A one year prospective study of perinatal deaths was conducted to test the feasibility of using the Wigglesworth pathophysiological classification in the Malaysian health service. Four regions with high perinatal mortality rates were selected. Deaths were actively identified. Nursing staff were trained to use the classification and every death was reviewed by a clinician. A total of 26,198 births and 482 perinatal deaths were reported. The perinatal mortality rate was 18.4. Only 14 (2.9%) deaths had their Wigglesworth category reclassified. Most deaths were in the normally formed macerated stillbirths (34.4%), asphyxial conditions (26.8%), and immaturity (20.1%) subgroups. The results were compared with data from other countries that used this classification. This study has shown that the Wigglesworth pathophysiological classification can be applied to perinatal deaths in the existing Malaysian health service.
A pilot scale membrane plant was constructed and monitored in Shah Alam, Malaysia for municipal wastewater reclamation for industrial application purposes. The aim of this study was to verify its suitability under the local conditions and environmental constraints for secondary wastewater reclamation. Immersed-type crossflow microfiltration (IMF) was selected as the pretreatment step before reverse osmosis filtration. Secondary wastewater after chlorine contact tank was selected as feed water. The results indicated that the membrane system is capable of producing a filtrate meeting the requirements of both WHO drinking water standards and Malaysian Effluent Standard A. With the application of an automatic backwash process, IMF performed well in hydraulic performance with low fouling rate being achieved. The investigations showed also that chemical cleaning is still needed because of some irreversible fouling by microorganisms always remains. RO treatment with IMF pretreatment process was significantly applicable for wastewater reuse purposes and promised good hydraulic performance.
Pleural anthracosis is rare and, in most cases, is diagnosed incidentally or at autopsy. We report a 67-year-old man with pleural anthracosis. He was initially referred for possible tuberculous pleural effusion and had recurrent admissions for symptomatic pleural effusion, which increased with each subsequent episode. A thoracoscopic examination demonstrated diffuse hyperpigmentation in both parietal and visceral pleura. Parietal pleural biopsy indicated granuloma with foreign body giant cell. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) thorax showed focal plaques in parietal pleura with calcifications in the ipsilateral lung. Investigations for tuberculosis, fungal, and malignancy proved to be negative. With these results, a diagnosis of pleural anthracosis was made. This case highlights the unusual presentation of pleural anthracosis with pleural effusion.
Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties of xanthone extract from mangosteen pericarp via microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The MAE extraction conditions to obtain optimum antioxidant-rich xanthone extract were at 2.24 min of irradiation time, 25 mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio and 71% of ethanol concentration. The predicted results for four responses were as follows; 320.31 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, 83.63% and 93.77% inhibition (DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays), and 144.56 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract (FRAP, Ferric reducing antioxidant power). The predicted and actual values were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Therefore, these results confirmed that the examined model was acceptable and relevant. MAE led to a slightly similar antioxidant capacity and a higher extraction of α-mangostin, a major xanthone of mangosteen pericarp as compared to water bath-maceration technique.