generated hydrolysate (R2 = 0.22). The most potent protein
    hydrolysate was fractionated and profiled using reversed-phase high-performance liquid
    chromatography and isoelectric focusing; peptides were subsequently isolated and identified
    by tandem mass spectrometry. The individual peptides were evaluated for antihypertension
    potential. A positive correlation was identified between radical scavenging activity and Fe(II)-
    chelating activity together and ACE inhibitory activity with R2= 0.69 - 0.98. The findings indicate that there was a positive relationship between the antioxidant and antihypertensive activities of protein hydrolysates and bioactive peptides from PKC proteins.
  2. Abdul Hamid AK
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Aug;55 Suppl B:23-7.
    PMID: 11125516
    The Government's decision to drastically and speedily increase the number of doctors in the country needs to be reviewed. The standard and quality of health care does not depend on the number of doctors, but on the improvement of the health care infrastructure. Increasing the number of government medical schools and increasing the intake of students should be done on a need-to basis, with the above perspective in mind. The selection criteria of candidates must not be compromised and the teaching staff must be adequate and experienced. The number of doctors should be gradually increased over the years in tandem with the development of the health care infrastructure and the deployment of doctors must be directed at providing equitable care to the people at all economic levels and geographic locations. The strength of academic staff in existing government medical schools must be upgraded to provide high level of teaching and research, perhaps reinforced with the recruitment of suitably qualified and experienced foreign teachers. The infrastructure of existing government medical schools must be upgraded to cater for the gradual increasing demand for more doctors as the country develops. The selection of candidates for the government medical schools must be based on merit and without undue emphasis on ethnic considerations, for it is only in the arena of fair competitiveness that excellence can be born. The considerations of merit in selection must include assessment of attitude, self-development, moral ethics and reasoning. If the above perspectives are fully appreciated, then there is really no requirement for private medical colleges in Malaysia.
  3. Mohd Zainol, M.K., Abdul-Hamid A., Abu Bakar, F., Pak Dek, S.
    The effect of different drying methods on the degradation of flavonoids in Centella asiatica was evaluated. C. asiatica leaf, root and petiole were dried using air-oven, vacuum oven and freeze drier. Flavonoid was determined utilizing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Results of the study revealed the presence of high concentration of flavonoids in C. asiatica leaf, root and petiole, which include, naringin (4688.8 ± 69 μg/100 g, 3561.3 ± 205 μg/ 100 g, and 978.3 ± 96 μg/ 100 g), rutin (905.6 ± 123 μg/ 100 g, 756.07 ± 95 μg/ 100 g, and 557.25 ± 58 μg/ 100 g), quercetin (3501.1 ± 107 μg/ 100 g, 1086.31 ± 90 μg/ 100 g, and 947.63 ± 83 μg/ 100 g) and catechin (915.87 ± 6.01 μg/ 100 g, 400.6 ± 67 μg/ 100 g, and 250.56 ± 18 μg/ 100g). Luteolin, kaempferol and apigenin on the other hand, were inconsistently present in some parts of C. asiatica. Air-oven treatment resulted in the highest total flavonoids degradation followed by vacuum oven and freeze dried with percent degradation of 97%, 87.6% and 73%, respectively. Catechin and rutin were found to be the most stable flavonoids with percent degradation up to 35%, 66% and 76% for freeze dried, vacuum oven and air oven, respectively.
  4. Mustafa RA, Abdul Hamid A, Mohamed S, Bakar FA
    J Food Sci, 2010 Jan-Feb;75(1):C28-35.
    PMID: 20492146 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01401.x
    Free radical scavenging activity of 21 tropical plant extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH). Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC, respectively. Results of the study revealed that all the plants tested exhibited excellent antioxidant activity with IC(50) in the range of 21.3 to 89.6 microg/mL. The most potent activity was demonstrated by Cosmos caudatus (21.3 microg/mL) and Piper betle (23.0 microg/mL) that are not significantly different than that of -tocopherol or BHA. L. inermis extract was found to consist of the highest concentration of phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin. High content of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were identified in Vitex negundo, Centella asiatica, and Sesbania grandiflora extracts, respectively. Luteolin and apigenin, on the other hand, were found in Premna cordifolia and Kaempferia galanga extracts. Strong correlation (R = 0.8613) between total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids (R = 0.8430) and that of antioxidant activity of the extracts were observed. The study revealed that phenolic, in particular flavonoids, may be the main contributors to the antioxidant activity exhibited by the plants.
  5. Manukaran MN, Abdul Hamid AK
    Med J Malaysia, 1990 Dec;45(4):288-92.
    PMID: 2152048
    Sixty two patients with displaced femoral neck fractures treated by percutaneous pinning are reviewed. There were 37 females and 25 males with an average age of 63.7 years. There were 36 Garden grade III and 26 grade IV fractures. Twenty three patients had other medical conditions. Fourteen patients were operated under local anaesthesia. Superficial wound infection was found in three cases with no deep infection. Union occurred in 41 patients by eight months. Of the 21 non-unions 15 remained painless. The pins migrated outwards in seven cases but caused no clinical problem. Avascular necrosis was seen in 11 patients by 18 months. Avascular necrosis and non-union occurred together in six patients. Secondary hemiarthroplasty was performed in only ten patients. Routine hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures is not always indicated. Femoral head preservation should be attempted before prosthetic replacement. The pinning surgery is simple, fast and can be performed under local anaesthesia. Hemiarthroplasty should be reserved for failed cases only.
  6. Perumal, V., Khoo, W.C., Abdul-Hamid, A., Ismail, A., Saari, K., Murugesu, S., et al.
    Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon or ‘peria katak’ in Malaysia, is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. Bitter melon is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals that made it extensively nutritious. Moreover, the seed, fruit and leave of the plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicines in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, infections, obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in urinary metabolite profile of the normal, streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and M. charantia treated diabetic rats using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) -based metabolomics profiling. Study had been carried out by inducing diabetes in the rats through injection of streptozotocin, which exhibited type 1 diabetes. M. charantia extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for one week. Blood glucose level after administration was measured to examine hypoglycemic effect of the extract. The results obtained indicated that M. charantia was effective in lowering blood glucose level of the diabetic rats. The loading plot of Partial Least Square (PLS) component 1 showed that diabetic rats had increased levels of lactate and glucose in urine whereas normal and the extract treated diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea and phenylacetylglycine in urine. While the loading plot of PLS component 2 showed a higher levels of succinate, citrate, creatine, creatinine, sugars, and hippurate in urine of normal rat compared to the extract treated diabetic rat. Administration of M. charantia extract was found to be able to regulate the altered metabolic processes. Thus, it could be potentially used to treat the diabetic patients.
  7. Alam MA, Juraimi AS, Rafii MY, Abdul Hamid A
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:105695.
    PMID: 25802833 DOI: 10.1155/2015/105695
    13 selected purslane accessions were subjected to five salinity levels 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 dS m(-1). Salinity effect was evaluated on the basis of biomass yield reduction, physiological attributes, and stem-root anatomical changes. Aggravated salinity stress caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all measured parameters and the highest salinity showed more detrimental effect compared to control as well as lower salinity levels. The fresh and dry matter production was found to increase in Ac1, Ac9, and Ac13 from lower to higher salinity levels but others were badly affected. Considering salinity effect on purslane physiology, increase in chlorophyll content was seen in Ac2, Ac4, Ac6, and Ac8 at 16 dS m(-1) salinity, whereas Ac4, Ac9, and Ac12 showed increased photosynthesis at the same salinity levels compared to control. Anatomically, stem cortical tissues of Ac5, Ac9, and Ac12 were unaffected at control and 8 dS m(-1) salinity but root cortical tissues did not show any significant damage except a bit enlargement in Ac12 and Ac13. A dendrogram was constructed by UPGMA based on biomass yield and physiological traits where all 13 accessions were grouped into 5 clusters proving greater diversity among them. The 3-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) has also confirmed the output of grouping from cluster analysis. Overall, salinity stressed among all 13 purslane accessions considering biomass production, physiological growth, and anatomical development Ac9 was the best salt-tolerant purslane accession and Ac13 was the most affected accession.
  8. Saadi S, Saari N, Anwar F, Abdul Hamid A, Ghazali HM
    Biotechnol Adv, 2014 12 12;33(1):80-116.
    PMID: 25499177 DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2014.12.003
    The growing momentum of several common life-style diseases such as myocardial infarction, cardiovascular disorders, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis has become a serious global concern. Recent developments in the field of proteomics offering promising solutions to solving such health problems stimulates the uses of biopeptides as one of the therapeutic agents to alleviate disease-related risk factors. Functional peptides are typically produced from protein via enzymatic hydrolysis under in vitro or in vivo conditions using different kinds of proteolytic enzymes. An array of biological activities, including antioxidative, antihypertensive, antidiabetic and immunomodulating has been ascribed to different types of biopeptides derived from various food sources. In fact, biopeptides are nutritionally and functionally important for regulating some physiological functions in the body; however, these are yet to be extensively addressed with regard to their production through advance strategies, mechanisms of action and multiple biological functionalities. This review mainly focuses on recent biotechnological advances that are being made in the field of production in addition to covering the mode of action and biological activities, medicinal health functions and therapeutic applications of biopeptides. State-of-the-art strategies that can ameliorate the efficacy, bioavailability, and functionality of biopeptides along with their future prospects are likewise discussed.
  9. Mohammad Naim N, Abdullah H, Umar AA, Abdul Hamid A, Shaari S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:696521.
    PMID: 26078996 DOI: 10.1155/2015/696521
    PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300 °C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm-424 nm and 426 nm-464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing.
  10. Zarei M, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul-Hamid A, Anwar F, Saari N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(7):8097-111.
    PMID: 22942692 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13078097
    The aim of this study was to produce a valuable protein hydrolysate from palm kernel cake (PKC) for the development of natural antioxidants. Extracted PKC protein was hydrolyzed using different proteases (alcalase, chymotrypsin, papain, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, and bromelain). Subsequently, antioxidant activity and degree of hydrolysis (DH) of each hydrolysate were evaluated using DPPH• radical scavenging activity and O-phthaldialdehyde spectrophotometric assay, respectively. The results revealed a strong correlation between DH and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates, where among these, protein hydrolysates produced by papain after 38 h hydrolysis exhibited the highest DH (91 ± 0.1%) and DPPH• radical scavenging activity (73.5 ± 0.25%) compared to the other hydrolysates. In addition, fractionation of the most effective (potent) hydrolysate by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated a direct association between hydrophobicity and radical scavenging activity of the hydrolysates. Isoelectric focusing tests also revealed that protein hydrolysates with basic and neutral isoelectric point (pI) have the highest radical scavenging activity, although few fractions in the acidic range also exhibited good antioxidant potential.
  11. Kazemi M, Karim R, Mirhosseini H, Abdul Hamid A
    Food Chem, 2016 Sep 1;206:156-66.
    PMID: 27041311 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.017
    Pomegranate peel is a rich source of phenolic compounds (such as punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids). However, the content of such bioactive compounds in the peel extract can be affected by extraction type and condition. It was hypothesized that the optimization of a pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction (PUAE) technique could result in the pomegranate peel extract with higher yield and antioxidant activity. The main goal was to optimize PUAE condition resulting in the highest yield and antioxidant activity as well as the highest contents of punicalagin and hydroxybenzoic acids. The operation at the intensity level of 105W/cm(2) and duty cycle of 50% for a short time (10min) had a high efficiency for extraction of phenolics from pomegranate peel. The application of such short extraction can save the energy and cost of the production. Punicalagin and ellagic acid were the most predominant phenolic compounds quantified in the pomegranate peel extract (PPE) from Malas variety. PPE contained a minor content of gallic acid.
  12. Pak-Dek MS, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A, Soh CS
    J Food Sci, 2008 Oct;73(8):C595-8.
    PMID: 19019102 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00929.x
    Efficacy of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (MLE) and fruit extracts (MFE) in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was determined in vitro. The result of the study showed that the highest inhibition on the LPL activity was exhibited by MLE (66%+/- 2.1%), which is significantly higher than that demonstrated by MFE (54.5%+/- 2.5%), green tea extract (GTE) (54.5%+/- 2.6%), and catechin (43.6%+/- 6.1%). Percent of LPL inhibition increase with concentration of the extracts. Quantitative analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of high levels of (+)-catechin at 63.5 +/- 17 and 53.7 +/- 5.7 mg/g in MLE and MFE, respectively, although not as high as that found in GTE (530.6 +/- 42 mg/g). Appreciable amount of epicatechin was found in all extracts tested, while rutin was only found in MLE and MFE. The study suggested that both leaf and fruit of M. citrifolia may be used as antiobesity agents in body weight management.
  13. Ghanbari R, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul-Hamid A, Ismail A, Saari N
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(12):16796-811.
    PMID: 23222684 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131216796
    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.
  14. Sadegh Vishkaei M, Ebrahimpour A, Abdul-Hamid A, Ismail A, Saari N
    Mar Drugs, 2016 Sep 30;14(10).
    PMID: 27706040
    Food protein hydrolysates are known to exhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and can be used as a novel functional food for prevention of hypertension. This study evaluated the ACE inhibitory potentials of Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate (ALP) in vivo. The pre-fed rats with ALP at various doses (200, 400, 800 mg/kg body weight) exhibited a significant (p ≤ 0.05) suppression effect after inducing hypertension. To determine the optimum effective dose that will produce maximal reduction in blood pressure, ALP at three doses was fed to the rats after inducing hypertension. The results showed that the 800 mg/kg body weight dose significantly reduced blood pressure without noticeable negative physiological effect. In addition, there were no observable changes in the rats' heart rate after oral administration of the ALP. It was concluded that Actinopyga lecanora proteolysate could potentially be used for the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of hypertension.
  15. Muhammad Auwal S, Zarei M, Abdul-Hamid A, Saari N
    Mar Drugs, 2017 Mar 31;15(4).
    PMID: 28362352 DOI: 10.3390/md15040104
    The stone fish is an under-utilized sea cucumber with many nutritional and ethno-medicinal values. This study aimed to establish the conditions for its optimum hydrolysis with bromelain to generate angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory hydrolysates. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was used to model and optimize the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and ACE-inhibitory activity. Process conditions including pH (4-7), temperature (40-70 °C), enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio (0.5%-2%) and time (30-360 min) were used. A pH of 7.0, temperature of 40 °C, E/S ratio of 2% and time of 240 min were determined using a response surface model as the optimum levels to obtain the maximum ACE-inhibitory activity of 84.26% at 44.59% degree of hydrolysis. Hence, RSM can serve as an effective approach in the design of experiments to improve the antihypertensive effect of stone fish hydrolysates, which can thus be used as a value-added ingredient for various applications in the functional foods industries.
  16. Nazir Y, Hussain SA, Abdul Hamid A, Song Y
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:3428437.
    PMID: 30246019 DOI: 10.1155/2018/3428437
    The potential health benefits of probiotics have long been elucidated since Metchnikoff and his coworkers postulated the association of probiotic consumption on human's health and longevity. Since then, many scientific findings and research have further established the correlation of probiotic and gut-associated diseases such as irritable bowel disease and chronic and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, the beneficial impact of probiotic is not limited to the gut-associated diseases alone, but also in different acute and chronic infectious diseases. This is due to the fact that probiotics are able to modify the intestinal microbial ecosystem, enhance the gut barrier function, provide competitive adherence to the mucosa and epithelium, produce antimicrobial substances, and modulate the immune activity by enhancing the innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the current literature with respect to the association of probiotic and cancer, high serum cholesterol, and allergic and HIV diseases are still scarce and controversial. Therefore, in the present work, we reviewed the potential preventive and therapeutic role of probiotics for cancer, high serum cholesterol, and allergic and HIV diseases as well as providing its possible mechanism of actions.
  17. Auwal SM, Zarei M, Abdul-Hamid A, Saari N
    PMID: 29234403 DOI: 10.1155/2017/4765463
    Protein hydrolysates produced from different food sources exhibit therapeutic potential and can be used in the management of chronic diseases. This study was targeted to optimise the conditions for the hydrolysis of stone fish protein to produce antioxidant hydrolysates using central composite design (CCD) by response surface methodology (RSM). The stone fish protein was hydrolysed under the optimum predicted conditions defined by pH (6.5), temperature (54°C), E/S ratio (1.5%), and hydrolysis time (360 min). The hydrolysates were then evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferrous ion- (Fe2+-) chelating activity. Results validation showed no significant difference between the experimental values of DPPH• scavenging activity (48.94%) and Fe2+-chelating activity (25.12%) obtained at 54.62% degree of hydrolysis (DH) compared to their corresponding predicted values of 49.79% and 24.08% at 53.08% DH, respectively. The hydrolysates demonstrated non-Newtonian behavior (n < 1) with stronger shear-thinning effect and higher viscosities at increasing concentration. Thus, RSM can be considered as a promising strategy to optimise the production of stone fish protein hydrolysates containing antioxidant peptides. It is hoped that this finding will enhance the potential of stone fish protein hydrolysates (SHs) as therapeutic bioactive ingredient in functional foods development.
  18. Khamaiseh EI, Abdul Hamid A, Abdeshahian P, Wan Yusoff WM, Kalil MS
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:395754.
    PMID: 24672315 DOI: 10.1155/2014/395754
    The production of biobutanol was studied by the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13557 in P2 medium including date fruit as the sole substrate. The effect of P2 medium and the effect of different concentrations of date fruit ranging from 10 to 100 g/L on biobutanol production were investigated. Anaerobic batch culture was carried out at 35 °C incubation temperature and pH 7.0 ± 0.2 for 72 h. Experimental results showed that the lowest yield of biobutanol and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) was 0.32 and 0.35 gram per gram of carbohydrate consumed (g/g), respectively, when an initial date fruit concentration of 10 g/L was utilized. At this fruit date concentration a biobutanol production value of 1.56 g/L was obtained. On the other hand, the maximum yield of biobutanol (0.48 g/g) and ABE (0.63 g/g) was produced at 50 g/L date fruit concentration with a biobutanol production value as high as 11 g/L. However, when a higher initial date fruit concentration was used, biobutanol and ABE production decreased to reach the yield of 0.22 g/g and 0.35 g/g, respectively, where 100 g/L date fruit was used. Similar results also revealed that 10.03 g/L biobutanol was produced using 100 g/L date fruit.
  19. Ganjali Dashti M, Abdeshahian P, Wan Yusoff WM, Kalil MS, Abdul Hamid A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:831783.
    PMID: 25147817 DOI: 10.1155/2014/831783
    The biosynthesis of biomedical products including lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was studied in repeated batch fermentation. Three key process variables, namely, glucose concentration, ammonium tartrate concentration, and harvesting time, were optimized using response surface methodology. Repeated batch fermentation was carried out by the cultivation of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in nitrogen-limited medium with various nitrogen concentration (1-4 g/L) and glucose concentration (20-40 g/L) at three time intervals (12 h, 24 h, and 48 h). Experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 6.2 g/L and the highest GLA concentration of 0.4 g/L were obtained in optimum conditions, where 20.2 g/L glucose, 2.12 g/L ammonium tartrate, and 48 h harvesting time were utilized. Statistical results showed that the interaction between glucose and ammonium tartrate concentration had highly significant effects on lipid and GLA biosynthesis (P < 0.01). Moreover, harvesting time had a significant interaction effect with glucose and ammonium tartrate concentration on lipid production (P < 0.05).
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