• 1 Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
  • 2 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
  • 3 EMAN Testing and Research Laboratories, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
J Adv Res, 2019 Jan;15:59-68.
PMID: 30581613 DOI: 10.1016/j.jare.2018.05.006


Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancers due to its aggressive biology and lack of effective treatment. Gemcitabine, the first line anticancer drug has reduced efficacy due to acquired resistance. The current study evaluates the toxicological effects of Orthosiphon stamineus (O.s) and its marker compound (rosmarinic acid) in combination with gemcitabine. O.s (200 or 400 mg/kg/day) and rosmarinic acid (32 mg/kg/day) were administered orally and gemcitabine (10 mg/kg/3 days) intraperitoneally either alone or in combination treatment for fourteen days. Parameters including blood serum biochemistry, hematology, myeloid-erythroid ratio, incident of lethality, and histopathological analysis of liver, kidney, and spleen tissues were studied. Neither, individual drugs/extract nor chemo-herbal combinations at tested doses induced any toxicity and damage to organs in nude mice when compared to control group. Toxicological data obtained from this study will help to select the best doses of chemo-herbal combination for future pancreatic xenograft tumor studies.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.