METHODS: RGCs were isolated and cultured, and monoclonal antibodies (anti-rat Thy-1, Brn3a and RBPMS) were examined by immunocytochemistry. An overexpression vector MALAT1-RNA activation (RNAa), gene knockout vector MALAT1-RNA interference (RNAi), and control vector MALAT1-negative control (NC) were constructed. A chronic high intraocular pressure (IOP) rat model of glaucoma was established by episcleral vein cauterization. The RGCs were divided into the RGC control, RGC pressure, RGC pressure + MALAT1-NC, RGC pressure + MALAT1-RNAi and RGC pressure + MALAT1-RNAa groups. Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the normal, high IOP, high IOP + MALAT1-NC, high IOP + MALAT1-RNAa and high IOP + MALAT1-RNAi groups. qRT-PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of LncRNA-MALAT1 and PI3K/Akt. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry were used to detect RGC apoptosis.
RESULTS: Immunocytochemistry revealed that the cultured RGCs reached 90% purity. Compared with the RGC pressure + MALAT1-NC group, the RGC pressure + MALAT1-RNAa group exhibited elevated expression levels of MALAT1, lower total protein levels of PI3K and Akt and decreased RGC apoptosis, while these expression levels were reversed in the RGC pressure + MALAT1-RNAi group. RGC numbers and PI3K/Akt expression levels in the high IOP model groups were lower than those in the normal group. In the high IOP + MALAT1-RNAa group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K/Akt were reduced but higher than those in the other three high IOP model groups. Additionally, RGC numbers in the high IOP + MALAT1-RNAa group were lower than those in the normal group but higher than those in the other three high IOP model groups.
CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that LncRNA-MALAT1 could inhibit RGC apoptosis in glaucoma through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SLs that were fermented and further characterized for their biochemical activities. Cytotoxicity study was performed to assess cytostatic properties. A series of in vitro and ex vivo angiogenesis assay was also carried out. The relative fold change in the expression of p53 mRNA by SLs was also studied.
RESULTS: Altogether, the data show that SLs derived from palm oil fermentation process inhibited neovascularization in the ex vivo tissue segments and also the endothelial cell proliferation between 50% and 65% inhibition as a whole. The palm oil derived SLs also caused downregulation of the suppression level of vascular endothelial growth factor and also upregulate the p53 mRNA level. The analytical studies revealed the presence of high amount of phenolic compounds but with relatively weak antioxidant activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies revealed abundant amount of palmitic and oleic acid, the latter an established antiangiogenic agent, and the former being proangiogenic.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, it can be concluded from this study that SLs derived from fermented palm oil have potent antiangiogenic activity which may be attributed by its oleic acid component.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse effects of aqueous extract of CN leaves (AECNL).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity of the AECNL was tested following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Mutagenicity (Ames test) of AECNL was evaluated using TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains.
RESULTS: No mortality or morbidity was found in the animals upon single and repeated dose administration. However, significant body weight loss was observed at 2000 mg/kg during sub-chronic (90 d) exposure. In addition, increased eosinophil at 500 mg/kg and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase levels at 2000 mg/kg were observed in male rats. Variations in glucose and lipid profiles in treated groups were also observed compared to control. Ames test revealed no evidence of mutagenic or carcinogenic effects at 500 μg/well of AECNL.
CONCLUSION: The median lethal dose (LD50) of the AECNL is >5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level is identified to be greater than 2000 mg/kg/day in 90-d study.