Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 80 in total

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  1. Kaur G
    Malays J Pathol, 1998 Jun;20(1):41-4.
    PMID: 10879263
    A 32-year-old pregnant lady presented with a rapidly enlarging right breast mass. A fine needle aspiration was suggestive of a malignant phylloides tumour. However histopathological examination after mastectomy revealed a moderately differentiated angiosarcoma. The histopathological and cytological features of this rare tumour together with the diagnostic pitfalls are discussed.
  2. Kaur G
    PMID: 19842399
    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of clinical malaria among the Orang Asli population of Raub, Pahang, Malaysia. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 520 Orang Asli. Malariometric and clinical measurements were taken. The overall parasitemic rate was 24.2% (95% CI 20.7-28.1). Twenty-three point four percent (95% CI 19.5-26.9) of respondents age two years and above were clinically febrile. The prevalence of fever, chills, perspiration and body aches during a one month period prior to the survey among the same group ranged between 4.2% (95% CI 2.7-6.4) and 13.5% (95% CI 10.6-16.7). Children 2-12 years old were more likely to present with fever, and symptoms of malaria than older children. Gender was not significantly associated with fever or any of the other malaria symptoms. Presence of clinical fever and history of malaria symptoms were all strongly associated with current infection. The association was significant even after controlling for age (adjusted OR 2.8-5.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.3). Orang Asli children significantly experienced greater morbidity due to malaria compared to adults. Control and treatment of malaria should focus on children, while further research should explore the effects of malaria morbidity on the quality of life of these children.
  3. Kaur G
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2009 Apr;21(2):205-15.
    PMID: 19223366 DOI: 10.1177/1010539509331594
    The Asia-Pacific region has at least 50% of its population at risk for malaria. In Malaysia, indigenous malaria is largely concentrated among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an Orang Asli community in the district of Raub, Pahang, to determine the predictors of malaria. Age, seldom/never wearing protective clothing while in the jungle, going out at night, ever staying in another village, and living in bamboo-walled homes were found to be associated with malaria (crude odds ratio = 1.8-4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-9.1) After adjusting for confounding, major predictors of malaria were age < or =12 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.3;95% CI = 2.2-8.4),), never/seldom wearing protective clothing while in the jungle (aOR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.8-8.0), and going out at night (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.4-4.8). The findings lend support for intensifying behaviour modification in this population.
  4. Tee GH, Kaur G
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2014 Sep;26(5 Suppl):70S-80S.
    PMID: 24965781 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514540468
    Cigarette smoking in adolescent is a significant public health problem, leading to the risk of addiction, morbidity, and mortality in the long term. This study determined the prevalence and correlates of current smoking among adolescent school children. A nationwide school-based survey among 25 507 students between Forms 1 to 5 (aged 12-17) was conducted using a 2-stage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of current smoking was 11.5%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that current smoking was significantly associated with males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.87, 4.98), current drinking (aOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.46, 3.74), drug used (aOR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.24, 7.11), and being bullied (aOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.98) at least once in the past 12 months. Smoking is associated with several behaviors that pose risks to adolescents, such as social issues and smoking-related health problems. Thus, early and integrated prevention programs that address multiple risk behaviors simultaneously are required.
  5. Sivakumar S, Kaur G
    Acta Cytol., 2009 May-Jun;53(3):303-5.
    PMID: 19534271 DOI: 10.1159/000325312
    BACKGROUND: Extraskeletal (soft tissue) chondromas are rare neoplasms. They are seen most frequently in the soft tissues of hands and feet. A chondroma occurring in the breast is exceedingly uncommon. We present a case of pure chondroma of the breast in a young woman in whom fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features suggested a cartilaginous neoplasm.

    CASE: A 28-year-old woman presented with a mobile lump in the left breast. Mammography showed a high-density nodule without microcalcifications. A clinical diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. A differential diagnosis was obtained on FNA. Excisional biopsy of the lump showed the histopathologic features of chondroma. There was no recurrence or appearance of new lesion during 13 months of follow-up.

    CONCLUSION: Chondroma of the breast shows FNA cytologic features of cartilaginous tumor, but specific tumor typing may not be possible. This case highlights the difficulties that may arise in FNA diagnosis of cartilaginous tumor especially when it occurs at an unusual site. Awareness of the cytologic features combined with clinical and radiologic findings should guide the cytopathologist to make correct diagnosis of this neoplasm.
  6. Kaur G, Raj SM
    Singapore Med J, 2002 Feb;43(2):090-2.
    PMID: 11993896
    The concordance between endoscopic and histological gastritis was determined in 52 patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The study was conducted in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia, an area with a low background prevalence of H. pylori infection. Endoscopic and histological gastritis were assessed in accordance with the Sydney System. The results showed poor concordance between endoscopic and histological gastritis even after reclassifying mild endoscopic gastritis as normal. The low prevalence of H. pylori was validated in this study.
  7. Kaur GA, Nadeswary K
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Sep;35(1):14-21.
    PMID: 6166839
    A study was carried out in theJengka Triangle in Pahang to find out the prevalence and a practical cum effective method of treatment and control of scabies. Scabies was the commonest skin lesion among the 5590 people examined. its prevalence being 11.6%. Both sexes were equally affected. Prevalence was high among children and teenagers, the worst affected being the 10 to 14. 2 to 4, 15 to 19 and 5 to 9 year olds. The problem of scabies in Jengka could be due to inadequate and irregular water supply, plus lack of mothers' supervision of the personal hygiene of their children aged > 2 years. The persistence of scabies since 1976 is very likely due to the people's non-compliance with standing instructions on treatment with Benzyl benzoate emulsion A comparative study of treatment of scabies with Gamma Benzene Hexachloride [GBH] and with Benzyl benzoate emulsion [BBE] showed GBH to be the medication of choice. It was more effective and convenient, giving 97.9% cure rate with one application. A hot bath was not necessary. The patients preferred GBH to BBE since it was painless and without side-effects. The cost of treatment with GBH [1 application] was also much less than that with BBE [2 applications]. Only 28.7% of the cases and contacts complied with instructions to do 2nd application of the medication on their own, making it imperative that application be done by the health Staff or under their direct supervision. The majority [87.2%] complied with instructions to place their used clothes in large polythene bags and air these in the sun for two days. This procedure should replace the instructions to boil personal clothes as it is just as effective. yet more convenient and economical. A regular, biannual screening of all kindergarten and primary school children is recommended. Application of GBH to all scabies cases and all close contacts should be done by the health worker. The whole body from neck to soles of feet should have the application, and the people should be instructed to bathe only after 24 hours. They are to go to the nearest clinic or hospital on the 7th day for second application of GBH, if the itchness or lesions persist or reappear. Such supervised medication is possible and will minimise misuse of GBH.
  8. Kaur G, Naing NN
    Malays J Med Sci, 2003 Jul;10(2):66-70.
    PMID: 23386799 MyJurnal
    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and ethnic distribution of Helicobacter pylori infection in an endoscoped population in North Eastern Peninsular Malaysia.
  9. Kaur G, Raj SM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2001 Jan;8(1):31-3.
    PMID: 22973153 MyJurnal
    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinoma is generally more common in the antrum/body and is of the intestinal type. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of gastric carcinoma in an area known to have a low prevalence of H. pylori. Pathology records of gastric carcinoma diagnosed at Hospital University Sains Malaysia between 1995 and 1999 were retrieved and studied. There were a total of 23 cases. The median age was 60 years. Eighteen patients were Malay and 5 were Chinese. The most common location of the tumour was the cardia/gastrooesophageal junction (61%, 14/23 patients). The majority was of the intestinal type (69.6%, 16/23). The frequency of gastric carcinoma appears to be exceptionally low in the area of study. The Chinese population was over-represented. The higher frequency of tumour in the cardia/gastro-oesophageal junction as compared to the antrum and body is in sharp contrast to most other studies. This reaffirms the notion that Helicobacter pylori infection is a causative agent for non-cardia gastric carcinomas.
  10. Kaur G, Mutum SS
    Malays J Med Sci, 2001 Jan;8(1):69-72.
    PMID: 22973160
    Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumour of childhood. This is a case report of a one-year-old boy who presented with a one-month history of progressive abdominal distension and weight loss. He was cachexic, anaemic, had gross hepatomegaly and ascites. He had been born prematurely with a birth weight of 1.23 kg, and his developmental milestones were delayed. Ultrasound and CT scan demonstrated a large solid tumour in the left lobe of the liver with a smaller superficial nodule in the right lobe. Serum alpha fetoprotein was significantly raised. A left lobe hepatectomy and complete excision of the right sided nodule was performed. There was no evidence of metastatic disease. Histopathological examination confirmed hepatoblastoma of the fetal type. The patient developed features of intestinal obstruction a few days after surgery and he succumbed ten days after re-laparotomy. The clinical presentation and investigation results in this case are characteristic. Recent reports have suggested a strong relationship between very low birth weight (< 1500gm)/prematurity and hepatoblastoma as is present in this case. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy in hepatoblastoma. A brief review of the literature on this tumour is presented.
  11. Kaur G, Ismail R, Harun H
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):117-8.
    PMID: 17191395
    Metastatic eyelid tumours are rare and account for less than 2% of all eyelid neoplasms. We report a case of metastatic breast carcinoma to the eyelid in a 60-year-old Chinese lady presenting with a 2-year history of enlarging, painless nodular lower eyelid swelling. The 1 cm diameter lesion was provisionally diagnosed as a sebaceous cyst. However the excision biopsy revealed a mucinous carcinoma expressing oestrogen receptor protein. She had a past history of mastectomy one year previously and histology showed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (oestrogen receptor status negative) without evidence of axillary lymph node metastasis. She had completed adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy. Further treatment of the current lesion involved a wide excision which did not show any residual malignancy. She had no other evidence of metastasis and was treated with letrozol. We highlight this case to create awareness among clinicians and opthalmologists on the possibility of metastatic disease as a cause of eyelid swelling, especially in patients with a history of cancer. It may also be the first sign of metastatic disease of an internal malignancy. A review of the literature is also presented.
  12. Kaur G, Raj SM, Naing NN
    PMID: 12236416
    Most patients with trichuriasis have light worm burdens. Data regarding the inflammatory response to Trichuris worms in the colon of lightly infected persons are scant. Nine patients whose Trichuris infection was found by colonoscopy had biopsies taken from a site adjacent to visible worms and from a second site some 20 cm distally. The biopsies were studied by routine and immunohistochemical methods. None of the biopsies showed mucosal ulceration, significant congestion, fibrosis, gland distortion or goblet cell mucin depletion. There was no difference between worm and worm-free sites in terms of edema, lymphoid follicles or epithelial slough. Worm sites had higher numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils and total inflammatory cells and lower numbers of plasma cells. However there was no difference in lymphocyte, mast cell, and B- and T-cell counts between the two sites. This suggests that the T. trichiura worm incites a local inflammatory response involving eosinophils and neutrophils, even when the colon has only a light burden of worms.
  13. Kaur G, Naik VR, Rahman MNG
    Singapore Med J, 2004 Mar;45(3):125-6.
    PMID: 15029415
    Diffusely-infiltrating mucinous adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis associated with lithiasis and chronic gout is reported in a 61-year-old Malay man. The patient underwent left nephrectomy and vesiculo-lithotomy. This tumour is postulated to arise in response to chronic irritation of the urothelium.
  14. Chong YM, Kaur G, Tan ML
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2019 Aug;21(8):754-771.
    PMID: 30606060 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2018.1520704
    Andrographolide, a major bioactive compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, was evaluated for its effects on the hOAT1 membrane transporter. Substrate determination and inhibition of hOAT1-mediated uptake transport assay was carried out using recombinant CHO-hOAT1 cells. The results showed that the uptake ratio of andrographolide was less than 2.0 at all concentrations tested, indicating that andrographolide is not a hOAT1 substrate. Andrographolide has no significant effects on the p-aminohippuric acid uptake and on the mRNA and protein expression of hOAT1. In conclusion, andrographolide may not pose a drug-herb interaction risk related to hOAT1.
  15. Kaur G, Balasubramaniam SD, Lee YJ
    Exp Mol Pathol, 2020 04;113:104362.
    PMID: 31870856 DOI: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2019.104362
    OBJECTIVE: Increased expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, IGFBP-2, is associated with many cancers, though its role in cervical cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of IGFBP-2 protein and the transcriptomics profile of genes involved in the IGF signaling pathway during cervical cancer development.

    DESIGN: Immunohistochemical expression of IGFBP-2 protein was semi-quantitatively assessed in tissue microarrays containing 9 normal cervix, 10 low grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (LGCIN), 10 high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HGCIN) and 42 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. The gene expression profiles of IGFBP-2, IGF-1, IGF-1R, PTEN, MDM2, AKT1 and TP53 were determined in three cervical tissue samples each from normal cervix, human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected LGCIN, HGCIN and SCC, using Human Transcriptome Array 2.0.

    RESULTS: IGFBP-2 protein was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of SCC cells compared to normal cervix (p = .013). The expression was not significantly associated with CIN grade or SCC stage. Transcriptomics profiling demonstrated upregulation of IGFBP-2 and TP53 in HGCIN and SCC compared to normal cervix. IGF-1, IGF-1R and PTEN genes were downregulated in all histological groups. IGF-1 gene was significantly downregulated in SCC (p = .031), while PTEN gene was significantly downregulated in HGCIN (p = .012), compared to normal cervix. MDM2 and AKT1 genes were downregulated in LGCIN and HGCIN, while upregulated in SCC.

    CONCLUSION: In cervical carcinogenesis, IGFBP-2 appears to play an oncogenic role, probably through an IGF-independent mechanism.

  16. Kamaruzaman NA, Sulaiman SA, Kaur G, Yahaya B
    PMID: 24886260 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-176
    Honey is widely used in folk medicine to treat cough, fever, and inflammation. In this study, the effect of aerosolised honey on airway tissues in a rabbit model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma was investigated. The ability of honey to act either as a rescuing agent in alleviating asthma-related symptoms or as a preventive agent to preclude the occurrence of asthma was also assessed.
  17. Kunasundari B, Murugaiyah V, Kaur G, Maurer FH, Sudesh K
    PLoS One, 2013;8(10):e78528.
    PMID: 24205250 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078528
    Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha) was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP) in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.
  18. Kaur G, Tee GH, Ariaratnam S, Krishnapillai AS, China K
    BMC Fam Pract, 2013;14:69.
    PMID: 23710584 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-14-69
    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent condition in Malaysia, increasing from 11.6% in 2006 to 15.2% in 2011 among individuals 18 years and above. Co-morbid depression in diabetics is associated with hyperglycemia, diabetic complications and increased health care costs. The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence and predictors of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in Type II diabetics attending government primary care facilities in the urban area of Klang Valley, Malaysia.
  19. Pant I, Joshi SC, Kaur G, Kumar G
    Indian J Dermatol, 2010 Oct;55(4):390-2.
    PMID: 21430899 DOI: 10.4103/0019-5154.74566
    Pilomatricoma (PMC) is a relatively uncommon benign skin neoplasm arising from the skin adnexa. Since the first description of PMC in 1880, there has been a gradual increase in understanding of the morphologic features and clinical presentation of this tumor. However, difficulties still persist in making clinical and cytologic diagnosis. We report the clinical and histopathological findings of two cases of pilomatricoma. In case 1, a 10-year-old girl presented with a right upper back mass. In case 2, a nine-year-old girl presented with a left ear lobe mass. The clinical findings in both the cases were suggestive of epidermoid/dermoid cyst. However, subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed these cases as pilomatricoma. This report reveals that pilomatricoma is a frequently misdiagnosed entity in clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to create awareness among clinicians on the possibility of pilomatricoma as a cause of solitary skin nodules, especially those on the head, neck or upper extremities.
  20. Moad AI, Tan ML, Kaur G, Mabruk M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(12):6239-44.
    PMID: 23464438
    BACKGROUND: The basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). BCC might develop because of the faulty cell cycle arrest. P15INK4b is a tumor suppressor gene, involved in cell cycle arrest and inactivated in most human cancers. The role of p15INK4b protein expression in the genesis of BCC is as yet unknown. In a previous study we showed the absence of p15INK4b expression in the majority of tissue microarray cores of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs), another type of non-melanoma skin cancer, indicating that p15INK4b could possibly be involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC. The aim of this study was to investigate p15INK4b protein expression in BCCs.

    MATERIALS AND METHOD: Protein expression of p15INK4b in 35 cases of BCC tissue arrays and 19 cases of normal human skin tissue was studied using an immunohistochemical approach.

    RESULTS: The expression of p15INK4b was not significantly different in the BCC cases as compared with normal human skin (p=0.356; p>0.05). In addition, there were no significant relationship between clinicopathologic variables of patients (age and sex) and p15INK4b protein expression.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our finding may indicate that p15INK4b protein expression does not play a role in the genesis of BCC.

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