Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 284 in total

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  1. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Med Virol, 2020 11;92(11):2401-2402.
    PMID: 32470199 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26090
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  2. Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  3. Reddy AV, Jaafar J, Umar K, Majid ZA, Aris AB, Talib J, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2015 Mar;38(5):764-79.
    PMID: 25556762 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201401143
    Potential genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals at trace levels are of increasing concern to both pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies due to their possibility for human carcinogenesis. Molecular functional groups that render starting materials and synthetic intermediates as reactive building blocks for small molecules may also be responsible for their genotoxicity. Determination of these genotoxic impurities at trace levels requires highly sensitive and selective analytical methodologies, which poses tremendous challenges on analytical communities in pharmaceutical research and development. Experimental guidance for the analytical determination of some important classes of genotoxic impurities is still unavailable in the literature. Therefore, the present review explores the structural alerts of commonly encountered potential genotoxic impurities, draft guidance of various regulatory authorities in order to control the level of impurities in drug substances and to assess their toxicity. This review also describes the analytical considerations for the determination of potential genotoxic impurities at trace levels and finally few case studies are also discussed for the determination of some important classes of potential genotoxic impurities. It is the authors' intention to provide a complete strategy that helps analytical scientists for the analysis of such potential genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis*
  4. Wong TW
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2008 Apr;5(2):77-84.
    PMID: 18393808
    Microwave has received a widespread application in pharmaceuticals and food processing, microbial sterilization, biomedical therapy, scientific and biomedical analysis, as well as, drug synthesis. This paper reviews the basis of application of microwave to prepare pharmaceutical dosage forms such as agglomerates, gel beads, microspheres, nanomatrix, solid dispersion, tablets and film coat. The microwave could induce drying, polymeric crosslinkages as well as drug-polymer interaction, and modify the structure of drug crystallites via its effects of heating and/or electromagnetic field on the dosage forms. The use of microwave opens a new approach to control the physicochemical properties and drug delivery profiles of pharmaceutical dosage forms without the need for excessive heat, lengthy process or toxic reactants. Alternatively, the microwave can be utilized to process excipients prior to their use in the formulation of drug delivery systems. The intended release characteristics of drugs in dosage forms can be met through modifying the physicochemical properties of excipients using the microwave.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage; Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  5. Rehman FU, Shah KU, Shah SU, Khan IU, Khan GM, Khan A
    Expert Opin Drug Deliv, 2017 Nov;14(11):1325-1340.
    PMID: 27485144 DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2016.1218462
    INTRODUCTION: Lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS) are the most promising technique to formulate the poorly water soluble drugs. Nanotechnology strongly influences the therapeutic performance of hydrophobic drugs and has become an essential approach in drug delivery research. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) are a vital strategy that combines benefits of LBDDS and nanotechnology. SNEDDS are now preferred to improve the formulation of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Areas covered: The review in its first part shortly describes the LBDDS, nanoemulsions and clarifies the ambiguity between nanoemulsions and microemulsions. In the second part, the review discusses SNEDDS and elaborates on the current developments and modifications in this area without discussing their associated preparation techniques and excipient properties. Expert opinion: SNEDDS have exhibit the potential to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. The stability of SNEDDS is further increased by solidification. Controlled release and supersaturation can be achieved, and are associated with increased patient compliance and improved drug loads, respectively. Presence of biodegradable ingredients and ease of large-scale manufacturing combined with a lot of 'drug-targeting opportunities' give SNEDDS a clear distinction and prominence over other solubility enhancement techniques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage; Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  6. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Chatterjee B, Mandal UK, Sengupta P, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(17):2504-2531.
    PMID: 27908273 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666161201143600
    BACKGROUND: Most of the active pharmaceutical ingredients discovered recently in pharmaceutical field exhibits poor aqueous solubility that pose major problem in their oral administration. The oral administration of these drugs gets further complicated due to their short bioavailability, inconsistent absorption and inter/intra subject variability.

    METHODS: Pharmaceutical emulsion holds a significant place as a primary choice of oral drug delivery system for lipophilic drugs used in pediatric and geriatric patients. Pharmacokinetic studies on nanoemulsion mediated drugs delivery approach indicates practical feasibility in regards to their clinical translation and commercialization.

    RESULTS: This review article is to provide an updated understanding on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of nanoemulsion delivered via oral, intravenous, topical and nasal route.

    CONCLUSION: The article is of huge interest to formulation scientists working on range of lipophilic drug molecules intended to be administered through oral, intravenous, topical and nasal routes for vivid medical benefits.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage*; Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  7. Ibrahim WAW, Wahib SMA, Hermawan D, Sanagi MM
    Methods Mol Biol, 2019;1985:407-416.
    PMID: 31069749 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9438-0_24
    Particular attention has been paid to capillary electrophoresis as versatile and environmentally friendly approach for enantioseparations of a wide spectrum of compounds. Cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) is a method of choice to provide effective separation toward hydrophobic and uncharged stereoisomers. The chiral discrimination of the solutes relies upon the partitioning between a given CD in the aqueous phase and micelles formed from a surfactant. Synergistic combinations of chiral selectors, surfactant, and modifier contribute to successful enantioseparations of the enantiomers. In this chapter, an application of CD-MEKC for the enantioseparation of selected imidazole drugs employing a dual CDs system is described.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/isolation & purification; Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry
  8. Karim AA, Azlan A
    Molecules, 2012 Oct 10;17(10):11931-46.
    PMID: 23052712 DOI: 10.3390/molecules171011931
    Fruit pods contain various beneficial compounds that have biological activities and can be used as a source of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. Although pods or pericarps are usually discarded when consuming the edible parts of fruits, they contain some compounds that exhibit biological activities after extraction. Most fruit pods included in this review contain polyphenolic components that can promote antioxidant effects on human health. Additionally, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and chemopreventive effects are associated with these fruit pod extracts. Besides polyphenolics, other compounds such as xanthones, carotenoids and saponins also exhibit health effects and can be potential sources of nutraceutical and pharmaceutical components. In this review, information on fruit pods or pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, Ceratonia siliqua, Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Sapindus rarak and Prosopis cineraria is presented and discussed with regard to their biological activity of the major compounds existing in them. The fruit pods of other ethno- botanical plants have also been reviewed. It can be concluded that although fruit pods are considered as being of no practical use and are often being thrown away, they nevertheless contain compounds that might be useful sources of nutraceutical and other pharmaceutical components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry*
  9. Al Azzam KM, Saad B, Aboul-Enein HY
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2010 Sep;24(9):948-53.
    PMID: 20082285 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1390
    Capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C(4)D) has been employed for the determination of atenolol and amiloride in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetic acid (150 mm) was used as background electrolyte. The influence of several factors (detector excitation voltage and frequency, buffer concentration, applied voltage, capillary temperature and injection time) was studied. Non-UV-absorbing L-valine was used as internal standard; the analytes were all separated in less than 7 min. The separation was carried out in normal polarity mode at 28 degrees C, 25 kV and using hydrodynamic injection (25 s). The separation was effected in an uncoated fused-silica capillary (75 microm, i.d. x 52 cm). The CE-C(4)D method was validated with respect to linearity, limit of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and selectivity. Calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 microg/mL for the studied analytes. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day migration times and corrected peak areas were less than 6.0%. The method showed good precision and accuracy and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of atenolol and amiloride in different pharmaceutical tablet formulations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis*
  10. Winzeler RL
    Halcyon, 1985;7:77-91.
    PMID: 11617027
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/history*
  11. Kanakaraju D, Glass BD, Oelgemöller M
    J Environ Manage, 2018 Aug 01;219:189-207.
    PMID: 29747102 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.04.103
    Pharmaceuticals, which are frequently detected in natural and wastewater bodies as well as drinking water have attracted considerable attention, because they do not readily biodegrade and may persist and remain toxic. As a result, pharmaceutical residues pose on-going and potential health and environmental risks. To tackle these emerging contaminants, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) such as photo-Fenton, sonolysis, electrochemical oxidation, radiation and ozonation etc. have been applied to remove pharmaceuticals. These processes utilize the high reactivity of hydroxyl radicals to progressively oxidize organic compounds to innocuous products. This review provides an overview of the findings from recent studies, which have applied AOPs to degrade pharmaceutical compounds. Included is a discussion that links various factors of TiO2-mediated photocatalytic treatment to its effectiveness in degrading pharmaceutical residues. This review furthermore highlights the success of AOPs in the removal of pharmaceuticals from different water matrices and recommendations for future studies are outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  12. Phing SH, Mazhorova A, Shalaby M, Peccianti M, Clerici M, Pasquazi A, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:8551.
    PMID: 25711343 DOI: 10.1038/srep08551
    Terahertz technologies recently emerged as outstanding candidates for a variety of applications in such sectors as security, biomedical, pharmaceutical, aero spatial, etc. Imaging the terahertz field, however, still remains a challenge, particularly when sub-wavelength resolutions are involved. Here we demonstrate an all-optical technique for the terahertz near-field imaging directly at the source plane. A thin layer (<100 nm-thickness) of photo carriers is induced on the surface of the terahertz generation crystal, which acts as an all-optical, virtual blade for terahertz near-field imaging via a knife-edge technique. Remarkably, and in spite of the fact that the proposed approach does not require any mechanical probe, such as tips or apertures, we are able to demonstrate the imaging of a terahertz source with deeply sub-wavelength features (<30 μm) directly in its emission plane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  13. Trache D, Hussin MH, Haafiz MK, Thakur VK
    Nanoscale, 2017 Feb 02;9(5):1763-1786.
    PMID: 28116390 DOI: 10.1039/c6nr09494e
    Cellulose nanocrystals, a class of fascinating bio-based nanoscale materials, have received a tremendous amount of interest both in industry and academia owing to its unique structural features and impressive physicochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, renewability, low density, adaptable surface chemistry, optical transparency, and improved mechanical properties. This nanomaterial is a promising candidate for applications in fields such as biomedical, pharmaceuticals, electronics, barrier films, nanocomposites, membranes, supercapacitors, etc. New resources, new extraction procedures, and new treatments are currently under development to satisfy the increasing demand of manufacturing new types of cellulose nanocrystals-based materials on an industrial scale. Therefore, this review addresses the recent progress in the production methodologies of cellulose nanocrystals, covering principal cellulose resources and the main processes used for its isolation. A critical and analytical examination of the shortcomings of various approaches employed so far is made. Additionally, structural organization of cellulose and nomenclature of cellulose nanomaterials have also been discussed for beginners in this field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  14. Loh YC, Tan CS, Yam MF, Oo CW, Omar WMW
    J Pharmacopuncture, 2018 Sep;21(3):203-206.
    PMID: 30283708 DOI: 10.3831/KPI.2018.21.024
    Objectives: There is an increasing number of complex diseases that are progressively more difficult to be controlled using the conventional "single compound, single target" approach as demonstrated in our current modern drug development. TCM might be the new cornerstone of treatment alternative when the current treatment option is no longer as effective or that we have exhausted it as an option. Orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group study is one of the most frequently employed formulas to produce optimal herbal combination for treatment of multi-syndromic diseases. This approach could solve the relatively low efficacy single drug therapy usage and chronic adverse effects caused by long terms administration of drugs that has been reported in the field of pharmacology and medicine.

    Methods: The present review was based on the Science Direct database search for those related to the TCM and the development of antihypertensive TCM herbal combination using orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group studies approach.

    Results: Recent studies have demonstrated that the orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility group study approach was most frequently used to formulate TCM herbal combination based on the TCM principles upon the selection of herbs, and the resulting formulated TCM formula exhibited desired outcomes in treating one of global concerned complex multi-syndromic diseases, the hypertension. These promising therapeutic effects were claimed to have been attributed by the holistic signaling mechanism pathways employed by the crude combination of herbs.

    Conclusion: The present review could serve as a guide and prove the feasibility of TCM principles to be used for future pharmacological drug research development.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  15. Shwter AN, Abdullah NA, Alshawsh MA, El-Seedi HR, Al-Henhena NA, Khalifa SA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 Aug 1.
    PMID: 27492327 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.002
    Natural products are important ingredients for pharmaceutical applications specifically new entities for treating cancer and other diseases. Phaleria macrocarpa is native of Indonesia and considered as a prolific source of bioactive substances useful for chemoprevention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  16. Vakili M, Amouzgar P, Cagnetta G, Wang B, Guo X, Mojiri A, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2019 Oct 16;11(10).
    PMID: 31623271 DOI: 10.3390/polym11101701
    A composite chitosan/nano-activated carbon (CS-NAC) aminated by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) was prepared in the form of beads and applied for the removal of acetaminophen from aqueous solutions. NAC and APTES concentrations were optimized to obtain a suitable adsorbent structure for enhanced removal of the pharmaceutical. The aminated adsorbent (CS-NAC-APTES beads) prepared with 40% w/w NAC and 2% v/v APTES showed higher adsorption capacity (407.83 mg/g) than CS-NAC beads (278.4 mg/g). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis demonstrated that the surface area of the CS-NAC-APTES beads was larger than that of CS-NAC beads (1.16 times). The adsorption process was well fitted by the Freundlich model (R2 > 0.95), suggesting a multilayer adsorption. The kinetic study also substantiated that the pseudo-second-order model (R2 > 0.98) was in better agreement with the experimental data. Finally, it was proved that the prepared beads can be recycled (by washing with NaOH solution) at least 5 times before detectable performance loss.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  17. Thevendran R, Sarah S, Tang TH, Citartan M
    J Control Release, 2020 07 10;323:530-548.
    PMID: 32380206 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.04.051
    Aptamers are a class of folded nucleic acid strands capable of binding to different target molecules with high affinity and selectivity. Over the years, they have gained a substantial amount of interest as promising molecular tools for numerous medical applications, particularly in targeted therapeutics. However, only the different treatment approaches and current developments of aptamer-drug therapies have been discussed so far, ignoring the crucial technical and functional aspects of constructing a therapeutically effective aptamer-driven drug delivery system that translates to improved in-vivo performance. Hence, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the strategies used to improve the therapeutic performance of aptamer-guided delivery systems. We focus on the different functional features such as drug deployment, payload capacity, in-vivo stability and targeting efficiency to further our knowledge in enhancing the cell-specific delivery of aptamer-drug conjugates. Each reported strategy is critically discussed to emphasize both the benefits provided in comparison with other similar techniques and to outline their potential drawbacks with respect to the molecular properties of the aptamers, the drug and the system to be designed. The molecular architecture and design considerations for an efficient aptamer-based delivery system are also briefly elaborated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  18. Dubey SK, Parab S, Dabholkar N, Agrawal M, Singhvi G, Alexander A, et al.
    Drug Discov Today, 2021 Jan 11.
    PMID: 33444788 DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2021.01.001
    Peptides and proteins have emerged as potential therapeutic agents and, in the search for the best treatment regimen, the oral route has been extensively evaluated because of its non-invasive and safe nature. The physicochemical properties of peptides and proteins along with the hurdles in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), such as degrading enzymes and permeation barriers, are challenges to their delivery. To address these challenges, several conventional and novel approaches, such as nanocarriers, site-specific and stimuli specific delivery, are being used. In this review, we discuss the challenges to the oral delivery of peptides and the approaches used to tackle these challenges.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  19. Juhlin K, Karimi G, Andér M, Camilli S, Dheda M, Har TS, et al.
    Drug Saf, 2015 Apr;38(4):373-82.
    PMID: 25687792 DOI: 10.1007/s40264-015-0271-2
    Substandard medicines, whether the result of intentional manipulation or lack of compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP) or good distribution practice (GDP), pose a significant potential threat to patient safety. Spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting systems can contribute to identification of quality problems that cause unwanted and/or harmful effects, and to identification of clusters of lack of efficacy. In 2011, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) constructed a novel algorithm to identify reporting patterns suggestive of substandard medicines in spontaneous reporting, and applied it to VigiBase(®), the World Health Organization's global individual case safety report database. The algorithm identified some historical clusters related to substandard products, which were later able to be confirmed in the literature or by contact with national centres (NCs). As relevant and detailed information is often lacking in the VigiBase reports but might be available at the reporting NC, further evaluation of the algorithm was undertaken with involvement from NCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/standards*
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