Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 431 in total

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  1. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Med Virol, 2020 11;92(11):2401-2402.
    PMID: 32470199 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.26090
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  2. Olasupo A, Suah FBM
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 03 15;406:124317.
    PMID: 33307454 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124317
    The presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine-disrupting compounds in aquatic systems is a matter of great concern. The occurrence, fate, and potential toxicity of these compounds have triggered the interest of the scientific community. As a result of their high solubility and low volatility, they are common in aquatic systems, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are the main reservoir for these contaminants. Conventional WWTPs have demonstrated an inability to remove these contaminants completely; hence, different advanced treatment processes have been explored to compensate for the lapses of the conventional system. The outcome of this study revealed the significant improvements made using advanced treatment processes to diminish the number of contaminants; however, some contaminants have proven to be refractory. Thus, there is a need to modify various advanced treatment processes or employ additional treatment processes. Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) are a liquid membrane technology that is highly efficient at removing contaminants from water. They have been widely studied for the removal of heavy metals and nutrients from aquatic systems; however, only a few studies have investigated the use of PIMs to remove pharmaceutically active compounds from aquatic systems. This research aims to raise awareness on the application of PIMs as a promising water treatment technology which has a great potential for the remediation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in the aquatic system, due to its versatility, ease/low cost of preparation and high contaminant selectivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  3. Chan Y, MacLoughlin R, Zacconi FC, Tambuwala MM, Pabari RM, Singh SK, et al.
    Nanomedicine (Lond), 2021 07;16(16):1351-1355.
    PMID: 33998829 DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2021-0087
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  4. Ahmady A, Abu Samah NH
    Int J Pharm, 2021 Oct 25;608:121037.
    PMID: 34438009 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.121037
    Bioadhesive polymers offer versatility to medical and pharmaceutical inventions. The incorporation of such materials to conventional dosage forms or medical devices may confer or improve the adhesivity of the bioadhesive systems, subsequently prolonging their residence time at the site of absorption or action and providing sustained release of actives with improved bioavailability and therapeutic outcomes. For decades, much focus has been put on scientific works to replace synthetic polymers with biopolymers with desirable functional properties. Gelatine has been considered one of the most promising biopolymers. Despite its biodegradability, biocompatibility and unique biological properties, gelatine exhibits poor mechanical and adhesive properties, limiting its end-use applications. The chemical modification and blending of gelatine with other biomaterials are strategies proposed to improve its bioadhesivity. Here we discuss the classical approaches involving a variety of polymer blends and composite systems containing gelatine, and gelatine modifications via thiolation, methacrylation, catechol conjugation, amination and other newly devised strategies. We highlight several of the latest studies on these strategies and their relevant findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  5. Nabgan W, Jalil AA, Nabgan B, Ikram M, Ali MW, Ankit Kumar, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Feb;288(Pt 2):132535.
    PMID: 34648794 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132535
    The growing prevalence of new toxins in the environment continues to cause widespread concerns. Pharmaceuticals, organic pollutants, heavy metal ions, endocrine-disrupting substances, microorganisms, and others are examples of persistent organic chemicals whose effects are unknown because they have recently entered the environment and are displaying up in wastewater treatment facilities. Pharmaceutical pollutants in discharged wastewater have become a danger to animals, marine species, humans, and the environment. Although their presence in drinking water has generated significant concerns, little is known about their destiny and environmental effects. As a result, there is a rising need for selective, sensitive, quick, easy-to-handle, and low-cost early monitoring detection systems. This study aims to deliver an overview of a low-cost carbon-based composite to detect and remove pharmaceutical components from wastewater using the literature reviews and bibliometric analysis technique from 1970 to 2021 based on the web of science (WoS) database. Various pollutants in water and soil were reviewed, and different methods were introduced to detect pharmaceutical pollutants. The advantages and drawbacks of varying carbon-based materials for sensing and removing pharmaceutical wastes were also introduced. Finally, the available techniques for wastewater treatment, challenges and future perspectives on the recent progress were highlighted. The suggestions in this article will facilitate the development of novel on-site methods for removing emerging pollutants from pharmaceutical effluents and commercial enterprises.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  6. Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations
  7. Reddy AV, Jaafar J, Umar K, Majid ZA, Aris AB, Talib J, et al.
    J Sep Sci, 2015 Mar;38(5):764-79.
    PMID: 25556762 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201401143
    Potential genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals at trace levels are of increasing concern to both pharmaceutical industries and regulatory agencies due to their possibility for human carcinogenesis. Molecular functional groups that render starting materials and synthetic intermediates as reactive building blocks for small molecules may also be responsible for their genotoxicity. Determination of these genotoxic impurities at trace levels requires highly sensitive and selective analytical methodologies, which poses tremendous challenges on analytical communities in pharmaceutical research and development. Experimental guidance for the analytical determination of some important classes of genotoxic impurities is still unavailable in the literature. Therefore, the present review explores the structural alerts of commonly encountered potential genotoxic impurities, draft guidance of various regulatory authorities in order to control the level of impurities in drug substances and to assess their toxicity. This review also describes the analytical considerations for the determination of potential genotoxic impurities at trace levels and finally few case studies are also discussed for the determination of some important classes of potential genotoxic impurities. It is the authors' intention to provide a complete strategy that helps analytical scientists for the analysis of such potential genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis*
  8. Ng PQ, Ling LSC, Chellian J, Madheswaran T, Panneerselvam J, Kunnath AP, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2020;26(36):4580-4590.
    PMID: 32520681 DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666200610111013
    Many plant-based bioactive compounds have been serving as the origin of drugs since long ago and many of them have been proven to have medicinal value against various chronic diseases, including, cancer, arthritis, hepatic diseases, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, their clinical applications have been limited due to their poor water solubility, stability, low bioavailability and extensive transformation due to the first-pass metabolism. The applications of nanocarriers have been proven to be able to improve the delivery of bioactive phytoconstituents, resulting in the enhancement of various pharmacokinetic properties and thereby increasing the therapeutic value of phytoconstituents. These biocompatible nanocarriers also exert low toxicity to healthy cells. This review focuses on the uses and applications of different types of nanocarriers to enhance the delivery of phytoconstituents for the treatment of various chronic diseases, along with comparisons related to bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nano phytoconstituents with native phytoconstituents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  9. Kow CS, Hasan SS
    J Infect, 2021 02;82(2):e19.
    PMID: 32956731 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.09.017
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  10. Younas A, Naqvi SA, Khan MR, Shabbir MA, Jatoi MA, Anwar F, et al.
    J Food Biochem, 2020 09;44(9):e13332.
    PMID: 32588917 DOI: 10.1111/jfbc.13332
    Date palm counts among the oldest fruit crops of the world and is mainly cultivated for its highly nutritious fruits consumed as a staple food in many countries, especially in the Gulf region. Dates are enriched with numerous therapeutic bioactives and functional compounds such as phenolics, flavonols, carotenoids, minerals, and vitamins that not only provide an appreciable amount of energy required for the human body but also act as an effective therapeutic agent against several diseases. This review aimed to provide a deep insight into the nutritional as well as phytochemicals profile of date fruit and its seeds in order to explore their biological (anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory properties), functional food, and nutra-pharmaceutical attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This review provides updated information regarding the date fruits and seeds phytochemicals composition together with highlighting dates potential as a natural therapeutic agent against several diseases. The study also urges the importance of consuming dates as a great package to live a healthy life due to the functional food and nutraceutical properties of this valuable fruit. The study also provides information first time as recommending dates to cope with the hidden hunger or micronutrient deficiency faced by the third world inhabitants. Hence, the review may further help the industry and researchers to explore the potential of dates for future medicinal and nutra-pharmaceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  11. Hossain SM, Mozar FS, Chowdhury EH
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 11 01;19(11):6881-6892.
    PMID: 32098646 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2019.16718
    Inorganic nanoparticles are commonly employed as vectors for delivering drugs into cancer cells while decreasing undesired cytotoxicity in healthy tissues. Carbonate apatite is an attractive nonviral vector that releases drugs at acidic environment inside the cells following endocytosis. However, maintaining the smaller particle size is crucial for enhancing cellular uptake of drugs as well as prolonging their systemic circulation time. We aimed to modify carbonate apatite with citrate for reducing the growth kinetics of carbonate apatite particles and enhancing the cellular uptake of cyclophosphamide via endocytosis. Several concentrations of sodium citrate were used to fabricate citrate-modified carbonate apatite (CMCA) particle complexes in absence or presence of cyclophosphamide. The binding affinity of the drug towards the particles and its cellular uptake were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The nanoparticles' average size and zeta potential were determined by Malvern Zetasizer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to justify association of citrate with carbonate apatite. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cell viability. CMCA exhibited 6% more binding efficiency for cyclophosphamide and promoted fast cellular uptake of cyclophosphamide with enhanced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, compared to unmodified carbonate apatite. Therefore, CMCA nanoparticles have a high potential for intracellular delivery of anti-cancer drugs and demand for further investigated in animal models of cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  12. Parvizpour S, Hussin N, Shamsir MS, Razmara J
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Feb;105(3):899-907.
    PMID: 33427934 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-020-11074-0
    Psychrophiles are cold-living microorganisms synthesizing enzymes that are permanently active at almost near-zero temperatures. Psychrozymes are supposed to be structurally more flexible than their homologous proteins. This structural flexibility enables these proteins to undergo conformational changes during catalysis and improve catalytic efficiency at low temperatures. The outstanding characteristics of the psychrophilic enzymes have attracted the attention of the scientific community to utilize them in a wide variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. In this review, we first highlight the current knowledge of the cold-adaptation mechanisms of the psychrophiles. In the sequel, we describe the potential applications of the enzymes in different biotechnological processes specifically, in the production of industrial and pharmaceutical products. KEY POINTS: • Methods that organisms have evolved to survive and proliferate at cold environments. • The economic benefits due to their high activity at low and moderate temperatures. • Applications of the psychrophiles in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  13. Ahmad NS, Makmor-Bakry M, Hatah E
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2020 10;16(10):1359-1369.
    PMID: 31987771 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.01.002
    BACKGROUND: Drug price transparency is defined as readily available information on the price of pharmaceutical drugs to either authorities or consumers. Price transparency, together with other information, helps define the value of drugs and enables informed decision making. It has also been used as a reference in drug price setting mechanisms in some countries' pricing policies.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the evidence available: 1) on government initiatives to mandate transparency in drug pricing worldwide, 2) on the reported effects of drug pricing transparency initiatives on drug price, and 3) on the limitations and barriers of the implementation of drug pricing transparency.

    METHODS: Databases such as Medline-Ovid, Cochrane Central Register, PubMed, and Science Direct were used to search for relevant literature from inception to February 2018. A manual search of grey literature such as policy papers, governmental publications, and websites was also performed to obtain the information that was not available in the articles. Using narrative synthesis, the results were critically assessed and summarized according to its context of drug pricing approaches.

    RESULTS: Of the 4382 relevant articles located, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria for drug price transparency initiatives. Only 3 studies reported the outcomes on the regulation of drug prices. Two studies in South Africa showed that price transparency initiatives did not necessarily reduce drug prices. Another study in the Philippines indicated a reduction in medicines' price based on the effects of government-mediated access prices. The limitations and barriers in price transparency initiatives include fragmentation of the healthcare system and nondisclosure of discounts and rebates by pharmaceutical companies.

    CONCLUSION: Drug pricing transparency initiatives have been implemented in many countries and commonly coexist with a country's pricing policies. Nevertheless, due to sparse evidence, the effect of drug price transparency initiatives on price control is still inconclusive.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  14. Khan AH, Aziz HA, Khan NA, Dhingra A, Ahmed S, Naushad M
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Nov 10;794:148484.
    PMID: 34217082 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148484
    The occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic ecosystem is an emerging concern of environmentalists. This study primarily investigated the seasonal variation of high-priority pharmaceutical residues in the Yamuna River, accompanied by 22 drains discharge from different parts of Delhi. Five sampling sites were selected for analyzing high-priority pharmaceuticals along with physico-chemical and biological parameters for 3 season's viz. pre-monsoon (PrM), monsoon (DuM), and post-monsoon (PoM), respectively. The maximum occurrences were detected during the PoM, compared to the PrM and DuM seasons. The maximum concentration of BOD, COD, and Phosphate was detected at the last sampling station (SP-5). Similarly, all targeted pharmaceuticals concentration were maximum at the last sampling point i.e. Okhla barrage (SP-5, max: DIC = 556.1 ng/l, IBU = 223.4 ng/l, CAR = 183.1 ng/l, DIA = 457.8 ng/l, OFL = 1726.5 ng/l, FRU = 312.2 ng/l and SIM = 414.9 ng/l) except at Barapulla downstream (SP-4, max: ERY = 178.1 ng/l). The mean concentrations of Fecal coliform (FC) ranged from 1700 to 6500 CFU/100 ml. The maximum colonies were detected in PrM season (6500 CFU/100 ml) followed by PoM (5800 CFU/100 ml) and least in DuM (1700 CFU/100 ml). Risk quotient (RQ) analysis of high-priority pharmaceuticals indicated high ecotoxicological risks exposure (>1) from DIC, DIA, OFL, and SIM in all seasons at all the sampling sites. However, lower risk was predicted for IBU, CAR, ERY, and FRU, respectively. This risk assessment indicated an aquatic ecosystem potentially exposed to high risks from these pharmaceutical residues. Moreover, seasonal agricultural application, rainfall, and temperature could influence the levels and compositions of pharmaceutical residue in the aquatic ecosystem. Hence, attention is required particularly to this stream since it is only a local lifeline source for urban consumers for domestic water supply and farmers for cultivation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  15. Ferraro CF, Stewart DE, Grebely J, Tran LT, Zhou S, Puca C, et al.
    Addiction, 2021 07;116(7):1664-1676.
    PMID: 33140543 DOI: 10.1111/add.15316
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Globally, nearly one in five people who inject drugs (PWID) are living with HIV, and the rate of new HIV infections in PWID is increasing in some settings. Early diagnosis is crucial for effective HIV control. We reviewed the evidence on the association between opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and HIV testing uptake among PWID.

    METHODS: We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsycINFO for studies published from January 2000 to March 2019. Reference lists and conference proceedings were hand-searched. Observational and intervention studies were eligible for inclusion. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models.

    RESULTS: Of 13 373 records identified, 11 studies from Australia, Europe, Malaysia and the United States were included. All studies had at least a serious risk of bias, largely due to confounding and selection bias, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions from the evidence. Ten studies provided data on the association between current OAT use and recent HIV testing. Six showed a positive association, while four provided little evidence of an association: pooled odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-2.27. Looking at having ever been on OAT and having ever been HIV tested, seven studies showed a positive association and three showed either weak or no evidence of an association: pooled OR = 3.82, 95% CI = 2.96-4.95.

    CONCLUSIONS: Opioid agonist therapy may increase uptake of HIV testing among people who inject drugs, providing further evidence that opioid agonist therapy improves the HIV treatment care cascade.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  16. Md Hamzah N, See KF
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2021 Oct 19;21(1):1119.
    PMID: 34663311 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-021-06786-6
    BACKGROUND: Policymakers are faced with the challenge of balancing patient's access for effective and affordable medicines to sustain the rising healthcare costs. In a mixed healthcare market such as Malaysia, coverage decisions of new medicines are different: public funded health system has a formulary listing process whereas for private sector, which is a market-based economy, depends on patient's willingness to pay and insurance coverage. There is little overlap between public and private healthcare service delivery with access to new innovative medicines, as differentiated by sources of funding. The objectives of this study were to examine the diffusion of New Chemical Entities (NCEs) into the public and private healthcare market between 2010 and 2014, and determine the factors explaining the diffusion.

    METHODS: We matched medicines from the product registration database by medicine formulation to medicines in IQVIA National Pharmaceutical Audit database for each year. The price per Defined Daily Dose (DDD), market concentration and generic utilization share variables were calculated. A panel fixed effect model was performed to measure diffusion of NCEs for each year and test possible determinants of diffusion of NCEs for overall market and sector specifics.

    RESULTS: The utilization of NCEs was larger in the private sector compared to the public sector but the speed of diffusion over time was higher in the public sector. Price per DDD was negatively associated with diffusion of NCEs, while generic utilization share was significantly regressive in the public sector. Market concentration was negatively associated with utilization of NCEs, however result tends to be mixed according to sector and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) category.

    CONCLUSIONS: Understanding key aspects of sectoral variation in diffusion of NCEs are crucial to reduce the differences of access to new medicines within a country and ensure resources are used on cost effective treatments.

    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  17. Goh CF, O'Flynn D, Speller R, Lane ME
    Micron, 2021 06;145:103045.
    PMID: 33689970 DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2021.103045
    Drug crystallisation in the skin is recognised as a significant problem in topical and transdermal drug delivery. Our recent investigations provided new evidence of drug crystallisation in the skin, however, confirming the precise location of crystals remains challenging. Of note, most approaches used have required disruption of the membrane by tape stripping, with crystal detection limited to the superficial skin layers. Hence, a non-destructive method for complete spatial resolution of crystallised drug in skin is still lacking. In this communication, we report the application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) to examine drug crystallisation in mammalian skin ex vivo. Permeation studies of a saturated solution of diclofenac sodium were conducted in porcine skin; subsequently, tissue samples were scanned using microCT to generate 2D and 3D maps. A layer of drug crystals was observed on the skin surface; microCT maps also confirmed the distribution of drug crystals up to a skin depth of 0.2 - 0.3 mm. MicroCT also allowed the identification of drug crystallisation as a distinct and confirmed event in the skin and as an extension from drug crystals formed on the skin. These preliminary results confirm the potential of microCT to study this important phenomenon in topical and transdermal drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  18. Dai C, Li S, Duan Y, Leong KH, Tu Y, Zhou L
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Dec 20;801:149730.
    PMID: 34467938 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149730
    Pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment have raised wide attention in recent years due to their potential adverse effects and bioaccumulation in biota. China has been a major producer and consumer of pharmaceuticals, however, the potential human health risk of these chemicals is yet to be determined in China. In this study, we evaluated available exposure data for twenty pharmaceuticals in surface waters from Chinese five major river basins (the Yangtze, Haihe, Pearl, Songliao, and Yellow River Basins), and human health risk assessment was performed. Based on the concentration data and risk data, we conducted research on the source, cause, and control measures of the pharmaceuticals. The twenty pharmaceuticals were found to be ubiquitous in China with median concentrations between 0.09 and 304 ng/L. The estimated daily intake of pharmaceuticals from drinking water and eating fish was calculated. The intake via drinking water was significantly lower than that via eating fish. The risk quotients via water intake and fish consumption ranged from 0 to 17.2, with estrogen and sulfapyridine highest among the twenty pharmaceuticals. High risks of exposure were mainly in North China, including the Haihe and Songliao River Basins. This is the first analysis in Chinese major river basins that has filled the gaps in the research on the human health risks of pharmaceuticals. The results of the study provide basic information of pharmaceutical intake from drinking water and eating fish in China and provide insights into the risk management guidance of pharmaceuticals, and will facilitate the optimization of health advisories and policy making.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  19. Mohd Hanafiah Z, Wan Mohtar WHM, Abd Manan TSB, Bachi' NA, Abdullah NA, Abd Hamid HH, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;287(Pt 2):132134.
    PMID: 34517236 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132134
    The water stream has been reported to contain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), released from households and premises through discharge from Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). This research identifies commonly consumed NSAIDs namely ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KET) and naproxen (NAP) in the influent wastewater from two urban catchments (i.e. 2 STPs). We expand our focus to assess the efficiency of monomer (C18) and dimer (HLB) types of sorbents in the solid phase extraction method followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis and optimize model prediction of NSAIDs in the influent wastewater using I-Optimal design. The ecological risk assessment of the NSAIDs was evaluated. The HLB produced reliable analysis for all NSAIDs under study (STP1: 6.7 × 10-3 mg L-1 to 2.21 × 10-1 mg L-1, STP2: 1.40 × 10-4 mg L-1 to 9.72 × 10-2 mg L-1). The C18 however, selective to NAP. Based on the Pearson proximity matrices, the DICHLB can be a good indicator for IBUHLB (0.565), NAPC18 (0.721), NAPHLB (0.566), and KETHLB (0.747). The optimized model prediction for KET and NAP based on DIC are successfully validated. The risk quotients (RQ) values of NSAIDs were classified as high (RQ > 1), medium (RQ, 0.1-1) and low (RQ, 0.01-0.1) risks. The optimized models are beneficial for major NSAIDs (KET and NAP) monitoring in the influent wastewater of urban domestic area. An upgrade on the existing wastewater treatment infrastructure is recommended to counteract current water security situation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
  20. Abdul Halim NA, Hussein MZ, Kandar MK
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2021;16:6477-6496.
    PMID: 34584412 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S298936
    Hydroxyapatite is a basic mineral that is very important to the human body framework. Recently, synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) and its nanocomposites (HANs) are the subject of intense research for bone tissue engineering and drug loading system applications, due to their unique, tailor-made characteristics, as well as their similarities with the bone mineral component in the human body. Although hydroxyapatite has good biocompatibility and osteoconductive characteristics, the poor mechanical strength restricts its use in non-load-bearing applications. Consequently, a rapid increase in reinforcing of other nanomaterials into hydroxyapatite for the formation of HANs could improve the mechanical properties. Most of the research reported on the success of other nanomaterials such as metals, ceramics and natural/synthetic polymers as additions into hydroxyapatite is reviewed. In addition, this review also focuses on the addition of various substances into hydroxyapatite for the formation of various HANs and at the same time to try to minimize the limitations so that various bone tissue engineering and drug loading system applications can be exploited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Pharmaceutical Preparations*
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