Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 64 in total

  1. Safa’a Ahmad Al Masri, Siti Musliha Mat Rasid
    In the current study, a total of 86 soccer’s players with mean age of 14 years drawn from Terengganu soccer academy were tested in performing 10 parameters aiming at determining the performance of those players based on assessing the contribution of each activity and its corresponding significant level. The 10 performance related parameters involved anthropometry (BMI), fitness test (agility, coordination, muscular endurance (push and sit up), power, YoYo level), and football skill test (dribbling with ball, dribbling without ball and juggling). All the parameters testing is carried out based on international standard and performed by well-trained staff. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to achieve the objective in this study. Result shows a positive correlation between the two types of muscular parameters; the power is influenced by BMI and coordination; the specific football tests are highly impacted by the power and agility. The coefficient of determination R^2 and the significance level p-values show that the parameters that can be significantly considered are the anthropometric BMI (0.020), agility (0.025), muscular endurance (0.039 and 0.043), power (0.039), special football test without the ball (0.041), and juggling (0.046). The coordination, YoYo, football special test with the ball were not found to be significantly accounted for preparing the young players to achieve the required performance. Based on the results of the coefficient of determination and the significance p-values of the parameters, a model was proposed to determine the highest and lowest parameters that play important roles in the selection of young players.
  2. Ahmad AL, Ismail S, Bhatia S
    Environ Sci Technol, 2005 Apr 15;39(8):2828-34.
    PMID: 15884382
    The coagulation-flocculation process incorporated with membrane separation technology will become a new approach for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment as well as water reclamation and reuse. In our current research, a membrane pilot plant has been used for POME treatment where the coagulation-flocculation process plays an important role as a pretreatment process for the mitigation of membrane fouling problems. The pretreated POME with low turbidity values and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. Therefore, treatment optimization to serve these purposes was performed using jar tests and applying a response surface methodology (RSM) to the results. A 2(3) full-factorial central composite design (CCD) was chosen to explain the effect and interaction of three factors: coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH. The CCD is successfully demonstrated to efficiently determine the optimized parameters, where 78% of water recovery with a 20 NTU turbidity value can be obtained at the optimum value of coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH at 15 000 mg/L, 300 mg/L, and 6, respectively.
  3. Ahmad AL, Mustafa NN
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2006 Sep 15;301(2):575-84.
    PMID: 16797579
    The alumina ceramic membrane has been modified by the addition of palladium in order to improve the H(2) permeability and selectivity. Palladium-alumina ceramic membrane was prepared via a sol-gel method and subjected to thermal treatment in the temperature range 500-1100 degrees C. Fractal analysis from nitrogen adsorption isotherm is used to study the pore surface roughness of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane with different chemical composition (nitric acid, PVA and palladium) and calcinations process in terms of surface fractal dimension, D. Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model was used to determine the D value of palladium-alumina membrane. Following FHH model, the D value of palladium-alumina membrane increased as the calcinations temperature increased from 500 to 700 degrees C but decreased after calcined at 900 and 1100 degrees C. With increasing palladium concentration from 0.5 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O to 2 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O, D value of membrane decreased, indicating to the smoother surface. Addition of higher amount of PVA and palladium reduced the surface fractal of the membrane due to the heterogeneous distribution of pores. However, the D value increased when nitric acid concentration was increased from 1 to 15 M. The effect of calcinations temperature, PVA ratio, palladium and acid concentration on membrane surface area, pore size and pore distribution also studied.
  4. Ahmad AL, Chong MF, Bhatia S
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Nov 15;171(1-3):166-74.
    PMID: 19573986 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.114
    The discharge of palm oil mill effluent (POME) causes serious pollution problems and the membrane based POME treatment is suggested as a solution. Three different designs, namely Design A, B and C distinguished by their different types and orientations of membrane system are proposed. The results at optimum condition proved that the quality of the recovered water for all the designs met the effluent discharge standards imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE). The economic analysis at the optimum condition shows that the total treatment cost for Design A was the highest (RM 115.11/m(3)), followed by Design B (RM 23.64/m(3)) and Design C (RM 7.03/m(3)). In this study, the membrane system operated at high operating pressure with low membrane unit cost is preferable. Design C is chosen as the optimal design for the membrane based POME treatment system based on the lowest total treatment cost.
  5. Chew TL, Ahmad AL, Bhatia S
    Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 2010 Jan 15;153(1-2):43-57.
    PMID: 20060956 DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2009.12.001
    Separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from gaseous mixture is an important issue for the removal of CO(2) in natural gas processing and power plants. The ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with uniform pore structure and high density of silanol groups, have attracted the interest of researchers for separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) using adsorption process. These mesoporous silicas after functionalization with amino groups have been studied for the removal of CO(2). The potential of functionalized ordered mesoporous silica membrane for separation of CO(2) is also recognized. The present paper reviews the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and important issues related to the development of mesoporous silicas. Recent studies on the CO(2) separation using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) as adsorbent and membrane are highlighted. The future prospectives of mesoporous silica membrane for CO(2) adsorption and separation are also presented and discussed.
  6. Ahmad AA, Hameed BH, Ahmad AL
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Oct 30;170(2-3):612-9.
    PMID: 19515487 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.05.021
    The purpose of this work is to obtain optimal preparation conditions for activated carbons prepared from rattan sawdust (RSAC) for removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution. The RSAC was prepared by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM based on a three-variable central composite design was used to determine the effect of activation temperature (400-600 degrees C), activation time (1-3h) and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio (3:1-6:1) on C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) percentage removal and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables to the two responses. The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for preparation of RSAC, which were based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: temperature of 470 degrees C, activation time of 2h and 14min and chemical impregnation ratio of 4.45.
  7. Hameed BH, Salman JM, Ahmad AL
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Apr 15;163(1):121-6.
    PMID: 18667269 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.069
    In this work, the adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on activated carbon derived from date stones (DSAC) was studied with respect to pH and initial 2,4-D concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the Temkin isotherm. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 238.10 mg/g. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were tested with the experimental data, and pseudo-first-order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of 2,4-D by DSAC with coefficients of correlation R(2)>or=0.986 for all initial 2,4-D concentrations studied. The results indicated that the DSAC is very effective for the adsorption of 2,4-D from aqueous solutions.
  8. Hameed BH, Mahmoud DK, Ahmad AL
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Oct 30;158(2-3):499-506.
    PMID: 18353547 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.098
    The sorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by banana stalk waste (BSW), an abundant agricultural waste in Malaysia, was studied in a batch system with respect to pH and initial dye concentration. Sorption isotherm of methylene blue (MB) onto the BSW was determined at 30 degrees C with the initial concentrations of MB in the range of 50-500 mg/L. At pH 2.0, the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (4.0-12.0) was remarkable. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 243.90 mg/g. The sorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was the best applicable model to describe the sorption kinetics. The results showed that BSW sorbent was a promising for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.
  9. Hameed BH, Mahmoud DK, Ahmad AL
    J Hazard Mater, 2008 Oct 1;158(1):65-72.
    PMID: 18308467 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.034
    In this paper, the ability of coconut bunch waste (CBW), an agricultural waste available in large quantity in Malaysia, to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. Batch mode experiments were conducted at 30 degrees C to study the effects of pH and initial concentration of methylene blue (MB). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 70.92 mg/g at 30 degrees C. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
  10. Bhatia S, Othman Z, Ahmad AL
    J Hazard Mater, 2007 Jun 25;145(1-2):120-6.
    PMID: 17141409
    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).
  11. Pang WY, Ahmad AL, Zaulkiflee ND
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Nov 01;249:109358.
    PMID: 31450197 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109358
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance and antifouling properties of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane incorporated with dual nanofiller, zinc oxide (ZnO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The synergistic effect of the these nanofillers in PES membrane is studied by blending different ratio of ZnO/MWCNT nanofiller into the PES membrane. The fabricated membranes were characterized in terms of cross-section and surface morphology, surface hydrophilicity, pore size and porosity. The filtration performance of the membranes was tested using 50 mg/L humic acid (HA) solution as model solution. SEM image and gravimetric evaluation reported that the incorporation of both MWCNT and ZnO into the PES membrane improved porosity significantly up to 46.02%. Lower water contact angle of PES membrane incorporated with equal ratio of MWCNT and ZnO (PES 3) revealed that it has neat PES membrane properties and more hydrophilic membrane surface than single filler. PES 3 outperform other membranes with excellent HA permeate flux of 40.00 L/m2.h and rejection of 88.51%. Due to hydrophilic membrane surface, PES 3 membrane demonstrate efficient antifouling properties with lower relative flux reduction (RFR) and higher flux recovery ratio (FRR). PES 3 also showed notable antibacterial properties with less bacterial attached to the membrane compared to neat PES membrane (PES 0).
  12. Ahmad AL, Sugumaran J, Shoparwe NF
    Membranes (Basel), 2018 Dec 14;8(4).
    PMID: 30558199 DOI: 10.3390/membranes8040131
    In this study, the antifouling properties of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes blended with different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles and a fixed ratio of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)-acetone mixture as a solvent were investigated. The properties and performance of the fabricated membranes were examined in terms of hydrophilicity, porosity, pore size, surface and cross-section image using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface roughness using atomic force microscopy (AFM), pure water flux, and humic acid filtration. Addition of ZnO as expected was found to improve the hydrophilicity as well as to encourage pore formation. However, the agglomeration of ZnO at a higher concentration cannot be avoided even when dissolved in a mixed solvent. The presence of highly volatile acetone contributed to the tight skin layer of the membrane which shows remarkable antifouling ability with the highest flux recovery ratio and negligible irreversible fouling. ZnO NPs in acetone/NMP mixed solvent shows an improvement in flux and rejection, but, the fouling resistance was moderate compared to the pristine membrane.
  13. Ahmad AL, Sumathi S, Hameed BH
    Water Res, 2005 Jul;39(12):2483-94.
    PMID: 15985277
    The adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using chitosan powder and flake has been investigated. POME contains about 2g/l of residue oil, which has to be treated efficiently before it can be discharged. Experiments were carried out as a function of different initial concentrations of residue oil, weight dosage, contact time and pH of chitosan in powder and flake form to obtain the optimum conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The powder form of chitosan exhibited a greater rate compared to the flake type. The results obtained showed that chitosan powder, at a dosage of 0.5g/l, 15min of contact time and a pH value of 5.0, presented the most suitable conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The adsorption process performed almost 99% of residue oil removal from POME. Equilibrium studies have been carried out to determine the capacity of chitosan for the adsorption of residue oil from POME using the optimum conditions from the flocculation at different initial concentrations of residue oil. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well with the Freundlich model. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well with the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step, i.e. chemisorption between residue oil and chitosan. The significant uptake of residue oil on chitosan was further proved by BET surface area analysis and SEM micrographs.
  14. Lee PY, Abang Taha AB, Lin K, Ghazali SR, Syed Ahmad Al-Mashoor SH
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2007;6(1).
    Aims: To evaluate the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients who attended three randomly selected primary care clinics over 4 months from January to April 2004. Results: A total of 198 patients were recruited. One hundred and eighty-one (91.4%) patients agreed to participate by answering the anonymous questionnaire. Results: Ninety (51.4%) patients used CAM of which 43 (47.8%) patients used more than one type of CAM. Utilization rates of CAM were found to be associated with employment status but not with other socio-demographic factors. The common types of alternative medicine used were massage (n = 63; 36.2%) and herbal medicine (n = 44; 25.1%). Forty-two (46%) of the CAM users, used CAM for the problems that led to their current clinic visit. Thirty-four (37.8%) were using alternative and modern medicine at the same time. The reasons for CAM usage given by about half of the patients were that CAM was more effective and better for emotional or mental health problems. Conclusions: Usage of CAM was common in patients who visited primary care clinics. It is important to recognize this fact as combined use of CAM can create potentially dangerous interactions with pharmacotherapies Key words: complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), primary care
  15. Chin JY, Ahmad AL, Low SC
    J Environ Manage, 2023 May 27;343:118231.
    PMID: 37247545 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.118231
    The surge in the use of antibiotics, especially in aquaculture, has led to development of antibiotic resistance genes, which will harm environmental and public health. One of the most commonly used antibiotics in aquaculture is oxytetracycline (OTC). Employing photocatalysis, this study compared OTC degradation efficiency of two different types of common photocatalysts, TiO2 and graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) in terms of their photochemical properties and underlying photocatalytic mechanism. For reference purpose, self-synthesized GCN from urea precursor (GCN-Urea) and commercial GCN (GCN-Commercial) were both examined. OTC adsorption-photocatalysis removal rates in pure OTC solution by TiO2, GCN-Urea and GCN-Commercial were attained at 95%, 60% and 40% respectively. Photochemical properties evaluated included light absorption, band gap, valence and conduction band positions, photoluminescence, cyclic voltammetry, BET surface area and adsorption capability of the photocatalysts. Through the evaluations, this study provides novel insights towards current state-of-the-art heterogeneous photocatalytic processes. The electron-hole recombination examined by photoluminescence is not the key factor influencing the photocatalytic efficacies as commonly discussed. On the contrary, the dominating factors governing the higher OTC degradation efficiency of TiO2 compared to GCN are the high mobility of electrons that leads to high redox capability and the high pollutant-photocatalyst affinity. These claims are proven by 86% and 40% more intense anodic and cathodic cyclic voltammetry curve peaks of TiO2 as compared to both GCNs. OTC also demonstrated 1.7 and 2.3 times higher affinity towards TiO2 than GCN-Urea and GCN-Commercial. OTC removal by TiO2 in real aquaculture wastewater only achieved 50%, due to significant inhibition effect by dissolved solids, dissolved organic matters and high ionic contents in the wastewater.
  16. Albazee E, Alenezi A, Alenezi M, Alabdulhadi R, Alhubail RJ, Ahmad Al Sadder K, et al.
    Cureus, 2023 Feb;15(2):e34734.
    PMID: 36755770 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.34734
    Hemorrhoidectomy is one of the most common surgical interventions to remove the third and fourth degrees of prolapse hemorrhoid. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of harmonic scalpel (HS) versus bipolar diathermy (BD) methods in terms of decreasing intraoperative and postoperative morbidities among patients undergoing hemorrhoidectomy. Suitable citations were found utilizing digital medical sources, including the CENTRAL, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, from inception until December 2022. Only RCTs that matched the inclusion requirements were selected. We used the updated Cochrane risk of bias (ROB) tool (version 2) to assess the quality of the involved citations. The Review Manager (version 5.4 for Windows) was used to perform the pooled analysis. Data were pooled and reported as mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in random-effects models. Overall, there was no significant difference between HS and BD in terms of decreasing intraoperative morbidities like operative time, intraoperative blood loss, mean duration of hospital stay, and mean duration of first bowel movement (P>0.05). Similarly, the rate of postoperative complications like pain, bleeding, urinary retention, anal stenosis, flatus incontinence, and wound edema; was similar in both groups with no significant difference (P>0.05). In conclusion, our pooled analysis revealed there was no substantial difference between HS and BD in terms of intraoperative and postoperative endpoints. Additional RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed to consolidate the power and quality of the presented evidence.
  17. Junaidi MU, Leo CP, Kamal SN, Ahmad AL
    Water Sci Technol, 2013;67(9):2102-9.
    PMID: 23656955 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.098
    Although ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are applicable in wastewater and water treatment, most UF membranes are hydrophobic and susceptible to severe fouling by natural organic matter. In this work, polysulfone (PSf) membrane was blended with silicaluminophosphate (SAPO) nanoparticles, SAPO-34, to study the effect of SAPO-34 incorporation in humic acid (HA) fouling mitigation. The casting solution was prepared by blending 5-20 wt% of SAPO-34 nanoparticles into the mixture of PSf, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and polyvinyl alcohol at 75 °C. All membrane samples were then prepared using the phase inversion method. Blending SAPO-34 zeolite into PSf membranes caused augmentation in surface hydrophilicity and pore size, leading to higher water permeation. In the HA filtration test, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with SAPO-34 zeolite showed reduced HA fouling initiated from pore blocking. The MMM with 20 wt% SAPO-34 loading exhibited the highest increment of water permeation (83%) and maintained about 75% of permeate flux after 2.5 h. However, the SAPO-34 fillers agglomerated in the PSf matrix and induced macrovoid formation on the membrane surface when excessive zeolite was added.
  18. Low SC, Shaimi R, Thandaithabany Y, Lim JK, Ahmad AL, Ismail A
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces, 2013 Oct 1;110:248-53.
    PMID: 23732801 DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.05.001
    Protein adsorption onto membrane surfaces is important in fields related to separation science and biomedical research. This study explored the molecular interactions between protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and nitrocellulose films (NC) using electrokinetic phenomena and the effects of these interactions on the streaming potential measurements for different membrane pore morphologies and pH conditions. The data were used to calculate the streaming ratios of membranes-to-proteins and to compare these values to the electrostatic or hydrophobic attachment of the protein molecules onto the NC membranes. The results showed that different pH and membrane pore morphologies contributes to different protein adsorption mechanisms. The protein adsorption was significantly reduced under conditions where the membrane and protein have like-charges due to electrostatic repulsion. At the isoelectric point (IEP) of the protein, the repulsion between the BSA and the NC membrane was at the lowest; thus, the BSA could be easily attached onto the membrane/solution interface. In this case, the protein was considered to be in a compact layer without intermolecular protein repulsions.
  19. Yeap SP, Ahmad AL, Ooi BS, Lim J
    Langmuir, 2012 Oct 23;28(42):14878-91.
    PMID: 23025323 DOI: 10.1021/la303169g
    A detailed study on the conflicting role that colloid stability plays in magnetophoresis is presented. Magnetic iron oxide particles (MIOPs) that were sterically stabilized via surface modification with poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) of different molecular weights (i.e., 70 and 1000 kDa) were employed as our model system. Both sedimentation kinetics and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements suggested that PSS 70 kDa is a better stabilizer as compared to PSS 1000 kDa. This observation is mostly attributed to the bridging flocculation of PSS 1000 kDa decorated MIOPs originated from the extended polymeric conformation layer. Later, a lab-scale high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) device was designed to study the magnetophoretic collection of MIOPs. Our experimental results revealed that the more colloidally stable the MIOP suspension is, the harder it is to be magnetically isolated by HGMS. At 50 mg/L, naked MIOPs without coating can be easily captured by HGMS at separation efficiency up to 96.9 ± 2.6%. However, the degree of separation dropped quite drastically to 83.1 ± 1.2% and 67.7 ± 4.6%, for MIOPs with PSS 1000k and PSS 70k coating, respectively. This observation clearly implies that polyelectrolyte coating that was usually employed to electrosterically stabilize a colloidal system in turn compromises the magnetic isolation efficiency. By artificially destroying the colloidal stability of the MIOPs with ionic strength increment, the ability for HGMS to recover the most stable suspension (i.e., PSS 70k-coated MIOPs) increased to >86% at 100 mM monovalent ion (Na(+)) or at 10 mM divalent ion (Ca(2+)). This observation has verified the conflicting role of colloidal stability in magnetophoretic separation.
  20. Ahmad AL, Low SC, Shukor SR, Ismail A
    J Immunoassay Immunochem, 2012 Jan;33(1):48-58.
    PMID: 22181820 DOI: 10.1080/15321819.2011.591479
    This study was aimed at gaining a quantitative understanding of the effect of protein quantity and membrane pore structure on protein immobilization. The concentration of immobilized protein was measured by staining with Ponceau S and measuring its color intensity. In this study, both membrane morphology and the quantity of deposited protein significantly influenced the quantity of protein immobilization on the membrane surface. The sharpness and intensity of the red protein spots varied depending on the membrane pore structure, indicating a dependence of protein immobilization on this factor. Membranes with smaller pores resulted in a higher color density, corresponding to enhanced protein immobilization and an increased assay sensitivity level. An increased of immobilized volume has a significant jagged outline on the protein spot but, conversely, no difference in binding capacity.
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