MATERIALS & METHODS: BZD9L1 was tested against metastatic CRC cell lines to evaluate cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis, senescence, apoptosis related genes and protein expressions, as well as effect against major cancer signaling pathways.
RESULTS & CONCLUSION: BZD9L1 reduced the viability, cell migration and colony forming ability of both HCT 116 and HT-29 metastatic CRC cell lines through apoptosis. BZD9L1 regulated major cancer pathways differently in CRC with different mutation profiles. BZD9L1 exhibited anticancer activities as a cytotoxic drug in CRC and as a promising therapeutic strategy in CRC treatment.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Recent studies have demonstrated a potent anticancer potential of P. macrocarpa, especially against HeLa cell. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation of miRNAs on MDA-MB-231 treated with P. macrocarpa ethyl acetate fraction (PMEAF).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regulation of miRNAs on MDA-MB-231 cells treated with PMEAF was studied through IIlumina, Hi-Seq. 2000 platform of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and various in silico bioinformatics tools.
RESULTS: The PMEAF treatment against MDA-MB-231 cells identified 10 upregulated and 10 downregulated miRNAs. A set of 606 target genes of 10 upregulated miRNAs and 517 target genes of 10 downregulated miRNAs were predicted based on computational and validated databases by using miRGate DB Query. Meanwhile, results from DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.8 specified the functional annotation of the upregulated miRNAs involvement in cancer pathway by suppressing the oncogenes and downregulating miRNAs by expressing the tumour suppressor genes in the regulation of apoptosis pathway.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results of this study proved that PMEAF is a promising anticancer agent with high cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and it induced apoptotic cell death mechanism through the regulation of miRNAs. PMEAF might be the best candidate for developing more potent anticancer drugs or chemo preventive supplements.
METHODOLOGY: MCM2, 4, 5 and 7 genes expression profiles were evaluated in three cervical tissue samples each of normal cervix, human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), using Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 and validated by nCounter® PanCancer Pathway NanoString Array. Immunohistochemical expression of MCM2 protein was semi-quantitatively assessed by histoscore in tissue microarrays containing 9 cases of normal cervix, 10 LSIL, 10 HSIL and 42 cases of SCC.
RESULTS: MCM2, 4, 5 and 7 genes expressions were upregulated with increasing fold change during the progression from LSIL to HSIL and the highest in SCC. MCM2 gene had the highest fold change in SCC compared to normal cervix. Immunohistochemically, MCM2 protein was localised in the nuclei of basal cells of normal cervical epithelium and dysplastic-neoplastic cells of CIN and SCC. There was a significant difference in MCM2 protein expression between the histological groups (P = 0.039), and histoscore was the highest in HSIL compared to normal cervix (P = 0.010).
CONCLUSION: The upregulation of MCM genes expressions in cervical carcinogenesis reaffirms MCM as a proliferative marker in DNA replication pathway, whereby proliferation of dysplastic and cancer cells become increasingly dysregulated and uncontrolled. A strong expression of MCM2 protein in HSIL may aid as a concatenated screening tool in detecting pre-cancerous cervical lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples each of normal cervix, HPV-infected low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Transcriptomic profiling by microarrays was conducted followed by downstream Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses.
RESULTS: We examined the difference in GOs enriched for each transition stage from normal cervix to LSIL, HSIL, and SCC, and found 307 genes to be differentially expressed. In the transition from normal cervix to LSIL, the extracellular matrix (ECM) genes were significantly downregulated. The MHC class II genes were significantly upregulated in the LSIL to HSIL transition. In the final transition from HSIL to SCC, the immunoglobulin heavy locus genes were significantly upregulated and the ECM pathway was implicated.
CONCLUSION: Deregulation of the immune-related genes including MHC II and immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were involved in the transitions from LSIL to HSIL and SCC, suggesting immune escape from host anti-tumour response. The extracellular matrix plays an important role during the early and late stages of cervical carcinogenesis.