This study aimed to test the effect of modality imagery training via video tapes and audio tapes to improve the performance of overhead service skills in volleyball. 45 subjects who followed the volleyball professional course in Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) were selected for this test and they were randomly divided into three groups: video, audio group and control group. Russel-Lange Volleyball Test was used to obtain data on the overhead service performance. The results showed significant differences in overhead service performance before and after participants were exposed to the methods of video and audio tapes. There were also significant differences in overhead service performance among the video, audio, and control group. The study should that the introduction of audio and video imagery method may helps improve the overhead service skills performance in volley ball.
Context: Question vetting is important to ensure validity, reliability, and other quality indicators of assessment tools, including the MCQ. Faculty members invest a substantial amount of time and effort into the MCQ vetting process. However, there is shortage of scientific evidence showing its effectiveness and at which level it needs to be focused on. This study aimed to provide scientific evidence regarding the effects of question vetting process on students’ examination performance by looking at their scores and pass-fail outcomes.
Method: A parallel randomized control trial was conducted on third year medical students in a medical school. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups (i.e. control and experimental). Two mock examinations were conducted (i.e. time I and time II). At time I, non-vetted MCQs were administered to both groups as a baseline measurement. At time II, vetted MCQs were administered to the experimental group, while the same non-vetted MCQs were administered to the control group.
Results: Out of 203 students, 129 (63.5%) participated in both mock examinations. 65 students were in the control group and 64 students were in the experimental group. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean examination scores and pass-fail outcomes between or within the control and experimental groups.
Conclusion: This study indicated that the MCQ vetting process did not influence examination performance. Despite these findings, the MCQ vetting process should still be considered an important activity to ensure that test items are developed at the highest quality and standards. However, it can be suggested that such activity can be done at the departmental level rather than at the central level.
This quasi experimental study is aimed to determine the effect of 8 weeks physical exercise training program among 219 obese an overweight National Service Training Program (NSTP). It is a purposive sampling and divide to experimental group (n = 110) and control group (n = 109). Body fat (BFP) measured using Omron Karada Scan HBF 375 with Height Scale. The experimental group underwent 8 weeks physical exercise program using the NSTP wellness module. The module contains 18 low intensity training, 40 moderate intensity training and 14 high intensity training with 8 psychological sessions. Analysis showed a significant difference between pre-test and post-test after 8 weeks in experimental group. There was a greater decrease BFP (-1.44%) and weight (-2.03%). The control group showed slightly increase in BFP (+2.97%) but decrease weight (-0.28%). This means the intervention program very effective and manage to reduce the BFP and weight among 18 years old obese and overweight NSTP in Malaysia.
This study aims to identify the role of mathematical representation as a mediator between mathematical belief and problem solving. A quasi-experimental design was developed that included 426 Form 1 secondary school students. Respondents comprised 209 and 217 students in the treatment and control groups, respectively. SPSS 23.0, ANATES 4 and Amos 18 were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that mathematical representation plays a significant role as mediator between mathematical belief and arithmetic problem solving. The Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach successfully increased the arithmetic problem-solving ability of students.
The mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the veneered
porcelain and the ceramic core has been primarily identified as the cause of core/veneer chipping
in all-ceramic restorations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodalite infiltration on the
CTE behaviour and bond strength of different all-ceramic prostheses. Materials and Methods: The
experimental groups were synthesised sodalite-infiltrated alumina (IA-SOD) and synthesised
sodalite-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) (IZ-SOD), while the control groups were glassinfiltrated alumina (IA-glass) and glass-infiltrated ZTA (IZ-glass). (Copied from article).
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease which can be prevented by increasing awareness and promoting preventive health behaviours among high risk groups including wet market workers. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Leptospirosis Health Intervention Program (LHIP) in improving knowledge, attitude, belief and practice towards leptospirosis among wet market workers in Kelantan. This intervention study was conducted in two main wet markets in Kelantan involving 116 participants in each control and intervention groups. The health education intervention was based on Leptospirosis Health Intervention Module. The knowledge, attitude, belief and practice scores were measured before and six weeks after the intervention to examine the effect of the program. The results showed that knowledge (p < 0.001), attitude (p = 0.001), belief (p < 0.001) and practice (p < 0.001) scores changes were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The adjusted mean differences were 12.93 (95% CI: 8.47, 17.39) for knowledge, 5.55 (95% CI: 2.28, 8.81) for attitude, 7.21 (95% CI: 3.43, 10.99) for belief and 7.35 (95% CI: 3.64, 11.05) for practice scores. Leptospirosis Health Intervention Program was an effective health educational tools to improve awareness and preventive behaviours among risk groups such as wet market workers.
The beneficial impact of the differential biofeedback intervention technique on modification in autonomic competence, as well as the ultimate impact on bilateral shooting ability, were studied on young and competitive male soccer players. A total of 45 young high-performing soccer players in the age range of 18 to 24 years were recruited. At first, the players were subjected to baseline evaluation of psychomotor (i.e., reaction time - RT), physiological (viz. resting heart-rate; VO2Max, electrical muscle potentiality, etc.), and psychobiological indices (such as skin conductance components - latency, amplitude and recovery time). Thereafter, they were equally categorized into: Control Group, Experimental Group I [who received skin conductance (Sc) biofeedback training], and Experimental Group II [who received electromyography (EMG) biofeedback intervention training]. Participants of the experimental groups were subjected to their respective interventions (Sc & EMG biofeedback intervention training), which were imparted for 24 sessions (15 mins/day; 2 days/week for 12 weeks). After six weeks of intervention, mid-term evaluation of all of the aforementioned parameters (assessed during baseline evaluation) was performed. Thereafter, intervention sessions continued following the identical protocol for six weeks. At the end of the 12th week, a post-intervention assessment on all of the psychological, psychomotor and psychobiological variables was carried out on all of the participants to verify the effect of training on dependent measures. Post-intervention analyses revealed improvements in physiological, psychobiological and performance parameters, which could be rationally attributed to the differential biofeedback therapeutic interventions introduced to the experimental groups. The outcome suggested that both interventions facilitated improvement in bilateral shooting ability, while indepth analyses clarified that a higher extent of autonomic recovery emerged as the most significant factor facilitating shooting ability in the experimental groups.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft in reducing post-surgical pocket depth in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were selected for this study. The bony defects were matched for tooth type, location and pocket depth. Following an initial non-surgical treatment, only pockets of 5 to 7 mm deep were indicated for surgery. Periodontal pockets were measured pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgically. The study protocol included a split mouth design, where surgical treatment was carried out at both test and control sites. The test sites were assigned demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft and the control sites were subjected to debridement alone without the use of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft. The results from this study showed a statistically significant difference in the mean pocket depth at 6 and 9 months post-operatively for both test and control groups, but there was no statistically significant difference at 3 months. In conclusion, demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft was ineffective in reducing periodontal pocket depth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
Introduction: Self-awareness and reflective-skill are important components of personal and professional development of medical students.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether self awareness and reflective skill could be improved by direct teaching intervention.
Method: This was a cross sectional intervention study conducted among 75 third year medical students of UKM Medical Centre Malaysia in 2010. Malaysian Emotional Quotient Inventory (MEQI) was used to measure self-awareness and reflective writing scripts were used to measure the reflective skills of the respondents before and after teaching intervention. Experimental group comprised of 30 students while the control group constituted the rest 45 students selected randomly. The factors contributing to self awareness with gender and learning styles were determined.
Result: There was no significant improvement observed in self-awareness of the respondents but reflective skills was significantly improved (p=0.007) following intervention. A non-significant relationship between self-awareness and gender (p=0.588) as well as self-awareness and learning styles (p=0.435) was also noticed.
Conclusion: It is concluded that intervention programs improved students' reflective skills but not their self-awareness. Effectiveness of the intervention programme is an important factor. Continuous effort should be focused to train students in an effective way in order to be more self-reflective, self-regulative as well as self-corrective, to ensure a high level of personal and professional development in their daily practices.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was synthesized via wet method using calcium nitrate hydrate (Ca(NO3)2.H2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) as raw materials. Powder obtained was milled using various milling speed ranging from 250 to 400 r.p.m. and sintered at 1300°C for 2hrs. Due to the nature of HA powder that decomposed at high temperature, XRD technique have been used in this work to determine the phase composition of the HA powder and also the crystallite size. The unmilled sample was used as the control group. Results show that sufficient heat supply generated from the milling process, initiates the decomposition of HA phase into ȕ-tricalcium phosphate (ȕ-TCP). Decomposition of HA starts to occur at the milling speed of 300 rpm, i.e the formation of ȕ-TCP was occurred at lower sintering temperature. It was believed that the decomposition of HA was associated with the formation of an intermediate phase, oxyapatite. Moreover, the crystallinity and particle size of the produced powder is very much affected by the milling speed and the stability of the HA. All milled powders possess spherical shape particle.
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft (DFDBBX) in minimizing post-surgical recession in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were matched for the tooth type, location of defects and periodontal pocket depth (5 to 7mm). Following an initial nonsurgical treatment, recession at defects indicated for surgery was measured pre-operatively. Surgical treatment was carried out by split mouth design, where the test sites were assigned DFDBBX and the control sites were subjected to debridement without the use of DFDBBX. Recessions were measured at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months post-operatively. The results showed no statistically significant difference in mean recession at 3, 6 and 9 months post-operatively compared to baseline for both test and control groups. Thus, DFDBBX was ineffective in minimizing recession on patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salivary testing in dental caries assessment. The role of saliva flow rate, pH, viscosity and buffering capacity in subjects with high caries (DMFT>5) (group 1) against subjects with low caries (DMFT=0) (control group) were evaluated. 40 subjects between the age of 18 and 40 years old were selected (20 subjects control group and 20 subjects group 1). By using a salivary testing kit (GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd, Japan), each subject underwent test such as hydration status of the oral mucosa, viscosity and pH of resting saliva, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva. The results showed that the flow rate, viscosity, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in subjects of group 1 (DMFT>5) was significantly lower (p
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education intervention among university students in terms of social, psychological factors and nutrition-related Quality of Life (NQoL) outcomes after receiving a 10-week nutrition education. Longitudinal and randomised study design was adopted for the study. Methods: A total of 417 respondents from four public universities in Terengganu were randomly assigned to either intervention group (IG = 205) or control group (CG = 212). The IG received nutrition education through three tools; 1) conventional lecture, 2) brochures and 3) text messages via short messaging system (SMS) while the CG not received any intervention. Students completed the Malay version of NQoL (6 domains; 49 items; Likert-type responses=1-5) and SF-36 (8 domains; 36 items) at pre-intervention and post-intervention. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS 16.0 utilising descriptive and parametric statistics. Results: Ninety-one percent of participants (IG = 178; CG = 202) completed the study (age = 19.1±1.1 years; female = 87.6%; Malay = 98.2%). After controlling for possible confounders (eg. weight, waist, hip circumferences and pre-intervention scores for each domain), IG possessed relatively higher NQoL score in Food Impact (p = 0.001), Social / Interpersonal (p = 0.008), Physical Functioning (p = 0.011) and Overall NQoL (p = 0.001). However, Psychological Factors did not show any significant difference for both groups. Conclusion: Although the intervention did not generate significant impact in the psychological component over a period of 10 weeks, significant positive impacts in Social/Interpersonal aspects and NQoL were clearly shown. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 15 (1): January - June 2014: 39-53.
Endodontically treated teeth are generally weaker than sound teeth. The study objective was to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with different restorative techniques. Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisors of similar size were divided into five groups of 10 teeth. Group 1 was left intact as the control group. Other groups (Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5) were all endodontically treated followed by restorations using different restorative techniques; light cured composite resin (CR), CR and crown, post and CR, and post-CR core and crown respectively. The specimens were loaded in a universal testing machine with a static force at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min at 135 ° to the long axis of the root until failure. The means and the standard deviations of the maximum load at failure for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1259.11N (379.12N), 578.63N (196.70N), 667.13N (298.72N), 1247.65N (294.48N) and 623.60N (193.75N) respectively. The results of one-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences existed among the groups tested (p
Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess: i) the staining susceptibility of composite resins, ii) the ability of whitening toothpastes in removing stains from composite resins.
Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens from each composite resins: Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Beautifil (Shofu Inc.) were fabricated. After polishing, specimens were immersed in coffee for 3 days. Specimens were then brushed twice a day for 2 weeks using Colgate Total (Colgate-Palmolive, control group), Colgate Advanced Whitening (Colgate- Palmolive, test group) and Darlie All Shiny White (Hawley & Hazel Chemical Co., test group). Colour changes (?E*) were measured using Spectrophotometer at baseline, after coffee immersion and after brushing. Results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.
Results: There was significant difference in terms of colour changes for Filtek Z350, Filtek Z250 and Beautifil after coffee immersion (P0.05).
Conclusions: Filtek Z350 was able to resist staining by coffee better than Filtek Z250 and Beautifil. The whitening toothpastes did not offer added advantage in terms of ability to remove stains compared to ordinary toothpaste.
Background and Objective: Epilepsy and depression are interlinked and lead to an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide. Although depression is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation in epilepsy patients, epilepsy itself is independently associated with suicidal ideation. There are various other factors related to epilepsy that further increase this risk. Methods: We conducted a study of suicidal-ideation amongst epilepsy patients in our centre. Demographic data and clinical history were obtained while suicidal ideation was determined using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Beck’s Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) was used to identify presence of depression. Results: We recruited 80 patients with epilepsy and an equal number of controls. Epilepsy patients were more likely to be depressed with a mean BDI-II score of 9.09 ±6.48 compared to controls who has a mean score of 5.56 ±4.56. The proportion of epilepsy patients with suicidal ideation was 33.75% vs. 5.00% in the control group (p 3 anti-epileptic drugs or prior head surgery. Our findings suggest that assessment of suicidal ideation is pertinent in high-risk epilepsy patients and should be routinely carried out in the clinical setting.
This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of soursop (Annona muricata L.) extract on Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to in vivo 28-day repeated doses. The extract was given to the study group via force feeding. In the 28-day study, Annona muricata L. extract was dosed at 0 (CD, control dose), 0.5 (LD, low dose), 1.0 (MD, medium dose), 2.0g/kg (HD, high dose) body weight. For control group, distilled water was given to the animals. Administration of Annona muricata L. extract did not cause negative effect in blood hematology even though a statistically significant (p
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of the agility ladder drills in improving the dynamic balance ability of school children. Eighteen primary school male participants were assigned randomly into an experimental and control group respectively. The experimental group practiced the agility ladder drill activities for four weeks (three time a week) after school whereas the control group adhered to their normal daily routine without any intervention. Pre and post tests on dynamic balance were administered using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Statistical analyses using 2 group vs 3 tests ANOVA with repeated measures on the second factor showed no main effects between groups and tests. However, there was a significant interaction between group and test. The experimental group improved their dynamic balance score from pre- to post-test compared to the control group although no significant improvements were observed in the retention test. Agility ladder drills provide an additional approach to improve the dynamic balance of young children.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a two week reduction in training load on selected physiological and performance among junior cyclist. Twenty seven male junior cyclists (age= 16.6±0.7 years, height=165.6±6.1 cm, weight= 54.1±8.1 kg) were matched into either the control group (n=13) or the experimental group (n=14) using their initial VO2max values. Both groups followed a 12-week progressive endurance training program and subsequently, the experimental group (EXP) engaged in a two week tapering (recovery via a reduction in training loads) phase. The control group continued with their normal training routine. A simulated 20 km time trials performance and a graded exercise test on cycle ergometer were performed before and after endurance training and after the two week tapering protocol. Following the conclusion of the two week intervention or no intervention program both groups undertook a TT20km. Results showed no significant difference in the TT20km performance. Compared to the CON group, the EXP group showed significant changes in all the selected physiological variables tested, p
The growth performance of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.) was assessed over a period of six months through formulated feeds consisting of three seaweeds, namely Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Padina tetrastomatica and Stoechospermum marginatum. A relatively slow average growth rate (6.48 g/month) in fishes was observed in the control group. Meanwhile, the maximum and rapid growth rate (13.38 g/month) was observed with Feed-A supplemented with C. fastigiata. Similarly, a comparable growth rate was also observed with Feed-B (11.56 g/month) with P. tetrastomatica. However, the growth rate in fishes was relatively lower (9.05 g/month) with Feed-C containing seaweed S.marginatum. The growth rate in each month was also compared. The maximum attainable growth rate was found to be 12 g in the control group, whereas this was 30 g with Feed-A. The attainable growth was 20 g and 15 g with Feed-B and Feed-C, respectively. In the control group, the maximum increments in weight was recorded in the third (September) and fifth (November) months of rearing, and the increment was considerably reduced after that. The maximum increment in weight was in the second month (August) with Feed-A, and this was followed by a considerable decrease in subsequent months. A similar trend was observed with Feed-B and Feed-C. The biochemical composition of all the four feeds used in the present study showed approximately the same protein (0.45-0.50 mg/ ml) and lipid contents (0.6 mg/ml). Carbohydrate was the only parameter which showed a relatively significant effect (p