Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 141 in total

  1. Yusop Ahmad, Nur Haziyanti Mohamad Khalid, Trevor Glen Philip
    This study aimed to test the effect of modality imagery training via video tapes and audio tapes to improve the performance of overhead service skills in volleyball. 45 subjects who followed the volleyball professional course in Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) were selected for this test and they were randomly divided into three groups: video, audio group and control group. Russel-Lange Volleyball Test was used to obtain data on the overhead service performance. The results showed significant differences in overhead service performance before and after participants were exposed to the methods of video and audio tapes. There were also significant differences in overhead service performance among the video, audio, and control group. The study should that the introduction of audio and video imagery method may helps improve the overhead service skills performance in volley ball.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  2. Majed Mohammed Wadi, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Kamarul Aryffin Baharuddin
    Context: Question vetting is important to ensure validity, reliability, and other quality indicators of assessment tools, including the MCQ. Faculty members invest a substantial amount of time and effort into the MCQ vetting process. However, there is shortage of scientific evidence showing its effectiveness and at which level it needs to be focused on. This study aimed to provide scientific evidence regarding the effects of question vetting process on students’ examination performance by looking at their scores and pass-fail outcomes.

    Method: A parallel randomized control trial was conducted on third year medical students in a medical school. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups (i.e. control and experimental). Two mock examinations were conducted (i.e. time I and time II). At time I, non-vetted MCQs were administered to both groups as a baseline measurement. At time II, vetted MCQs were administered to the experimental group, while the same non-vetted MCQs were administered to the control group.

    Results: Out of 203 students, 129 (63.5%) participated in both mock examinations. 65 students were in the control group and 64 students were in the experimental group. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean examination scores and pass-fail outcomes between or within the control and experimental groups.

    Conclusion: This study indicated that the MCQ vetting process did not influence examination performance. Despite these findings, the MCQ vetting process should still be considered an important activity to ensure that test items are developed at the highest quality and standards. However, it can be suggested that such activity can be done at the departmental level rather than at the central level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  3. Norkhalid Salimin, Gunathevan Elumalai, Md Amin Md Taff, Yusop Ahmad, Nuzsep Almigo
    This quasi experimental study is aimed to determine the effect of 8 weeks physical exercise training program among 219 obese an overweight National Service Training Program (NSTP). It is a purposive sampling and divide to experimental group (n = 110) and control group (n = 109). Body fat (BFP) measured using Omron Karada Scan HBF 375 with Height Scale. The experimental group underwent 8 weeks physical exercise program using the NSTP wellness module. The module contains 18 low intensity training, 40 moderate intensity training and 14 high intensity training with 8 psychological sessions. Analysis showed a significant difference between pre-test and post-test after 8 weeks in experimental group. There was a greater decrease BFP (-1.44%) and weight (-2.03%). The control group showed slightly increase in BFP (+2.97%) but decrease weight (-0.28%). This means the intervention program very effective and manage to reduce the BFP and weight among 18 years old obese and overweight NSTP in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  4. Naji, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid, Ros Anita Omar, Rosiyah Yahya
    The mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the veneered
    porcelain and the ceramic core has been primarily identified as the cause of core/veneer chipping
    in all-ceramic restorations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodalite infiltration on the
    CTE behaviour and bond strength of different all-ceramic prostheses. Materials and Methods: The
    experimental groups were synthesised sodalite-infiltrated alumina (IA-SOD) and synthesised
    sodalite-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) (IZ-SOD), while the control groups were glassinfiltrated alumina (IA-glass) and glass-infiltrated ZTA (IZ-glass). (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  5. Rahman MHAA, Hairon SM, Hamat RA, Jamaluddin TZMT, Shafei MN, Idris N, et al.
    PMID: 29970799 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15071396
    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease which can be prevented by increasing awareness and promoting preventive health behaviours among high risk groups including wet market workers. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Leptospirosis Health Intervention Program (LHIP) in improving knowledge, attitude, belief and practice towards leptospirosis among wet market workers in Kelantan. This intervention study was conducted in two main wet markets in Kelantan involving 116 participants in each control and intervention groups. The health education intervention was based on Leptospirosis Health Intervention Module. The knowledge, attitude, belief and practice scores were measured before and six weeks after the intervention to examine the effect of the program. The results showed that knowledge (p < 0.001), attitude (p = 0.001), belief (p < 0.001) and practice (p < 0.001) scores changes were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The adjusted mean differences were 12.93 (95% CI: 8.47, 17.39) for knowledge, 5.55 (95% CI: 2.28, 8.81) for attitude, 7.21 (95% CI: 3.43, 10.99) for belief and 7.35 (95% CI: 3.64, 11.05) for practice scores. Leptospirosis Health Intervention Program was an effective health educational tools to improve awareness and preventive behaviours among risk groups such as wet market workers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  6. Salim NA, Muttlib NAA, Alawi R, Rahman NA, Ariffin Z
    Acta Stomatol Croat, 2018 Sep;52(3):218-226.
    PMID: 30510297 DOI: 10.15644/asc52/3/5
    Objective: This study aimed to compare the difference in marginal dye penetration between everStick, Parapost XP, Parapost fiber white and control groups under gradual loading.

    Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight human maxillary permanent incisors were divided into four groups. Each specimen was endodontically treated with step-back technique and prepared for each post system according to experimental groups, subsequently cemented in the canal. Composite resin cores were built and laboratory fabricated metal crowns were cemented. All specimens except those in the control group were subjected to thermal cycling. All groups were subjected to gradual loading from 0N-50N for 100 cycles. Specimens were sectioned transversely and the depths of dye penetration along the post were measured. Data were entered in SPSS ver. 22 and analyzed using two-way ANOVA test.

    Results: There was no significant difference in marginal dye penetration between each group (p-value>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in percentage of marginal dye penetration between all groups (p-value<0.05); post-hoc comparison showed significant difference between Fiber White and Control groups (p-value=0.009).

    Conclusion: All the groups showed dye penetration but the percentage was significant only between Parapost Fiber White and the control groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  7. Hu S, Anschuetz L, Huth ME, Sznitman R, Blaser D, Kompis M, et al.
    JMIR Res Protoc, 2019 Jan 09;8(1):e12270.
    PMID: 30626571 DOI: 10.2196/12270
    BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) studies indicate possible associations between tinnitus and changes in the neural activity. However, inconsistent results require further investigation to better understand such heterogeneity and inform the interpretation of previous findings.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the feasibility of EEG measurements as an objective indicator for the identification of tinnitus-associated neural activities.

    METHODS: To reduce heterogeneity, participants served as their own control using residual inhibition (RI) to modulate the tinnitus perception in a within-subject EEG study design with a tinnitus group. In addition, comparison with a nontinnitus control group allowed for a between-subjects comparison. We will apply RI stimulation to generate tinnitus and nontinnitus conditions in the same subject. Furthermore, high-frequency audiometry (up to 13 kHz) and tinnitometry will be performed.

    RESULTS: This work was funded by the Infrastructure Grant of the University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland and Bernafon AG, Bern, Switzerland. Enrollment for the study described in this protocol commenced in February 2018. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2019.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study design helps in comparing the neural activity between conditions in the same individual, thereby addressing a notable limitation of previous EEG tinnitus studies. In addition, the high-frequency assessment will help to analyze and classify tinnitus symptoms beyond the conventional clinical standard.


    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  8. Yuanita P, Zulnaidi H, Zakaria E
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(9):e0204847.
    PMID: 30261056 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204847
    This study aims to identify the role of mathematical representation as a mediator between mathematical belief and problem solving. A quasi-experimental design was developed that included 426 Form 1 secondary school students. Respondents comprised 209 and 217 students in the treatment and control groups, respectively. SPSS 23.0, ANATES 4 and Amos 18 were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that mathematical representation plays a significant role as mediator between mathematical belief and arithmetic problem solving. The Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach successfully increased the arithmetic problem-solving ability of students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  9. Bandyopadhyay A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2008 Jan;15(1):31-6.
    PMID: 22589612 MyJurnal
    Ninety two male brickfield workers and sixty sedentary individuals of 25-45 years were randomly selected from brickfields of West Bengal, India, to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength among male brickfield workers and to compare the data with their sedentary counterparts. Assessment of body composition by skinfold measurements and determination of hand grip strength (HGS) by hand grip dynamometer indicated significantly higher (p<0.001) fatness, skinfold values and body mass index (BMI) among the sedentary individuals though HGS and hand grip endurance were significantly higher (p<0.001) among brickfield workers. BMI and %fat values indicated that the subjects were non-obese and non-overweight and regression norms for prediction of %fat from BMI in both the groups were computed as follows : Control Group : Y = 1.647 X - 22.789 (r = 0.92, p<0.001, SEE = 1.01), Brick-field Workers : Y = 0.747 X - 8.398 (r = 0.78, p<0.001, SEE = 1.34). Percentage of lean body mass (%LBM) was significantly higher (p<0.001) among brickfield workers whereas absolute LBM value had insignificant variation because of significant difference (p<0.001) in body mass between the groups. The present investigation revealed that the daily labour of the brick-field workers hindered the accumulation of body fat and extensive use of their hand and finger muscles enabled them to achieve greater arm strength. The proposed norms for prediction of %fat from BMI will also provide a first-hand impression about the body composition in the studied population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  10. Baharuddin, N.A., Kamin, S., Samsuddin, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2005;12(1):-.
    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft (DFDBBX) in minimizing post-surgical recession in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were matched for the tooth type, location of defects and periodontal pocket depth (5 to 7mm). Following an initial nonsurgical treatment, recession at defects indicated for surgery was measured pre-operatively. Surgical treatment was carried out by split mouth design, where the test sites were assigned DFDBBX and the control sites were subjected to debridement without the use of DFDBBX. Recessions were measured at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months post-operatively. The results showed no statistically significant difference in mean recession at 3, 6 and 9 months post-operatively compared to baseline for both test and control groups. Thus, DFDBBX was ineffective in minimizing recession on patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  11. Baharuddin, N.A., Kamin, S., Samsuddin, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2003;10(1):-.
    This study evaluated the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft in reducing post-surgical pocket depth in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were selected for this study. The bony defects were matched for tooth type, location and pocket depth. Following an initial non-surgical treatment, only pockets of 5 to 7 mm deep were indicated for surgery. Periodontal pockets were measured pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgically. The study protocol included a split mouth design, where surgical treatment was carried out at both test and control sites. The test sites were assigned demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft and the control sites were subjected to debridement alone without the use of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft. The results from this study showed a statistically significant difference in the mean pocket depth at 6 and 9 months post-operatively for both test and control groups, but there was no statistically significant difference at 3 months. In conclusion, demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft was ineffective in reducing periodontal pocket depth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  12. Gopinath, V.K., Arzreanne , A.R.
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salivary testing in dental caries assessment. The role of saliva flow rate, pH, viscosity and buffering capacity in subjects with high caries (DMFT>5) (group 1) against subjects with low caries (DMFT=0) (control group) were evaluated. 40 subjects between the age of 18 and 40 years old were selected (20 subjects control group and 20 subjects group 1). By using a salivary testing kit (GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd, Japan), each subject underwent test such as hydration status of the oral mucosa, viscosity and pH of resting saliva, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva. The results showed that the flow rate, viscosity, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in subjects of group 1 (DMFT>5) was significantly lower (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  13. Michael, Mera Christina, Adam Husein, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Eshamsul Sulaiman
    Endodontically treated teeth are generally weaker than sound teeth. The study objective was to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with different restorative techniques. Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisors of similar size were divided into five groups of 10 teeth. Group 1 was left intact as the control group. Other groups (Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5) were all endodontically treated followed by restorations using different restorative techniques; light cured composite resin (CR), CR and crown, post and CR, and post-CR core and crown respectively. The specimens were loaded in a universal testing machine with a static force at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min at 135 ° to the long axis of the root until failure. The means and the standard deviations of the maximum load at failure for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1259.11N (379.12N), 578.63N (196.70N), 667.13N (298.72N), 1247.65N (294.48N) and 623.60N (193.75N) respectively. The results of one-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences existed among the groups tested (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  14. Chong SY, Lim TB, Seow LL
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2008;29(2):97-103.
    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess: i) the staining susceptibility of composite resins, ii) the ability of whitening toothpastes in removing stains from composite resins.
    Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens from each composite resins: Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Beautifil (Shofu Inc.) were fabricated. After polishing, specimens were immersed in coffee for 3 days. Specimens were then brushed twice a day for 2 weeks using Colgate Total (Colgate-Palmolive, control group), Colgate Advanced Whitening (Colgate- Palmolive, test group) and Darlie All Shiny White (Hawley & Hazel Chemical Co., test group). Colour changes (?E*) were measured using Spectrophotometer at baseline, after coffee immersion and after brushing. Results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.
    Results: There was significant difference in terms of colour changes for Filtek Z350, Filtek Z250 and Beautifil after coffee immersion (P0.05).
    Conclusions: Filtek Z350 was able to resist staining by coffee better than Filtek Z250 and Beautifil. The whitening toothpastes did not offer added advantage in terms of ability to remove stains compared to ordinary toothpaste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  15. Zahiri N, Abollahi I, Nabavi SM, Ehsani F, Arab AM, Shaw I, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(1):69-80.
    PMID: 28381930 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.1.8
    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most widespread disabling neurological condition in young adults around the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of explicit information (EI) on motor-sequence learning in MS patients.

    METHODS: Thirty patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), age: 29.5 (SD = 5.6) years and 30 healthy gender-, age-, and education-matched control group participants, age: 28.8 (SD = 6.0) years, were recruited for this study. The participants in the healthy group were then randomly assigned into an EI (n = 15) group and a no-EI (n = 15) group. Similarly, the participants in the control group were then randomly assigned into EI (n = 15) and no-EI (n = 15) groups. The participants performed a serial reaction time (SRT) task and reaction times. A retention test was performed after 48 hours.

    RESULTS: All participants reduced their reaction times across acquisition (MS group: 46.4 (SD = 3.3) minutes, P < 0.001, and healthy group: 39.4 (SD = 3.3) minutes, P < 0.001). The findings for the within-participants effect of repeated measures of time were significant (F(5.06, 283.7) = 71.33. P < 0.001). These results indicate that the interaction between group and time was significant (F(5.06, 283.7) = 6.44. P < 0.001), which indicated that the reaction time in both groups was significantly changed between the MS and healthy groups across times (B1 to B10). The main effect of the group (MS and healthy) (F(1, 56) = 22.78. P < 0.001) and also the main effect of no-EI vs EI (F(1, 56) = 4.71. P < 0.001) were significant.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that that RRMS patients are capable of learning new skills, but the provision of EI prior to physical practice is deleterious to implicit learning. It is sufficient to educate MS patients on the aim and general content of the training and only to provide feedback at the end of the rehabilitative session.

    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  16. Ahmad Fazlan Ghazalli, Mahamad Yusof Abdul Rani, Lee, Jeffrey Low Fook
    Journal of Sports Science and Physical Education 5(2): 53-60, 2016 – Many previous studies
    focus on attention has consistently demonstrated that an external focus (movement effect)
    enhances motor performance and learning relative to an internal focus (body movements).
    However, the effectiveness of the external focus direction and internal focus on the press
    behind neck lift not yet again compared among the weightlifter. Therefore, the aim of this
    study was to identify the three conditions (external focus, internal focus and control) that
    brings the best performance in the press behind neck. Besides that, a total of 30 athletes
    Selangor weightlifters performed the pre-test before they are divided into treatment groups
    (external focus and internal focus) and a control group. There are changes in the score in
    force between the test scores (pre, post and retention test) and the group will be analyzed
    using Two Way ANOVA Repeated Measure. The results showed that, there are the main
    effect of testing, F(2, 54) = 1671.065 p = 0.001 means there is a significant difference
    between pre-test and post-test . There is a main effect for group, F (2, 27) = 16,646, p =
    0.001. Meanwhile, there was a significant interaction between the test group f (4. 54) =
    378,732 p = 0.001. There are no significant differences between the three groups during the
    pre-test. However, in the post-test found an external focus groups (M = 51.5 kg, SP = 7.4)
    and an internal focus group (M = 49.5kg, SP = 6.6) is better and has significant differences to
    the control group (M = 30.5kg, SP= 6.9). Besides that, the external focus group retention test
    (M= 59.5 kg, SP=6.0) is better and has a significant difference compared with internal focus
    (M= 43.2kg, SP = 5.9) and the control group (M= 30.1, SP = 6.3). Therefore, the overall
    direction of a focus of external forces show better performance compared to focus on internal
    and groups are not given any specific instructions for long term programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  17. Syahida, M., Maskat, M. Y., Suri, R., Mamot, S., Hadijah, H.
    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of soursop (Annona muricata L.) extract on Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to in vivo 28-day repeated doses. The extract was given to the study group via force feeding. In the 28-day study, Annona muricata L. extract was dosed at 0 (CD, control dose), 0.5 (LD, low dose), 1.0 (MD, medium dose), 2.0g/kg (HD, high dose) body weight. For control group, distilled water was given to the animals. Administration of Annona muricata L. extract did not cause negative effect in blood hematology even though a statistically significant (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  18. Wan Putri Elena Wan Dali, Mohd Razif Shahril, Pei, Lin Lua
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2014;15(1):39-53.
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education intervention among university students in terms of social, psychological factors and nutrition-related Quality of Life (NQoL) outcomes after receiving a 10-week nutrition education. Longitudinal and randomised study design was adopted for the study. Methods: A total of 417 respondents from four public universities in Terengganu were randomly assigned to either intervention group (IG = 205) or control group (CG = 212). The IG received nutrition education through three tools; 1) conventional lecture, 2) brochures and 3) text messages via short messaging system (SMS) while the CG not received any intervention. Students completed the Malay version of NQoL (6 domains; 49 items; Likert-type responses=1-5) and SF-36 (8 domains; 36 items) at pre-intervention and post-intervention. Data analysis was carried out by using SPSS 16.0 utilising descriptive and parametric statistics. Results: Ninety-one percent of participants (IG = 178; CG = 202) completed the study (age = 19.1±1.1 years; female = 87.6%; Malay = 98.2%). After controlling for possible confounders (eg. weight, waist, hip circumferences and pre-intervention scores for each domain), IG possessed relatively higher NQoL score in Food Impact (p = 0.001), Social / Interpersonal (p = 0.008), Physical Functioning (p = 0.011) and Overall NQoL (p = 0.001). However, Psychological Factors did not show any significant difference for both groups. Conclusion: Although the intervention did not generate significant impact in the psychological component over a period of 10 weeks, significant positive impacts in Social/Interpersonal aspects and NQoL were clearly shown. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 15 (1): January - June 2014: 39-53.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  19. Siraj, Harlina H., Salam, A., Hani Azmina, C.M.N.A., Chong, S.H., Saidatul Akma, S., M. Faiz, K., et al.
    Introduction: Self-awareness and reflective-skill are important components of personal and professional development of medical students.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether self awareness and reflective skill could be improved by direct teaching intervention.

    Method: This was a cross sectional intervention study conducted among 75 third year medical students of UKM Medical Centre Malaysia in 2010. Malaysian Emotional Quotient Inventory (MEQI) was used to measure self-awareness and reflective writing scripts were used to measure the reflective skills of the respondents before and after teaching intervention. Experimental group comprised of 30 students while the control group constituted the rest 45 students selected randomly. The factors contributing to self awareness with gender and learning styles were determined.

    Result: There was no significant improvement observed in self-awareness of the respondents but reflective skills was significantly improved (p=0.007) following intervention. A non-significant relationship between self-awareness and gender (p=0.588) as well as self-awareness and learning styles (p=0.435) was also noticed.

    Conclusion: It is concluded that intervention programs improved students' reflective skills but not their self-awareness. Effectiveness of the intervention programme is an important factor. Continuous effort should be focused to train students in an effective way in order to be more self-reflective, self-regulative as well as self-corrective, to ensure a high level of personal and professional development in their daily practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  20. Hishamuddin Ahmad, Nur Akmal Ishak, Asmadi Ishak
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a two week reduction in training load on selected physiological and performance among junior cyclist. Twenty seven male junior cyclists (age= 16.6±0.7 years, height=165.6±6.1 cm, weight= 54.1±8.1 kg) were matched into either the control group (n=13) or the experimental group (n=14) using their initial VO2max values. Both groups followed a 12-week progressive endurance training program and subsequently, the experimental group (EXP) engaged in a two week tapering (recovery via a reduction in training loads) phase. The control group continued with their normal training routine. A simulated 20 km time trials performance and a graded exercise test on cycle ergometer were performed before and after endurance training and after the two week tapering protocol. Following the conclusion of the two week intervention or no intervention program both groups undertook a TT20km. Results showed no significant difference in the TT20km performance. Compared to the CON group, the EXP group showed significant changes in all the selected physiological variables tested, p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
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