Glaucoma, recognized as optic neuropathy is the second largest cause of blindness worldwide. The disease is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and visual field defects. The pathophysiological factors involved in the onset and progression of glaucoma are not fully understood. However, it is now well accepted that elevated intraocular pressure is not the only causative factor. The pathophysiology of glaucoma involves multiple factors that interact in a highly complex manner to favor development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. As the knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved is expanding, more and more therapeutic targets are being recognized for the development of safe and effective pharmacotherapy of glaucoma. Although at present the intraocular pressure lowering drugs are still the first line of treatment, the prospect of introducing neuroprotective therapies that can directly protect and perhaps stimulate regeneration of dying and dead retinal ganglion cells, shows considerable promise. This review presents recent developments in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of glaucoma.
The homeostatic role of adenosine in regulating intraocular pressure (IOP) is now widely recognized, and hence, the drugs targeting adenosine receptors have become the focus of investigation. In this review, we summarize the adenosine receptor signaling pathways, which could be potential therapeutic targets for the management of glaucoma.
Glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease, is currently being treated by modulation of one of its primary risk factors, the elevated intraocular pressure. Newer therapies that can provide direct neuroprotection to retinal ganglion cells are being extensively investigated. Tumor necrosis factor-α, a cytokine, has been recognized to play an important role in pro and antiapoptotic cellular events. In this paper we review the relevant literature to understand (1) The association of increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-α with glaucomatous neurodegeneraion, (2) Modulation of tumor necrosis factor-α expression by exposure to various risk factors of glaucoma, (3) Downstream cellular signaling mechanisms following interaction of tumor necrosis factor-α with its receptors and (4) Role of tumor necrosis factor-α as a possible target for therapeutic intervention in glaucoma. Literature was reviewed using PubMed search engine with relevant key words and a total of 82 English language papers published from 1990 to 2010 are included in this review.
Glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness, is often associated with increased resistance to aqueous outflow in trabecular tissue. Increased outflow resistance has been attributed to increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in trabecular tissue. A critical balance between the synthesis and breakdown of the components of extracellular tissue is important in keeping the intraocular pressure within the normal range. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to affect ECM turnover in trabecular tissue. In this review, we examine the related literature to understand the role of TGF-beta in ECM turnover, in the development and progression of glaucoma, and in possible therapeutic strategies that can be devised by targeting the TGF-beta signaling pathways.
Rodents have widely been used to represent glaucomatous changes both in the presence and absence of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as they offer clear advantages over other animal species. IOP elevation is commonly achieved by creating an obstruction in the aqueous outflow pathways, consequently leading to retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve (ON) damage, the hallmark of glaucoma. These changes may also be achieved in the absence of elevated IOP by directly inflicting injury to retina or ON. Areas covered: This paper presents a summary of currently used rodent models of glaucoma. The characteristics of these models from several studies are summarized. The benefits and shortcomings of these models are also discussed. Expert opinion: The choice of animal model that closely represents human disease is key for successful translational of preclinical research to clinical practice. Rodent models of rapid IOP elevation are likely to be least representative, whereas models such as steroid-induced glaucoma models more closely resemble the trabecular meshwork changes seen in glaucomatous human eyes. However, this model needs further characterization. Rodent models based on direct retinal and ON injury are also useful tools to investigate molecular mechanisms involved at the site of final common pathology and neuroprotective strategies.
Disturbances of extracellular matrix homeostasis are associated with a number of pathological conditions. The ability of extracellular matrix to provide contextual information and hence control the individual or collective cellular behavior is increasingly being recognized. Hence, newer therapeutic approaches targeting extracellular matrix remodeling are widely investigated. We reviewed the current literature showing the effects of resveratrol on various aspects of extracellular matrix remodeling. This review presents a summary of the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix deposition and breakdown. Mechanisms of action of resveratrol in extracellular matrix deposition involving growth factors and their signaling pathways are discussed. Involvement of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and role of transcription factors and sirtuins on the effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix homeostasis are summarized. It is evident from the literature presented in this review that resveratrol has significant effects on both the synthesis and breakdown of extracellular matrix. The major molecular targets of the action of resveratrol are growth factors and their signaling pathways, phosphoinositol-3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, transcription factors, and SIRT-1. The effects of resveratrol on extracellular matrix and the molecular targets appear to be related to experimental models, experimental environment as well as the doses.
INTRODUCTION: Disturbances of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis in trabecular meshwork (TM) cause increased aqueous outflow resistance leading to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes. Therefore, restoration of ECM homeostasis is a rational approach to prevent disease progression. Since renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition positively alters ECM homeostasis in cardiovascular pathologies involving pressure and volume overload, it is likely that RAS inhibitors reduce IOP primarily by restoring ECM homeostasis. Areas covered: Current evidence showing the presence of RAS components in ocular tissue and its role in regulating aqueous humor dynamics is briefly summarized. The role of RAS in ECM remodeling is discussed both in terms of its effects on ECM synthesis and its breakdown. The mechanisms of ECM remodeling involving interactions of RAS with transforming growth factor-β, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, bone morphogenic proteins, connective tissue growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinases in ocular tissue are discussed. Expert opinion: Current literature strongly indicates a significant role of RAS in ECM remodeling in TM of hypertensive eyes. Hence, IOP-lowering effect of RAS inhibitors may primarily be attributed to restoration of ECM homeostasis in aqueous outflow pathways rather than its vascular effects. However, the mechanistic targets for RAS inhibitors have much wider distribution and consequences, which remain relatively unexplored in TM.
Magnesium is one of the most important regulatory cation involved in several biological processes. It is important for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of several vital ocular tissues such as cornea, lens and retina. The magnesium content of lens, especially in its peripheral part, is higher than that in aqueous and vitreous humor. Magnesium has also been shown to play critically important role in retinal functions. Magnesium plays significant role as a cofactor for more than 350 enzymes in the body and regulates neuroexcitability and several ion channels. Membrane associated ATPase functions that are crucial in regulating the intracellular ionic environment, are magnesium-dependent. Moreover, the enzymes involved in ATP production and hydrolysis are also magnesium-dependent. Magnesium deficiency by interfering with ATPase functions causes increased intracellular calcium and sodium and decreases intracellular potassium concentration. Such ionic imbalances in turn alter the other cellular enzymatic reactions and form the basis of the association of magnesium deficiency with ophthalmic diseases such as cataract. In presence of magnesium deficiency, an imbalance between mediators of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation may underlie the vasospasm, which is one of the pathogenic factors in primary open angle glaucoma. Furthermore, magnesium deficiency is also a contributing factor in increased oxidative stress and inducible NOS stimulation that can further contribute in the initiation and progression of ocular pathologies such as cataract, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper we review the association of disturbances of magnesium homeostasis with several ophthalmic diseases.
Ameloblastoma is usually considered a homogenous neoplasm and is thought of as the most primitive of all odontogenic neoplasms. However, detailed investigations have proven clinicopathological diversity in a significant number of cases, thus mounting the evidence in favor of considering ameloblastoma as a mysterious lesion. The purpose of this article is to report a unique case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma and to throw light on the atypical changes noticed in the stromal component. The findings of this case have served to add interesting parameters to the study of stromal changes associated with this perplexing odontogenic tumor.
Magnesium is one of the most important regulatory cation involved in several biological processes. It is important for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of vital ocular tissues such as lens. Presence of high magnesium content especially in the peripheral part of lens as compared to aqueous and vitreous humor has been observed. Magnesium plays significant role as a cofactor for more than 350 enzymes in the body especially those utilizing ATP. Membrane associated ATPase functions that are crucial in regulating the intracellular ionic environment, are magnesium-dependent. Moreover, the enzymes involved in ATP production and hydrolysis are also magnesium-dependent. Magnesium deficiency by interfering with ATPase functions causes increased intracellular calcium and sodium and decreases intracellular potassium concentration. Furthermore, magnesium deficiency is associated with increased oxidative stress secondary to increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased production of nitric oxide. Thus the alterations in lenticular redox status and ionic imbalances form the basis of the association of magnesium deficiency with cataract. In this paper we review the mechanisms involved in magnesium homeostasis and the role of magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of cataract.
Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucomatous eyes is often due to increased resistance to aqueous outflow. Previous studies have shown that increased extracellular material deposition in outflow pathways leads to increased resistance to aqueous outflow, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β seems to play a role in the deposition of extracellular material. TGF-β2 is the predominant isoform in ocular tissue. Hence, comparison of the aqueous humor TGF-β2 level between patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and controls would provide direct evidence for the role of TGF-β2 in the etiology of OAG. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to develop an accurate estimate of the changes in aqueous humor TGF-β2 levels among OAG patients.
Senile cataract is the most common cause of bilateral blindness and results from the loss of transparency of the lens. Maintenance of the unique tissue architecture of the lens is vital for keeping the lens transparent. Membrane transport mechanisms utilizing several magnesium (Mg)-dependent ATPases, play an important role in maintaining lens homeostasis. Therefore, in Mg-deficiency states, ATPase dysfunctions lead to intracellular depletion of K(+) and accumulation of Na(+) and Ca(2+). High intracellular Ca(2+) causes activation of the enzyme calpain II, which leads to the denaturation of crystallin, the soluble lens protein required for maintaining the transparency of the lens. Mg deficiency also interferes with ATPase functions by causing cellular ATP depletion. Furthermore, Mg deficiency enhances lenticular oxidative stress by increased production of free radicals and depletion of antioxidant defenses. Therefore, Mg supplementation may be of therapeutic value in preventing the onset and progression of cataracts in conditions associated with Mg deficiency.
Curcuma longa is among the most commonly used spices in India and other Asian countries. The herb has also been used in Ayurveda and other traditional systems of medicine for the prevention and treatment of a variety of ailments. Curcuminoids are the major chemical constituents of C. longa that are of medicinal importance. Today, a large body of scientific evidence exists to indicate potential therapeutic benefits of C. longa. Several preclinical and clinical studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of C. longa and results indicate strong therapeutic potential for anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer and many other properties.
This study aimed to evaluate effect of TAU on NMDA-induced changes in retinal redox status, retinal cell apoptosis and retinal morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats. Taurine was injected intravitreally as pre-, co- or post-treatment with NMDA and 7 days post-treatment retinae were processed for estimation of oxidative stress, retinal morphology using H&E staining and retinal cell apoptosis using TUNEL staining. Treatment with TAU, particularly pre-treatment, significantly increased retinal glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels compared to NMDA-treated rats; whereas, the levels of malondialdehyde reduced significantly. Reduction in retinal oxidative stress in TAU pre-treated group was associated with significantly greater fractional thickness of ganglion cell layer within inner retina and retinal cell density in inner retina. TUNEL staining showed significantly reduced apoptotic cell count in TAU pre-treated group compared to NMDA group. It could be concluded that TAU protects against NMDA-induced retinal injury in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress.
Topical route of administration is the most commonly used method for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, presence of several layers of permeation barriers starting from the tear film till the inner layers of cornea make it difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentrations in the target tissue within the eye. In order to circumvent these barriers and to provide sustained and targeted drug delivery, tremendous advances have been made in developing efficient and safe drug delivery systems. Liposomes due to their unique structure prove to be extremely beneficial drug carriers as they can entrap both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The conventional liposomes had several drawbacks particularly their tendency to aggregate, the instability and leakage of entrapped drug and susceptibility to phagocytosis. Due to this reason, for a long time, liposomes as drug delivery systems did not attract much attention of researchers and clinicians. However, over recent years development of new generation liposomes has opened up new approaches for targeted and sustained drug delivery using liposomes and has rejuvenated the interest of researchers in this field. In this review we present a summary of current literature to understand the anatomical and physiological limitation in achieving adequate ocular bioavailability of topically applied drugs and utility of liposomes in overcoming these limitations. The recent developments related to new generation liposomes are discussed.
BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used for long-term treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its long-term use is known to be associated with visual changes due to retinal damage. Retinal damage associated with long-term HCQ therapy is preventable if the drug is discontinued early when the patients are still asymptomatic. In view of contrasting reports from previous studies, we investigated the association of prolonged HCQ therapy with retinal thickness in macular area.
METHODS: This study included 48 patients on long-term HCQ therapy and 38 healthy controls. All subjects underwent examination for corrected visual acuity, fundus photography, visual fields and SD-OCT for retinal thickness.
RESULTS: Visual acuity, visual fields, fundus photography and SD-OCT did not reveal changes consistent with diagnosis of established HCQ retinopathy in any of the subjects from HCQ group. Retinal thickness in central, parafoveal and perifoveal areas did not show significant differences between HCQ and control groups. However, we observed negative correlation between cumulative dose and retinal thickness in the parafoveal (p = 0.003) and perifoveal areas (p = 0.019) but not in the central area.
CONCLUSIONS: Correlation of cumulative dose with retinal thickness in parafoveal and perifoveal areas and not the central area is in accordance with the late appearance of HCQ-induced bull's eye retinopathy. Hence screening of asymptomatic patients using OCT seems to be of great importance for early detection of retinal changes.
KEYWORDS: Cumulative dose; OCT; hydroxychloroquine; retinal thickness
BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced ocular hypertension is currently treated in the same way as primary open-angle glaucoma. However, the treatment is often suboptimal and is associated with adverse effects. We evaluated the oculohypotensive effects of topical trans-resveratrol in rats with steroid-induced ocular hypertension and involvement of adenosine receptors (AR) in intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect of trans-resveratrol.
METHODS: The oculohypotensive effect of unilateral single-drop application of various concentrations of trans-resveratrol was first studied in oculonormotensive rats. Concentration with maximum effect was similarly studied in rats with steroid-induced ocular hypertension. Involvement of AR was studied by observing the alterations of IOP in response to trans-resveratrol after pretreating animals with AR subtype-specific antagonists. Additionally, we used computational methods, including 3D modelling, 3D structure generation and protein-ligand interaction, to determine the AR-trans-resveratrol interaction.
RESULTS: All concentrations of trans-resveratrol produced significant IOP reduction in normotensive rat eyes. Maximum mean IOP reduction of 15.1% was achieved with trans-resveratrol 0.2%. In oculohypertensive rats, trans-resveratrol 0.2% produced peak IOP reduction of 25.2%. Pretreatment with A₁ antagonist abolished the oculohypotensive effect of trans-resveratrol. Pretreatment with A₃ and A₂A AR antagonists produced significant IOP reduction in both treated and control eyes, which was further augmented by trans-resveratrol application in treated eyes. Computational studies showed that trans-resveratrol has highest affinity for A₂B and A₁, followed by A2A and A₃ AR.
CONCLUSION: Topically applied trans-resveratrol reduces IOP in rats with steroid-induced ocular hypertension. Trans-resveratrol-induced oculohypotension involves its agonistic activity at the A₁ AR.
KEYWORDS: adenosine receptors; docking simulation; intraocular pressure; resveratrol; topical
Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlies cataractogenesis, and therefore, various antioxidants have been investigated for anticataract properties. Several vitamin E analogs have also been studied for anticataract effects due to their antioxidant properties; however, the anticataract properties of tocotrienols have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied tocotrienol on the onset and progression of cataract and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactosemic rats.