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  1. Dahham SS, Al-Rawi SS, Ibrahim AH, Abdul Majid AS, Abdul Majid AMS
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2018 Dec;25(8):1524-1534.
    PMID: 30591773 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.031
    Desert truffles are seasonal and important edible fungi that grow wild in many countries around the world. Truffles are natural food sources that have significant compositions. In this work, the antioxidant, chemical composition, anticancer, and antiangiogenesis properties of the Terfezia claveryi truffle were investigated. Solvent extractions of the T. claveryi were evaluated for antioxidant activities using (DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods). The extracts cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines (HT29, MCF-7, PC3 and U-87 MG) was determined by MTT assay, while the anti-angiogenic efficacy was tested using ex-vivo assay. All extracts showed moderate anticancer activities against all cancer cells (p 
  2. Asif M, Iqbal MA, Hussein MA, Oon CE, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Jan 27;108:177-187.
    PMID: 26649905 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.11.034
    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
  3. Asif M, Shafaei A, Abdul Majid AS, Ezzat MO, Dahham SS, Ahamed MBK, et al.
    Chin J Nat Med, 2017 Jul;15(7):505-514.
    PMID: 28807224 DOI: 10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30076-6
    Considering the great potential of natural products as anticancer agents, the present study was designed to explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for anticancer activities of Mesua ferrea stem bark extract against human colorectal carcinoma. Based on MTT assay results, bioactive sub-fraction (SF-3) was selected for further studies using HCT 116 cells. Repeated column chromatography resulted in isolation of less active α-amyrin from SF-3, which was identified and characterized by GC-MS and HPLC methods. α-amyrin and betulinic acid contents of SF-3 were measured by HPLC methods. Fluorescent assays revealed characteristic apoptotic features, including cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and marked decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in SF-3 treated cells. In addition, increased levels of caspases-9 and -3/7 levels were also observed in SF-3 treated cells. SF-3 showed promising antimetastatic properties in multiple in vitro assays. Multi-pathway analysis revealed significant down-regulation of WNT, HIF-1α, and EGFR with simultaneous up-regulation of p53, Myc/Max, and TGF-β signalling pathways in SF-3 treated cells. In addition, promising growth inhibitory effects were observed in SF-3 treated HCT 116 tumour spheroids, which give a hint about in vivo antitumor efficacy of SF-3 phytoconstituents. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that anticancer effects of SF-3 towards colon cancer are through modulation of multiple molecular pathways.
  4. Kithur Mohamed S, Asif M, Nazari MV, Baharetha HM, Mahmood S, Yatim ARM, et al.
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2019 4 30;51(1):45-54.
    PMID: 31031467 DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_312_18
    OBJECTIVES: Sophorolipids (SLs) are a group of surface-active glycolipids produced by a type of nonpathogenic yeast Candida bombicola in the presence of vegetable oil through fermentation technology. SLs have shown antitumor activity; however, the mechanism of action underlying the anticancer activity of SLs is poorly understood. This work evaluated the anticancer activity of SLs fermented from palm oil by exploring its antiangiogenic activity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SLs that were fermented and further characterized for their biochemical activities. Cytotoxicity study was performed to assess cytostatic properties. A series of in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis assay was also carried out. The relative fold change in the expression of p53 mRNA by SLs was also studied.

    RESULTS: Altogether, the data show that SLs derived from palm oil fermentation process inhibited neovascularization in the ex vivo tissue segments and also the endothelial cell proliferation between 50% and 65% inhibition as a whole. The palm oil derived SLs also caused downregulation of the suppression level of vascular endothelial growth factor and also upregulate the p53 mRNA level. The analytical studies revealed the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds but with relatively weak antioxidant activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies revealed abundant amount of palmitic and oleic acid, the latter an established antiangiogenic agent, and the former being proangiogenic.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be concluded from this study that SLs derived from fermented palm oil have potent antiangiogenic activity which may be attributed by its oleic acid component.

  5. Taleb Agha M, Baharetha HM, Al-Mansoub MA, Tabana YM, Kaz Abdul Aziz NH, Yam MF, et al.
    Scientifica (Cairo), 2020;2020:7286053.
    PMID: 32509375 DOI: 10.1155/2020/7286053
    In this study, the bioactivity-guided fractionation was conducted on the aerial parts of Arctium lappa L. and then the extracts were tested in vitro on breast cancer (MCF-7), colorectal cancer (HCT-116), and normal cells (EA.hy926). The n-hexane fraction (EHX) of the ethanolic extract showed strong activity against both MCF-7 and EA.hy926 cell lines (IC50 values: 14.08 ± 3.64 and 27.25 ± 3.45 μg/mL, respectively). The proapoptotic activity of EHX was assessed using MCF-7. Morphological alterations were visualized using Hoechst staining and a transmission electron microscope. Cancer cell signal transduction pathways were investigated, and EHX significantly upregulated p53, TGF-β, and NF-κB. Furthermore, EHX was found to disrupt the metastatic cascade of breast cancer cells by the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colonization. The antiangiogenic activity of EHX fraction showed potent inhibition of rat aorta microvessels with IC50 value: 4.34 ± 1.64 μg/mL. This result was supported by the downregulation of VEGF-A expression up to 54%. Over 20 compounds were identified in EHX using GC-MS, of which stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, and 3-O-acetyllupeol are the major active compounds. Phytochemical analysis of EHX showed higher phenolic and flavonoid contents with a substantial antioxidant activity. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that A. lappa has valuable anticancer activity and antiangiogenic properties that might be useful in breast cancer therapy.
  6. Yehya AHS, Asif M, Kaur G, Hassan LEA, Al-Suede FSR, Abdul Majid AMS, et al.
    J Adv Res, 2019 Jan;15:59-68.
    PMID: 30581613 DOI: 10.1016/j.jare.2018.05.006
    Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancers due to its aggressive biology and lack of effective treatment. Gemcitabine, the first line anticancer drug has reduced efficacy due to acquired resistance. The current study evaluates the toxicological effects of Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) and its marker compound (rosmarinic acid) in combination with gemcitabine. O.s (200 or 400 mg/kg/day) and rosmarinic acid (32 mg/kg/day) were administered orally and gemcitabine (10 mg/kg/3 days) intraperitoneally either alone or in combination treatment for fourteen days. Parameters including blood serum biochemistry, hematology, myeloid-erythroid ratio, incident of lethality, and histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, and spleen tissues were studied. Neither, individual drugs/extract nor chemo-herbal combinations at tested doses induced any toxicity and damage to organs in nude mice when compared to control group. Toxicological data obtained from this study will help to select the best doses of chemo-herbal combination for future pancreatic xenograft tumor studies.
  7. Al-Dualimi DW, Shah Abdul Majid A, Al-Shimary SFF, Al-Saadi AA, Al Zarzour R, Asif M, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2018 Jan;41(1):82-88.
    PMID: 28635332 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2017.1317785
    Herbal products contain a variety of compounds which may be useful in protecting against cellular damage caused by mutagens. Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) also known as Cat whiskers. The herb has been shown anti-oxidative properties and can modulate key cellular proteins that have cytoprotective effect. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1) of 50% ethanol extract of O.s (Et. O.s) on micro-nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE), Polychromatic to normachromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE), Mitotic index (MI), and Chromosomal aberration (CA) in Bab/c mice. Moreover, these parameters were used to evaluate the anti-genotoxic and clastogenic potencies of (Et. O.s) against mitomycin c (MMC) that interact with biological molecules and induce genotoxic and clastogenic disorders in non-tumor cells. MMC (4 mg kg-1) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the mice before and after treatment with three different doses of (Et. O.s). The results indicated that the extract at different doses did not show significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in (MNPCE), (PCE/NCE) ratios, and (CA) values. The higher doses sowed high (MI) values compared with untreated control group. MMC showed significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in (MNPCE), (CA) and reduce (PCE/NCE) and (MI) values compared with untreated control group. Treatment with (Et. O.s) at different doses before and after MMC injection showed to modulate MNPCE, PCE/NCE ratios, CA and MI values in mice bone marrow cells suggesting genoprotective potential of this plant extract.
  8. Asif M, Yehya AHS, Dahham SS, Mohamed SK, Shafaei A, Ezzat MO, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2019 Jan;109:1620-1629.
    PMID: 30551416 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.127
    Proven the great potential of essential oils as anticancer agents, the current study intended to explore molecular mechanisms responsible for in vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer efficacy of essential oil containing oleo-gum resin extract (RH) of Mesua ferrea. MTT cell viability studies showed that RH had broad spectrum cytotoxic activities. However, it induced more profound growth inhibitory effects towards two human colon cancer cell lines i.e., HCT 116 and LIM1215 with an IC50 values of 17.38 ± 0.92 and 18.86 ± 0.80 μg/mL respectively. RH induced relatively less toxicity in normal human colon fibroblasts i.e., CCD-18co. Cell death studies conducted, revealed that RH induced characteristic morphological and biochemical changes in HCT 116. At protein level it down-regulated expression of multiple pro-survival proteins i.e., survivin, xIAP, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70 and up-regulated expression of ROS, caspase-3/7 and TRAIL-R2 in HCT 116. Furthermore, significant reduction in invasion, migration and colony formation potential was observed in HCT 116 treated with RH. Chemical characterization by GC-MS and HPLC methods revealed isoledene and elemene as one the major compounds. RH showed potent antitumor activity in xenograft model. Overall, these findings suggest that RH holds a promise to be further studied for cheap anti-colon cancer naturaceutical development.
  9. Al-Dulaimi DW, Shah Abdul Majid A, M Baharetha H, Ahamed MBK, Faisal SF, Al Zarzour RH, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2020 Apr 22.
    PMID: 32321321 DOI: 10.1080/01480545.2020.1749652
    Orthosiphon stamineus (O.S) is widely consumed for its medidcinal value including anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and diuretic properties. The present study evaluates the cytoprotective, anti-mutagenic, and anticlastogenic efficacies of standardized extract of Orthosiphon stamineus. Normal liver cell line (WRL68) exposed to hydrogen peroxide and serum-deprived media as insults to evaluate cytoprotective and glutathione activation activities of (Et. O. s). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 exposed to different concentrations of (Et. O. s). The influence of Et. O. s on mitotic, replicative indices as well as chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induced in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by mitomycin C (MMC). The Et. O.s proved to be a potent scavenger for hydrogen peroxide and other free radicals in serum-depraved media, which showed to stimulate glutathione production in liver cells line. Moreover, it did not induce mutations in S. typhimurium subspecies TA98 and TA100. The standardized extract exhibited powerful antimutagenic activities as verified against both 2-nitrofluorene and sodium azide in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 cells, respectively. Cytogenetic tests showed high concentrations of Et. O. s to reduce the values of mitotic and replicative indices without any accompanying side effects, such as chromosomal abnormalities or SCE. To ameliorate MMC effects, pretreatment with the extract proofed to be efficient protocol. These data suggests that O. stamineus extract could be useful as cytoprotective, antimutagenic, and anticlastogenic efficacies, which owes to its potent chemoprevention, antioxidant, and glutathione activation properties.
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