In the current study, a total of 86 soccer’s players with mean age of 14 years drawn from Terengganu soccer academy were tested in performing 10 parameters aiming at determining the performance of those players based on assessing the contribution of each activity and its corresponding significant level. The 10 performance related parameters involved anthropometry (BMI), fitness test (agility, coordination, muscular endurance (push and sit up), power, YoYo level), and football skill test (dribbling with ball, dribbling without ball and juggling). All the parameters testing is carried out based on international standard and performed by well-trained staff. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to achieve the objective in this study. Result shows a positive correlation between the two types of muscular parameters; the power is influenced by BMI and coordination; the specific football tests are highly impacted by the power and agility. The coefficient of determination R^2 and the significance level p-values show that the parameters that can be significantly considered are the anthropometric BMI (0.020), agility (0.025), muscular endurance (0.039 and 0.043), power (0.039), special football test without the ball (0.041), and juggling (0.046). The coordination, YoYo, football special test with the ball were not found to be significantly accounted for preparing the young players to achieve the required performance. Based on the results of the coefficient of determination and the significance p-values of the parameters, a model was proposed to determine the highest and lowest parameters that play important roles in the selection of young players.
The coagulation-flocculation process incorporated with membrane separation technology will become a new approach for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment as well as water reclamation and reuse. In our current research, a membrane pilot plant has been used for POME treatment where the coagulation-flocculation process plays an important role as a pretreatment process for the mitigation of membrane fouling problems. The pretreated POME with low turbidity values and high water recovery are the main objectives to be achieved through the coagulation-flocculation process. Therefore, treatment optimization to serve these purposes was performed using jar tests and applying a response surface methodology (RSM) to the results. A 2(3) full-factorial central composite design (CCD) was chosen to explain the effect and interaction of three factors: coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH. The CCD is successfully demonstrated to efficiently determine the optimized parameters, where 78% of water recovery with a 20 NTU turbidity value can be obtained at the optimum value of coagulant dosage, flocculent dosage, and pH at 15 000 mg/L, 300 mg/L, and 6, respectively.
The alumina ceramic membrane has been modified by the addition of palladium in order to improve the H(2) permeability and selectivity. Palladium-alumina ceramic membrane was prepared via a sol-gel method and subjected to thermal treatment in the temperature range 500-1100 degrees C. Fractal analysis from nitrogen adsorption isotherm is used to study the pore surface roughness of palladium-alumina ceramic membrane with different chemical composition (nitric acid, PVA and palladium) and calcinations process in terms of surface fractal dimension, D. Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model was used to determine the D value of palladium-alumina membrane. Following FHH model, the D value of palladium-alumina membrane increased as the calcinations temperature increased from 500 to 700 degrees C but decreased after calcined at 900 and 1100 degrees C. With increasing palladium concentration from 0.5 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O to 2 g Pd/100 ml H(2)O, D value of membrane decreased, indicating to the smoother surface. Addition of higher amount of PVA and palladium reduced the surface fractal of the membrane due to the heterogeneous distribution of pores. However, the D value increased when nitric acid concentration was increased from 1 to 15 M. The effect of calcinations temperature, PVA ratio, palladium and acid concentration on membrane surface area, pore size and pore distribution also studied.
The discharge of palm oil mill effluent (POME) causes serious pollution problems and the membrane based POME treatment is suggested as a solution. Three different designs, namely Design A, B and C distinguished by their different types and orientations of membrane system are proposed. The results at optimum condition proved that the quality of the recovered water for all the designs met the effluent discharge standards imposed by the Department of Environment (DOE). The economic analysis at the optimum condition shows that the total treatment cost for Design A was the highest (RM 115.11/m(3)), followed by Design B (RM 23.64/m(3)) and Design C (RM 7.03/m(3)). In this study, the membrane system operated at high operating pressure with low membrane unit cost is preferable. Design C is chosen as the optimal design for the membrane based POME treatment system based on the lowest total treatment cost.
Separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from gaseous mixture is an important issue for the removal of CO(2) in natural gas processing and power plants. The ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with uniform pore structure and high density of silanol groups, have attracted the interest of researchers for separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) using adsorption process. These mesoporous silicas after functionalization with amino groups have been studied for the removal of CO(2). The potential of functionalized ordered mesoporous silica membrane for separation of CO(2) is also recognized. The present paper reviews the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and important issues related to the development of mesoporous silicas. Recent studies on the CO(2) separation using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) as adsorbent and membrane are highlighted. The future prospectives of mesoporous silica membrane for CO(2) adsorption and separation are also presented and discussed.
The purpose of this work is to obtain optimal preparation conditions for activated carbons prepared from rattan sawdust (RSAC) for removal of disperse dye from aqueous solution. The RSAC was prepared by chemical activation with phosphoric acid using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM based on a three-variable central composite design was used to determine the effect of activation temperature (400-600 degrees C), activation time (1-3h) and H(3)PO(4):precursor (wt%) impregnation ratio (3:1-6:1) on C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) percentage removal and activated carbon yield were investigated. Based on the central composite design, quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables to the two responses. The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified from the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum conditions for preparation of RSAC, which were based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: temperature of 470 degrees C, activation time of 2h and 14min and chemical impregnation ratio of 4.45.
In this work, the adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on activated carbon derived from date stones (DSAC) was studied with respect to pH and initial 2,4-D concentration. The experimental data were analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the Temkin isotherm. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 238.10 mg/g. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics models were tested with the experimental data, and pseudo-first-order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of 2,4-D by DSAC with coefficients of correlation R(2)>or=0.986 for all initial 2,4-D concentrations studied. The results indicated that the DSAC is very effective for the adsorption of 2,4-D from aqueous solutions.
The sorption of basic dye from aqueous solutions by banana stalk waste (BSW), an abundant agricultural waste in Malaysia, was studied in a batch system with respect to pH and initial dye concentration. Sorption isotherm of methylene blue (MB) onto the BSW was determined at 30 degrees C with the initial concentrations of MB in the range of 50-500 mg/L. At pH 2.0, the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (4.0-12.0) was remarkable. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir isotherm model, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 243.90 mg/g. The sorption kinetic data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. It was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was the best applicable model to describe the sorption kinetics. The results showed that BSW sorbent was a promising for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.
In this paper, the ability of coconut bunch waste (CBW), an agricultural waste available in large quantity in Malaysia, to remove basic dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution by adsorption was studied. Batch mode experiments were conducted at 30 degrees C to study the effects of pH and initial concentration of methylene blue (MB). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 70.92 mg/g at 30 degrees C. The kinetic data obtained at different concentrations have been analyzed using a pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation. The experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).
The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance and antifouling properties of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane incorporated with dual nanofiller, zinc oxide (ZnO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The synergistic effect of the these nanofillers in PES membrane is studied by blending different ratio of ZnO/MWCNT nanofiller into the PES membrane. The fabricated membranes were characterized in terms of cross-section and surface morphology, surface hydrophilicity, pore size and porosity. The filtration performance of the membranes was tested using 50 mg/L humic acid (HA) solution as model solution. SEM image and gravimetric evaluation reported that the incorporation of both MWCNT and ZnO into the PES membrane improved porosity significantly up to 46.02%. Lower water contact angle of PES membrane incorporated with equal ratio of MWCNT and ZnO (PES 3) revealed that it has neat PES membrane properties and more hydrophilic membrane surface than single filler. PES 3 outperform other membranes with excellent HA permeate flux of 40.00 L/m2.h and rejection of 88.51%. Due to hydrophilic membrane surface, PES 3 membrane demonstrate efficient antifouling properties with lower relative flux reduction (RFR) and higher flux recovery ratio (FRR). PES 3 also showed notable antibacterial properties with less bacterial attached to the membrane compared to neat PES membrane (PES 0).
In this study, the antifouling properties of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes blended with different amounts of ZnO nanoparticles and a fixed ratio of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)-acetone mixture as a solvent were investigated. The properties and performance of the fabricated membranes were examined in terms of hydrophilicity, porosity, pore size, surface and cross-section image using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), surface roughness using atomic force microscopy (AFM), pure water flux, and humic acid filtration. Addition of ZnO as expected was found to improve the hydrophilicity as well as to encourage pore formation. However, the agglomeration of ZnO at a higher concentration cannot be avoided even when dissolved in a mixed solvent. The presence of highly volatile acetone contributed to the tight skin layer of the membrane which shows remarkable antifouling ability with the highest flux recovery ratio and negligible irreversible fouling. ZnO NPs in acetone/NMP mixed solvent shows an improvement in flux and rejection, but, the fouling resistance was moderate compared to the pristine membrane.
Aims: To evaluate the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients who attended three randomly selected primary care clinics over 4 months from January to April 2004. Results: A total of 198 patients were recruited. One hundred and eighty-one (91.4%) patients agreed to participate by answering the anonymous questionnaire. Results: Ninety (51.4%) patients used CAM of which 43 (47.8%) patients used more than one type of CAM. Utilization rates of CAM were found to be associated with employment status but not with other socio-demographic factors. The common types of alternative medicine used were massage (n = 63; 36.2%) and herbal medicine (n = 44; 25.1%). Forty-two (46%) of the CAM users, used CAM for the problems that led to their current clinic visit. Thirty-four (37.8%) were using alternative and modern medicine at the same time. The reasons for CAM usage given by about half of the patients were that CAM was more effective and better for emotional or mental health problems. Conclusions: Usage of CAM was common in patients who visited primary care clinics. It is important to recognize this fact as combined use of CAM can create potentially dangerous interactions with pharmacotherapies Key words: complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), primary care
The adsorption of residue oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using chitosan powder and flake has been investigated. POME contains about 2g/l of residue oil, which has to be treated efficiently before it can be discharged. Experiments were carried out as a function of different initial concentrations of residue oil, weight dosage, contact time and pH of chitosan in powder and flake form to obtain the optimum conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The powder form of chitosan exhibited a greater rate compared to the flake type. The results obtained showed that chitosan powder, at a dosage of 0.5g/l, 15min of contact time and a pH value of 5.0, presented the most suitable conditions for the adsorption of residue oil from POME. The adsorption process performed almost 99% of residue oil removal from POME. Equilibrium studies have been carried out to determine the capacity of chitosan for the adsorption of residue oil from POME using the optimum conditions from the flocculation at different initial concentrations of residue oil. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the experimental isotherms and isotherm constants. Equilibrium data fitted very well with the Freundlich model. The pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models and intraparticle diffusion model were used to describe the kinetic data and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well with the second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the chemical sorption is the rate-limiting step, i.e. chemisorption between residue oil and chitosan. The significant uptake of residue oil on chitosan was further proved by BET surface area analysis and SEM micrographs.
Although ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are applicable in wastewater and water treatment, most UF membranes are hydrophobic and susceptible to severe fouling by natural organic matter. In this work, polysulfone (PSf) membrane was blended with silicaluminophosphate (SAPO) nanoparticles, SAPO-34, to study the effect of SAPO-34 incorporation in humic acid (HA) fouling mitigation. The casting solution was prepared by blending 5-20 wt% of SAPO-34 nanoparticles into the mixture of PSf, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and polyvinyl alcohol at 75 °C. All membrane samples were then prepared using the phase inversion method. Blending SAPO-34 zeolite into PSf membranes caused augmentation in surface hydrophilicity and pore size, leading to higher water permeation. In the HA filtration test, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with SAPO-34 zeolite showed reduced HA fouling initiated from pore blocking. The MMM with 20 wt% SAPO-34 loading exhibited the highest increment of water permeation (83%) and maintained about 75% of permeate flux after 2.5 h. However, the SAPO-34 fillers agglomerated in the PSf matrix and induced macrovoid formation on the membrane surface when excessive zeolite was added.
Protein adsorption onto membrane surfaces is important in fields related to separation science and biomedical research. This study explored the molecular interactions between protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and nitrocellulose films (NC) using electrokinetic phenomena and the effects of these interactions on the streaming potential measurements for different membrane pore morphologies and pH conditions. The data were used to calculate the streaming ratios of membranes-to-proteins and to compare these values to the electrostatic or hydrophobic attachment of the protein molecules onto the NC membranes. The results showed that different pH and membrane pore morphologies contributes to different protein adsorption mechanisms. The protein adsorption was significantly reduced under conditions where the membrane and protein have like-charges due to electrostatic repulsion. At the isoelectric point (IEP) of the protein, the repulsion between the BSA and the NC membrane was at the lowest; thus, the BSA could be easily attached onto the membrane/solution interface. In this case, the protein was considered to be in a compact layer without intermolecular protein repulsions.
A detailed study on the conflicting role that colloid stability plays in magnetophoresis is presented. Magnetic iron oxide particles (MIOPs) that were sterically stabilized via surface modification with poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) of different molecular weights (i.e., 70 and 1000 kDa) were employed as our model system. Both sedimentation kinetics and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurements suggested that PSS 70 kDa is a better stabilizer as compared to PSS 1000 kDa. This observation is mostly attributed to the bridging flocculation of PSS 1000 kDa decorated MIOPs originated from the extended polymeric conformation layer. Later, a lab-scale high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) device was designed to study the magnetophoretic collection of MIOPs. Our experimental results revealed that the more colloidally stable the MIOP suspension is, the harder it is to be magnetically isolated by HGMS. At 50 mg/L, naked MIOPs without coating can be easily captured by HGMS at separation efficiency up to 96.9 ± 2.6%. However, the degree of separation dropped quite drastically to 83.1 ± 1.2% and 67.7 ± 4.6%, for MIOPs with PSS 1000k and PSS 70k coating, respectively. This observation clearly implies that polyelectrolyte coating that was usually employed to electrosterically stabilize a colloidal system in turn compromises the magnetic isolation efficiency. By artificially destroying the colloidal stability of the MIOPs with ionic strength increment, the ability for HGMS to recover the most stable suspension (i.e., PSS 70k-coated MIOPs) increased to >86% at 100 mM monovalent ion (Na(+)) or at 10 mM divalent ion (Ca(2+)). This observation has verified the conflicting role of colloidal stability in magnetophoretic separation.
This study was aimed at gaining a quantitative understanding of the effect of protein quantity and membrane pore structure on protein immobilization. The concentration of immobilized protein was measured by staining with Ponceau S and measuring its color intensity. In this study, both membrane morphology and the quantity of deposited protein significantly influenced the quantity of protein immobilization on the membrane surface. The sharpness and intensity of the red protein spots varied depending on the membrane pore structure, indicating a dependence of protein immobilization on this factor. Membranes with smaller pores resulted in a higher color density, corresponding to enhanced protein immobilization and an increased assay sensitivity level. An increased of immobilized volume has a significant jagged outline on the protein spot but, conversely, no difference in binding capacity.
The aim of this study was to explore the utilization of polymeric membrane for bio-sensing application in most efficient and rapid way. Customization of membrane formulation via phase separation study to modify its morphologies and properties enable the detection of different pathogens in a specific manner. Experimental findings (FESEM, through-pore distribution, porosity, capillary flow test and protein binding test) verified the predictions of faster capillary flow time and higher membrane's protein binding by the addition of cellulose acetate and nitrocellulose to the membrane casting dope, respectively. Throughout the phase separation study, the potential phase behavior was investigated, which was correlating various membrane structures to its performances for potential pathogens detection in water.
Over the past decade, L-homophenylalanine is extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry as a precursor for production of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which possesses significant clinical application in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure (CHF). A number of chemical methods have been reported thus far for the synthesis of L-homophenylalanine. However, chemical methods generally suffer from process complexity, high cost, and environmental pollution. On the other hand, enantiomerically pure L-homophenylalanine can be obtained elegantly and efficiently by employing biocatalytic methods, where it appears to be the most attractive process in terms of potential industrial applications, green chemistry and sustainability. Herein we review the biocatalytic synthesis of vital L-homophenylalanine as potentially useful intermediate in the production of pharmaceutical drugs in environmentally friendly conditions, using membrane bioreactor for sustainable biotransformation process. One envisages the future prospects of developing an integrated membrane bioreactor system with improved performance for L-homophenylalanine production.