We report an elderly man who presented with giddiness and right-sided weakness, constipation and constitutional symptoms for 6 months duration. Blood investigations indicated hypercalcaemia with normal serum phosphate and acute kidney injury. Serum intact parathyroid hormone was suppressed. CT revealed bilateral tiny lung nodules with right upper lobe tree in bud appearance and incidental findings of bilateral adrenal lesion. Tuberculosis was ruled out. CT adrenal showed multiseptated hypodense rim enhancement adrenal lesion bilaterally. Adrenal function tests were normal except for low dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Right-sided cervical lymph node biopsy confirmed fungal infection with the presence of intracellular and extracellular fungal yeast. Serum cryptococcus antigen titre was positive. Our final diagnosis was disseminated cryptococcosis with lungs, bilateral adrenal gland and lymph nodes involvement. The patient was then treated with antifungal treatment. Serum calcium was normalised after 1 month with marked clinical improvement.
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and her developing fetus. Management of the condition at the primary care level includes pre-conception care, screening, diagnosis, as well as antenatal and postpartum care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in ensuring its holistic management.
INTRODUCTION: Prediabetes, typically defined as blood glucose levels above normal but below diabetes thresholds, denotes a risk state that confers a high chance of developing diabetes. Asians, particularly the Southeast Asian population, may have a higher genetic predisposition to diabetes and increased exposure to environmental and social risk factors. Malaysia alone was home to 3.4 million people with diabetes in 2017; the figure is estimated to reach 6.1 million by 2045. Developing strategies for early interventions to treat prediabetes and preventing the development of overt diabetes and subsequent cardiovascular and microvascular complications are therefore important.
METHODS: An expert panel comprising regional experts was convened in Kuala Lumpur, for a one-day meeting, to develop a document on prediabetes management in Malaysia. The expert panel comprised renowned subject-matter experts and specialists in diabetes and endocrinology, primary-care physicians, as well as academicians with relevant expertise.
RESULTS: Fifteen key clinical statements were proposed. The expert panel reached agreements on several important issues related to the management of prediabetes providing recommendations on the screening, diagnosis, lifestyle and pharmacological management of prediabetes. The expert panel also proposed changes in forthcoming clinical practice guidelines and suggested that the government should advocate early screening, detection, and intensive management of prediabetes.
CONCLUSION: This document provides a comprehensive approach to the management of prediabetes in Malaysia in their daily activities and offer help in improving government policies and the decision-making process.