Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 159 in total

  1. Su TT, Majid HA, Nahar AM, Azizan NA, Hairi FM, Thangiah N, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2017 11 06;17(1):864.
    PMID: 29110641 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4862-y
    After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that the methodology outlined in the original article was not able to be fully carried out. The article planned a two armed randomized control trial. However, due to a lower response than expected and one housing complex dropping out from the study, the method was changed to pre- and post-intervention with no control group. All other methods were conducted as outlined in the original article.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  2. Yusop Ahmad, Nur Haziyanti Mohamad Khalid, Trevor Glen Philip
    This study aimed to test the effect of modality imagery training via video tapes and audio tapes to improve the performance of overhead service skills in volleyball. 45 subjects who followed the volleyball professional course in Sultan Idris University of Education (UPSI) were selected for this test and they were randomly divided into three groups: video, audio group and control group. Russel-Lange Volleyball Test was used to obtain data on the overhead service performance. The results showed significant differences in overhead service performance before and after participants were exposed to the methods of video and audio tapes. There were also significant differences in overhead service performance among the video, audio, and control group. The study should that the introduction of audio and video imagery method may helps improve the overhead service skills performance in volley ball.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  3. Chinnannavar SN, Ashok L, Vidya KC, Setty SM, Narasimha GE, Garg R
    J Int Soc Prev Community Dent, 2015 Nov-Dec;5(6):446-50.
    PMID: 26759796 DOI: 10.4103/2231-0762.169211
    Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  4. Norkhalid Salimin, Gunathevan Elumalai, Md Amin Md Taff, Yusop Ahmad, Nuzsep Almigo
    This quasi experimental study is aimed to determine the effect of 8 weeks physical exercise training program among 219 obese an overweight National Service Training Program (NSTP). It is a purposive sampling and divide to experimental group (n = 110) and control group (n = 109). Body fat (BFP) measured using Omron Karada Scan HBF 375 with Height Scale. The experimental group underwent 8 weeks physical exercise program using the NSTP wellness module. The module contains 18 low intensity training, 40 moderate intensity training and 14 high intensity training with 8 psychological sessions. Analysis showed a significant difference between pre-test and post-test after 8 weeks in experimental group. There was a greater decrease BFP (-1.44%) and weight (-2.03%). The control group showed slightly increase in BFP (+2.97%) but decrease weight (-0.28%). This means the intervention program very effective and manage to reduce the BFP and weight among 18 years old obese and overweight NSTP in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  5. Majed Mohammed Wadi, Ahmad Fuad Abdul Rahim, Muhamad Saiful Bahri Yusoff, Kamarul Aryffin Baharuddin
    Context: Question vetting is important to ensure validity, reliability, and other quality indicators of assessment tools, including the MCQ. Faculty members invest a substantial amount of time and effort into the MCQ vetting process. However, there is shortage of scientific evidence showing its effectiveness and at which level it needs to be focused on. This study aimed to provide scientific evidence regarding the effects of question vetting process on students’ examination performance by looking at their scores and pass-fail outcomes.

    Method: A parallel randomized control trial was conducted on third year medical students in a medical school. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups (i.e. control and experimental). Two mock examinations were conducted (i.e. time I and time II). At time I, non-vetted MCQs were administered to both groups as a baseline measurement. At time II, vetted MCQs were administered to the experimental group, while the same non-vetted MCQs were administered to the control group.

    Results: Out of 203 students, 129 (63.5%) participated in both mock examinations. 65 students were in the control group and 64 students were in the experimental group. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean examination scores and pass-fail outcomes between or within the control and experimental groups.

    Conclusion: This study indicated that the MCQ vetting process did not influence examination performance. Despite these findings, the MCQ vetting process should still be considered an important activity to ensure that test items are developed at the highest quality and standards. However, it can be suggested that such activity can be done at the departmental level rather than at the central level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  6. Naji, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid, Ros Anita Omar, Rosiyah Yahya
    The mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the veneered
    porcelain and the ceramic core has been primarily identified as the cause of core/veneer chipping
    in all-ceramic restorations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodalite infiltration on the
    CTE behaviour and bond strength of different all-ceramic prostheses. Materials and Methods: The
    experimental groups were synthesised sodalite-infiltrated alumina (IA-SOD) and synthesised
    sodalite-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) (IZ-SOD), while the control groups were glassinfiltrated alumina (IA-glass) and glass-infiltrated ZTA (IZ-glass). (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  7. Yuanita P, Zulnaidi H, Zakaria E
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(9):e0204847.
    PMID: 30261056 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204847
    This study aims to identify the role of mathematical representation as a mediator between mathematical belief and problem solving. A quasi-experimental design was developed that included 426 Form 1 secondary school students. Respondents comprised 209 and 217 students in the treatment and control groups, respectively. SPSS 23.0, ANATES 4 and Amos 18 were used for data analysis. Findings indicated that mathematical representation plays a significant role as mediator between mathematical belief and arithmetic problem solving. The Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach successfully increased the arithmetic problem-solving ability of students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  8. Salim NA, Muttlib NAA, Alawi R, Rahman NA, Ariffin Z
    Acta Stomatol Croat, 2018 Sep;52(3):218-226.
    PMID: 30510297 DOI: 10.15644/asc52/3/5
    Objective: This study aimed to compare the difference in marginal dye penetration between everStick, Parapost XP, Parapost fiber white and control groups under gradual loading.

    Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight human maxillary permanent incisors were divided into four groups. Each specimen was endodontically treated with step-back technique and prepared for each post system according to experimental groups, subsequently cemented in the canal. Composite resin cores were built and laboratory fabricated metal crowns were cemented. All specimens except those in the control group were subjected to thermal cycling. All groups were subjected to gradual loading from 0N-50N for 100 cycles. Specimens were sectioned transversely and the depths of dye penetration along the post were measured. Data were entered in SPSS ver. 22 and analyzed using two-way ANOVA test.

    Results: There was no significant difference in marginal dye penetration between each group (p-value>0.05). However, there was a significant difference in percentage of marginal dye penetration between all groups (p-value<0.05); post-hoc comparison showed significant difference between Fiber White and Control groups (p-value=0.009).

    Conclusion: All the groups showed dye penetration but the percentage was significant only between Parapost Fiber White and the control groups.

    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  9. Hu S, Anschuetz L, Huth ME, Sznitman R, Blaser D, Kompis M, et al.
    JMIR Res Protoc, 2019 Jan 09;8(1):e12270.
    PMID: 30626571 DOI: 10.2196/12270
    BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) studies indicate possible associations between tinnitus and changes in the neural activity. However, inconsistent results require further investigation to better understand such heterogeneity and inform the interpretation of previous findings.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the feasibility of EEG measurements as an objective indicator for the identification of tinnitus-associated neural activities.

    METHODS: To reduce heterogeneity, participants served as their own control using residual inhibition (RI) to modulate the tinnitus perception in a within-subject EEG study design with a tinnitus group. In addition, comparison with a nontinnitus control group allowed for a between-subjects comparison. We will apply RI stimulation to generate tinnitus and nontinnitus conditions in the same subject. Furthermore, high-frequency audiometry (up to 13 kHz) and tinnitometry will be performed.

    RESULTS: This work was funded by the Infrastructure Grant of the University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland and Bernafon AG, Bern, Switzerland. Enrollment for the study described in this protocol commenced in February 2018. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2019.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study design helps in comparing the neural activity between conditions in the same individual, thereby addressing a notable limitation of previous EEG tinnitus studies. In addition, the high-frequency assessment will help to analyze and classify tinnitus symptoms beyond the conventional clinical standard.


    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  10. Bandyopadhyay A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2008 Jan;15(1):31-6.
    PMID: 22589612 MyJurnal
    Ninety two male brickfield workers and sixty sedentary individuals of 25-45 years were randomly selected from brickfields of West Bengal, India, to evaluate the body composition and hand grip strength among male brickfield workers and to compare the data with their sedentary counterparts. Assessment of body composition by skinfold measurements and determination of hand grip strength (HGS) by hand grip dynamometer indicated significantly higher (p<0.001) fatness, skinfold values and body mass index (BMI) among the sedentary individuals though HGS and hand grip endurance were significantly higher (p<0.001) among brickfield workers. BMI and %fat values indicated that the subjects were non-obese and non-overweight and regression norms for prediction of %fat from BMI in both the groups were computed as follows : Control Group : Y = 1.647 X - 22.789 (r = 0.92, p<0.001, SEE = 1.01), Brick-field Workers : Y = 0.747 X - 8.398 (r = 0.78, p<0.001, SEE = 1.34). Percentage of lean body mass (%LBM) was significantly higher (p<0.001) among brickfield workers whereas absolute LBM value had insignificant variation because of significant difference (p<0.001) in body mass between the groups. The present investigation revealed that the daily labour of the brick-field workers hindered the accumulation of body fat and extensive use of their hand and finger muscles enabled them to achieve greater arm strength. The proposed norms for prediction of %fat from BMI will also provide a first-hand impression about the body composition in the studied population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  11. Gopinath, V.K., Arzreanne , A.R.
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salivary testing in dental caries assessment. The role of saliva flow rate, pH, viscosity and buffering capacity in subjects with high caries (DMFT>5) (group 1) against subjects with low caries (DMFT=0) (control group) were evaluated. 40 subjects between the age of 18 and 40 years old were selected (20 subjects control group and 20 subjects group 1). By using a salivary testing kit (GC Asia Dental Pte Ltd, Japan), each subject underwent test such as hydration status of the oral mucosa, viscosity and pH of resting saliva, stimulated salivary flow rate and buffering capacity of stimulated saliva. The results showed that the flow rate, viscosity, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in subjects of group 1 (DMFT>5) was significantly lower (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  12. Baharuddin, N.A., Kamin, S., Samsuddin, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2003;10(1):-.
    This study evaluated the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft in reducing post-surgical pocket depth in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were selected for this study. The bony defects were matched for tooth type, location and pocket depth. Following an initial non-surgical treatment, only pockets of 5 to 7 mm deep were indicated for surgery. Periodontal pockets were measured pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 9 months post-surgically. The study protocol included a split mouth design, where surgical treatment was carried out at both test and control sites. The test sites were assigned demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft and the control sites were subjected to debridement alone without the use of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft. The results from this study showed a statistically significant difference in the mean pocket depth at 6 and 9 months post-operatively for both test and control groups, but there was no statistically significant difference at 3 months. In conclusion, demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft was ineffective in reducing periodontal pocket depth in patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  13. Baharuddin, N.A., Kamin, S., Samsuddin, A.R.
    Ann Dent, 2005;12(1):-.
    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of demineralized freeze-dried bone xenograft (DFDBBX) in minimizing post-surgical recession in moderate to advanced adult periodontitis in patients. Nine patients with a total of eighteen intrabony defects were matched for the tooth type, location of defects and periodontal pocket depth (5 to 7mm). Following an initial nonsurgical treatment, recession at defects indicated for surgery was measured pre-operatively. Surgical treatment was carried out by split mouth design, where the test sites were assigned DFDBBX and the control sites were subjected to debridement without the use of DFDBBX. Recessions were measured at 3 months, 6 months and 9 months post-operatively. The results showed no statistically significant difference in mean recession at 3, 6 and 9 months post-operatively compared to baseline for both test and control groups. Thus, DFDBBX was ineffective in minimizing recession on patients with moderate to severe periodontitis, as compared to surgical debridement alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  14. Michael, Mera Christina, Adam Husein, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Eshamsul Sulaiman
    Endodontically treated teeth are generally weaker than sound teeth. The study objective was to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with different restorative techniques. Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisors of similar size were divided into five groups of 10 teeth. Group 1 was left intact as the control group. Other groups (Groups 2, 3, 4 and 5) were all endodontically treated followed by restorations using different restorative techniques; light cured composite resin (CR), CR and crown, post and CR, and post-CR core and crown respectively. The specimens were loaded in a universal testing machine with a static force at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min at 135 ° to the long axis of the root until failure. The means and the standard deviations of the maximum load at failure for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1259.11N (379.12N), 578.63N (196.70N), 667.13N (298.72N), 1247.65N (294.48N) and 623.60N (193.75N) respectively. The results of one-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences existed among the groups tested (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  15. Vengatasubramani, M., Vikram, M.
    Medicine & Health, 2014;9(2):109-113.
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are reported to have cardiovascular instability which leads to greater limitation for activities there by leads to poor quality of life. Physical training proved to be one of the moderators of these limitations. However, uncertainty prevails among the protocol and duration. The present study investigated the effect of physical training on blood pressure, heart rate and Rate pressure Product (RPP) among COPD patients. A total of thirty COPD patients aged between 40 to 55 years were recruited for the study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned in to experimental group (15 patients) and control group (15 patients). The mean difference of blood pressure, heart rate and RPP were analyzed using paired t-test. There was significant difference between the pre and post test values of all parameters between experimental and control group with p< 0.05. Diastolic blood pressure showed to be less significant compared to the systolic blood pressure. This showed that specifically designed physical improved the cardiovascular fitness among COPD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  16. Chong SY, Lim TB, Seow LL
    Malaysian Dental Journal, 2008;29(2):97-103.
    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess: i) the staining susceptibility of composite resins, ii) the ability of whitening toothpastes in removing stains from composite resins.
    Materials and Methods: Thirty specimens from each composite resins: Filtek Z350 (3M ESPE), Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) and Beautifil (Shofu Inc.) were fabricated. After polishing, specimens were immersed in coffee for 3 days. Specimens were then brushed twice a day for 2 weeks using Colgate Total (Colgate-Palmolive, control group), Colgate Advanced Whitening (Colgate- Palmolive, test group) and Darlie All Shiny White (Hawley & Hazel Chemical Co., test group). Colour changes (?E*) were measured using Spectrophotometer at baseline, after coffee immersion and after brushing. Results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey’s test.
    Results: There was significant difference in terms of colour changes for Filtek Z350, Filtek Z250 and Beautifil after coffee immersion (P0.05).
    Conclusions: Filtek Z350 was able to resist staining by coffee better than Filtek Z250 and Beautifil. The whitening toothpastes did not offer added advantage in terms of ability to remove stains compared to ordinary toothpaste.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  17. Kotnala, Savita, Dhar, Puspita, Chatterji, Anil, Das, Partha
    The growth performance of Indian major carp (Catla catla, Ham.) was assessed over a period of six months through formulated feeds consisting of three seaweeds, namely Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Padina tetrastomatica and Stoechospermum marginatum. A relatively slow average growth rate (6.48 g/month) in fishes was observed in the control group. Meanwhile, the maximum and rapid growth rate (13.38 g/month) was observed with Feed-A supplemented with C. fastigiata. Similarly, a comparable growth rate was also observed with Feed-B (11.56 g/month) with P. tetrastomatica. However, the growth rate in fishes was relatively lower (9.05 g/month) with Feed-C containing seaweed S.marginatum. The growth rate in each month was also compared. The maximum attainable growth rate was found to be 12 g in the control group, whereas this was 30 g with Feed-A. The attainable growth was 20 g and 15 g with Feed-B and Feed-C, respectively. In the control group, the maximum increments in weight was recorded in the third (September) and fifth (November) months of rearing, and the increment was considerably reduced after that. The maximum increment in weight was in the second month (August) with Feed-A, and this was followed by a considerable decrease in subsequent months. A similar trend was observed with Feed-B and Feed-C. The biochemical composition of all the four feeds used in the present study showed approximately the same protein (0.45-0.50 mg/ ml) and lipid contents (0.6 mg/ml). Carbohydrate was the only parameter which showed a relatively significant effect (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  18. Rafiz Abdul Rani, Rosdinom Razali
    Neurology Asia, 2014;19(2):129-136.
    Background and Objective: Epilepsy and depression are interlinked and lead to an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide. Although depression is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation in epilepsy patients, epilepsy itself is independently associated with suicidal ideation. There are various other factors related to epilepsy that further increase this risk. Methods: We conducted a study of suicidal-ideation amongst epilepsy patients in our centre. Demographic data and clinical history were obtained while suicidal ideation was determined using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Beck’s Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II) was used to identify presence of depression. Results: We recruited 80 patients with epilepsy and an equal number of controls. Epilepsy patients were more likely to be depressed with a mean BDI-II score of 9.09 ±6.48 compared to controls who has a mean score of 5.56 ±4.56. The proportion of epilepsy patients with suicidal ideation was 33.75% vs. 5.00% in the control group (p 3 anti-epileptic drugs or prior head surgery. Our findings suggest that assessment of suicidal ideation is pertinent in high-risk epilepsy patients and should be routinely carried out in the clinical setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  19. Sofia Beagem Mohd Noal, Roslinda Shamsudin, Tan, Lee Phin, Wan Khartini Wan Abdul Khodir
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder was synthesized via wet method using calcium nitrate hydrate (Ca(NO3)2.H2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) as raw materials. Powder obtained was milled using various milling speed ranging from 250 to 400 r.p.m. and sintered at 1300°C for 2hrs. Due to the nature of HA powder that decomposed at high temperature, XRD technique have been used in this work to determine the phase composition of the HA powder and also the crystallite size. The unmilled sample was used as the control group. Results show that sufficient heat supply generated from the milling process, initiates the decomposition of HA phase into ȕ-tricalcium phosphate (ȕ-TCP). Decomposition of HA starts to occur at the milling speed of 300 rpm, i.e the formation of ȕ-TCP was occurred at lower sintering temperature. It was believed that the decomposition of HA was associated with the formation of an intermediate phase, oxyapatite. Moreover, the crystallinity and particle size of the produced powder is very much affected by the milling speed and the stability of the HA. All milled powders possess spherical shape particle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
  20. Srilekha Saha, Nurfarrah Ezzaty Mohd Zahir, Foujia Huda, Soumendra Saha
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2015;4(1):27-38.
    The beneficial impact of the differential biofeedback intervention technique on modification in autonomic competence, as well as the ultimate impact on bilateral shooting ability, were studied on young and competitive male soccer players. A total of 45 young high-performing soccer players in the age range of 18 to 24 years were recruited. At first, the players were subjected to baseline evaluation of psychomotor (i.e., reaction time - RT), physiological (viz. resting heart-rate; VO2Max, electrical muscle potentiality, etc.), and psychobiological indices (such as skin conductance components - latency, amplitude and recovery time). Thereafter, they were equally categorized into: Control Group, Experimental Group I [who received skin conductance (Sc) biofeedback training], and Experimental Group II [who received electromyography (EMG) biofeedback intervention training]. Participants of the experimental groups were subjected to their respective interventions (Sc & EMG biofeedback intervention training), which were imparted for 24 sessions (15 mins/day; 2 days/week for 12 weeks). After six weeks of intervention, mid-term evaluation of all of the aforementioned parameters (assessed during baseline evaluation) was performed. Thereafter, intervention sessions continued following the identical protocol for six weeks. At the end of the 12th week, a post-intervention assessment on all of the psychological, psychomotor and psychobiological variables was carried out on all of the participants to verify the effect of training on dependent measures. Post-intervention analyses revealed improvements in physiological, psychobiological and performance parameters, which could be rationally attributed to the differential biofeedback therapeutic interventions introduced to the experimental groups. The outcome suggested that both interventions facilitated improvement in bilateral shooting ability, while indepth analyses clarified that a higher extent of autonomic recovery emerged as the most significant factor facilitating shooting ability in the experimental groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Control Groups
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