Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Girish S, Kumar S, Aminudin N
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:332.
    PMID: 26082155 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0942-y
    In the local Malaysian context, herbal plants such as Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Orthosiphon stamineus (MisaiKucing), Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek), Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and Barringtonia racemosa (Putat) are known and widely used for its therapeutic properties. The first part of this study aims to screen for the anti-protozoal activity of these herbal plant extracts against Blastocystis sp. isolate subtype (ST) 3. Herbal extract with the highest efficacy was further fractionized into water and ethyl acetate fractions and tested against ST1, ST3 and ST5 Blastocystis sp. isolates. These isolates were also exposed to allopathic drugs, Metronidazole (MTZ), Tinidazole, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX), Ketoconazole and Nitazoxanide for comparison purpose.
  2. Wahab NA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:131607.
    PMID: 25243114 DOI: 10.1155/2014/131607
    Pleurotus pulmonarius has been reported to have a potent remedial effect on diabetic property and considered to be an alternative for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ammonium sulphate precipitated protein fractions from P. pulmonarius basidiocarps. Preliminary results demonstrated that 30% (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fraction (F30) inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase activity (24.18%), and 100% (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fraction (F100) inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity (41.80%). Following RP-HPLC purification, peak 3 from F30 fraction demonstrated inhibition towards α-glucosidase at the same time with meagre inhibition towards α-amylase activity. Characterisation of proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS demonstrated the presence of four different proteins, which could be implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level via various mechanisms. Therefore, this study revealed the presence of four antidiabetic-related proteins which are profilin-like protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, trehalose phosphorylase-like (TP-like) protein, and catalase-like protein. Hence, P. pulmonarius basidiocarps have high potential in lowering blood glucose level, reducing insulin resistance and vascular complications.
  3. Mohamad Ansor N, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    PMID: 24093919 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-256
    Ganoderma lucidum has been purported as a potent remedy in the treatment and prevention of several ailments, including hypertension. This study aimed to explore the anti-ACE potential of protein fractions from the mycelia of G. lucidum.
  4. Lau BF, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    J Agric Food Chem, 2013 May 22;61(20):4890-7.
    PMID: 23597270 DOI: 10.1021/jf4002507
    The chemical composition of the tiger's milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerotis) from different developmental stages, i.e., the fruit body, sclerotium, and mycelium, was investigated for the first time. The fruit body and sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis were rich in carbohydrates and dietary fibers but low in fat. Protein levels in L. rhinocerotis were moderate, and all essential amino acids, except tryptophan, were present. The mycelium contained high levels of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, riboflavin, and niacin and appreciable amounts of essential fatty acids. The results indicated that the sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis that was used in ethnomedicine was not superior to the fruit body and mycelium with regard to the nutritional content and bioactive constituents. Our findings provide some insights into the selection of appropriate mushroom part(s) of L. rhinocerotis and proper cultivation techniques for the development of new nutraceuticals or dietary supplements.
  5. Misbah H, Aziz AA, Aminudin N
    PMID: 23718315 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-118
    Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat. A number of studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress, leading to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Ficus deltoidea is traditionally used in Malaysia for regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. The use of F. deltoidea as an alternative medicinal herb is increasingly gaining popularity with the sale of F. deltoidea tea bags and capsules in the local market. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruits from different varieties of F. deltoidea, employing in vitro methods.
  6. Lau BF, Aminudin N, Abdullah N
    J Microbiol Methods, 2011 Oct;87(1):56-63.
    PMID: 21801760 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2011.07.005
    Mushrooms are considered as important source of biologically active compounds which include low-molecular-mass protein/peptides (LMMP). In this study, we attempted to profile the LMMP from Lignosus rhinocerus, a wild medicinal mushroom, grown by static cultures (SC) and in stirred tank reactor (STR). Crude water extract (CWE) and protein fractions were profiled using H50 ProteinChip® arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS. Three protein peaks of 5.8, 6.9 and 9.1 kDa were found to be common to spectra of L. rhinocerus CWE from both culture conditions. Partial protein purification has resulted in detection of more peaks in the spectra of protein fractions. For protein fractions of L. rhinocerus cultured in STR, most peaks were observed in the range of 3-8 kDa whereas some peaks with molecular mass up to 14.3 kDa were noted in spectra of protein fractions from SC. Our results have demonstrated the optimization of profiling method using SELDI-TOF-MS for fungal LMMP.
  7. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Crit Rev Biotechnol, 2016 Dec;36(6):1131-1142.
    PMID: 26514091
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) share common etiology and preventive strategies. As the population of old-aged people is increasing worldwide, AD complications tend to afflict global healthcare budget and economy heavily. CVD is the prime cause of global mortality and remains a grave threat to both the developed and the developing nations. Mushroom bio-components may be promising in controlling both diseases. Based mainly on in vitro, ex vivo, cell line and animal studies, this review interprets the polypharmaceutic role of mushrooms treating AD and CVD.
  8. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2015;2015:403023.
    PMID: 26180589 DOI: 10.1155/2015/403023
    Dietary polyphenolic compounds mediate polynomial actions in guarding against multiple diseases. Atherosclerosis is an oxidative stress driven pathophysiological complication where free radical induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays the ground breaking role. Mushrooms have been highly regarded for possessing an antioxidant arsenal. Polyphenolic compounds present in dietary mushrooms seem pertinent in withstanding LDL oxidation en route to controlling atherosclerosis. In this study, the antioxidative effect of five solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ) of Flammulina velutipes was evaluated. M : DCM fraction showed the most potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect with IC50 of 0.86 mg/mL and total phenolic content of 56.36 gallic acid equivalent/g fraction. In LDL oxidation inhibitory tests, M : DCM fraction at 1 µg/mL concentration mostly lengthened the lag time (125 mins) of conjugated diene formation and inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (48.71%, at 1 mg/mL concentration). LC-MS/MS analyses of M : DCM fraction identified the presence of polyphenolic substances protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric, and ellagic acid. These chain-breaking polyphenolics might impart the antioxidative effects of F. velutipes. Thus, mushroom-based dietary polyphenolic compounds might be implicated in slowing down the progression of atherosclerosis.
  9. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2018 Dec;25(8):1515-1523.
    PMID: 30581314 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.021
    Mushrooms have been highly regarded as possessing enormous nutritive and medicinal values. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative and anti-atherosclerotic potential of shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) using its solvent-solvent partitioned fractions that consisted of methanol:dichloromethane (M:DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction (1 mg/mL) mostly scavenged (67.38%, IC50 0.55 mg/mL) the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, contained the highest reducing capacity (60.16 mg gallic acid equivalents/g fraction), and most potently inhibited lipid peroxidation (67.07%), low density lipo-protein oxidation and the activity of 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme A reductase (HMGR). GC-MS analyses of the hexane fraction identified α-tocopherol (vitamin E), oleic acid, linoleic acid, ergosterol and butyric acid as the bio-functional components present in L. edodes. Our findings suggest that L. edodes possesses anti-atherosclerotic bio-functionality that can be applied as functional food-based therapeutics against cardiovascular diseases.
  10. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2018;20(10):961-969.
    PMID: 30806268 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2018028370
    Oxidative stress (OS) and hypercholesterolemia have been linked with a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of the numerous drawbacks of synthetic antioxidants and cholesterol-lowering drugs, natural antioxidative and hypocholesterolemic agents are of immense importance. This study was designed to determine both the OS-attenuating and cholesterol-lowering capacities of the hot water extract (HWE) and of five solvent-solvent-partitioned fractions of Ganoderma lucidum. In vitro antioxidative performance of G. lucidum HWE and fractions was measured through DPPH free radical scavenging, Folin-Ciocalteu assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation inhibition. In vivo antioxidative performance of G. lucidum was assessed by measuring the plasma and liver antioxidative enzymatic activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) in G. lucidum HWE-fed rats. In the CVD tests, the HWE at 200 mg/kg b.w. lowered plasma levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and LDL cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current findings indicate the therapeutic potentiality of G. lucidum as an OS-attenuating and hypocholesterolemic agent en route to withstanding CVD complications.
  11. Abrahim NN, Abdul-Rahman PS, Aminudin N
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5694.
    PMID: 30324012 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5694
    Leaves from three varieties of Ficus deltoidea, colloquially termed small- (FDS), medium- (FDM), and big-type leaf (FDB), were subjected to water extraction. The crude extracts were fractionated using water (WF) and ethyl acetate (EAF). The phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity of the fractions were investigated. The EAF had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content compared to the other FDS fractions. Conversely, the FDM crude extract had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content compared to the other FDM samples. Antioxidant activity was highest in the FDB crude extract. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography showed that two compounds, vitexin and coumaric acid, were present in the FDB crude extract. Additionally, the F. deltoidea leaves caused no signs of toxicity in a normal liver cell line. Our findings show that F. deltoidea varieties have excellent antioxidant activity with no cytotoxic effects on normal liver cells.
  12. Teoh HL, Aminudin N, Abdullah N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2021;23(2):43-56.
    PMID: 33639080 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021037649
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently one of the most common liver diseases worldwide. Lifestyle modifications through the diet are the mainstay of treatment. Auricularia nigricans is a popular edible mushroom known to possess medicinal properties. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis indicated that linoleic acid ethyl ester, butyl 9,12-octadecadienoate, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3-ol, 2(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-hydroxy-5-benzene propanoic acid, and 3,30-di-0-methyl ellagic acid were present in the A. nigricans ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. The cytotoxicity assay showed that the EA fraction was noncytotoxic to HepG2 cells at concentrations < 100 μg/mL. In the antihepatic steatosis assay, 50 μg/mL of EA fraction caused a decline in absorbance to 0.20 ± 0.02 compared to palmitic acid (PA)-induced cells (0.24 ± 0.02). Furthermore, cells treated with 50 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL of EA fraction contributed an approximately 1.12-fold and 1.08-fold decrease in lipid accumulation compared to PA-induced cells. Coincubation with PA and 25 μg/mL of EA fraction decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to 140.48 ± 8.12, 91.16 ± 2.40, 184.00 ± 22.68, and 935.88 ± 39.36 pg/mL compared to PA-induced cells. The presence of the EA fraction also suppressed the stress-activated protein kinase/Jun amino-terminal kinase, p-38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-κB, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathways. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the A. nigricans EA fraction demonstrates antisteatotic effects involving antioxidant capacity, hypolipidemic effects, and anti-inflammatory capacity in the PA-induced NAFLD pathological cell model.
  13. Seng CK, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(9):797-807.
    PMID: 29199554 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024374
    Amauroderma rugosum fruiting bodies possess excellent cardiovascular benefits, including antioxidative, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, anti-platelet aggregation, and antithrombotic effects. In this article, we describe our investigations of the in vitro antioxidant activity and in vitro antiatherosclerotic potential through inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL peroxidation, and 3-hydroxy3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase catalytic activity using various fruiting body extracts partitioned with an organic solvent. Among 5 extracts/fractions tested, the semipolar ethyl acetate (EA) fraction demonstrated good antioxidant capacity based on total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating ability, cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation assays. The EA fraction also showed the strongest inhibitory effect on Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Chemical analysis conjointly identified 10 phenolic compounds (4 benzoic acid derivatives, 3 flavonoids, 1 cinnamic acid, 1 hexahydroxydiphenic acid dilactone, and 1 xanthone derivative), some of which play pivotal roles in arresting the physiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thereby attenuating the risk of cardiovascular events occurring.
  14. Seng CK, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(12):1101-1111.
    PMID: 29431071 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024589
    Dyslipidemia is the key precursor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the lipid-modifying potential of organic solvent-partitioned extracts from fruiting bodies of Amauroderma rugosum in vitro using oleate-induced human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Our results demonstrated that oleate-induced HepG2 cells treated with ethyl acetate (EA) extract greatly decreased intracellular and secreted total triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) compared with other extracts. Further investigation of cellular expression of selected apolipoproteins also revealed that oleate-induced HepG2 cells treated with the EA extract best attenuated the apolipoprotein (Apo) profile by downregulating ApoB-100 and ApoE while upregulating ApoA1. Because both ApoB-100 and ApoE are key components of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL (VLDL), which are recognized as "bad cholesterol," this result indicates that treatment with the EA extract inhibited LDL and VLDL production in oleate-induced HepG2 cells. On the other hand, increasing ApoA1 evidence shows antiatherogenic benefits to increasing ApoA1, the key component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), particularly in relation to its role in promoting reverse cholesterol transport and preventing LDL oxidation; this indicates that the EA extract upregulated the production of HDL ("good cholesterol"). Hence, the EA extract is a good source of lipid-ameliorating agents in the management of dyslipidemia.
  15. Abrahim NN, Aminudin N, Abdul-Rahman PS
    Food Technol Biotechnol, 2023 Jun;61(2):191-201.
    PMID: 37457905 DOI: 10.17113/ftb.
    RESEARCH BACKGROUND: Ficus deltoidea (mistletoe fig) is a shrub well known among locals in Malaysia primarily for its treatment of toothaches, colds and wounds. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of leaves, sourced from three different varieties of F. deltoidea, to exhibit antioxidant activity, a reduction of lipid concentration, and protein expression in steatosis-induced liver cell lines.

    EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The leaves of three F. deltoidea varieties, namely Ficus deltoidea var. angustifolia, Ficus deltoidea var. trengganuensis and Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri, were subjected to water extraction. The resulting crude extracts were fractionated using water and ethyl acetate. Palmitic acid was used to induce lipid accumulation (steatosis) in human liver (WRL68) cells, before all the samples were tested for their lipid-reducing activity. Several proteomic approaches were incorporated. The changes in protein expression were determined using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis separation, whereas identification of our protein spots of interest was carried out via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri alone demonstrated the ability to reduce lipids at the highest tested concentration (200 µg/mL) and was, therefore, used for subsequent experiments. Treatment with Ficus deltoidea var. kunstleri was found to restore redox status by increasing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase amounts and decreasing malondialdehyde formation. Six proteins were successfully identified; these were heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), proteasome subunit alpha type 1 (PSMA1), glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX1), histone H2B (HIST1H2BD) and ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3). Through bioinformatics analysis, it was found that these proteins were significantly involved in specific pathways such as oxidative stress (PRDX1 and GSTO1), protein homeostasis (HSPB1) and degradation (UCHL3 and PSMA1).

    NOVELTY AND SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTION: F. deltoidea pretreatment was shown to reduce lipid accumulation, thus improving the redox status and protein homeostasis. This suggests the role of F. deltoidea as a preventive mechanism in non-alcohol fatty liver disease.

  16. Rahman MA, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:828149.
    PMID: 24959591 DOI: 10.1155/2014/828149
    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.
  17. Lau CC, Abdullah N, Shuib AS, Aminudin N
    Food Chem, 2014 Apr 1;148:396-401.
    PMID: 24262574 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.053
    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors derived from foods are valuable auxiliaries to agents such as captopril. Eight highly functional ACE inhibitory peptides from the mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, were identified by LC-MS/MS. Among these peptides, the most potent ACE inhibitory activity was exhibited by AHEPVK, RIGLF and PSSNK with IC₅₀ values of 63, 116 and 129 μM, respectively. These peptides exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity after gastrointestinal digestion. Lineweaver-Burk plots suggested that AHEPVK and RIGLF act as competitive inhibitors against ACE, whereas PSSNK acts as a non-competitive inhibitor. Mushrooms can be a good component of dietary supplement due to their readily available source and, in addition, they rarely cause food allergy. Compared to ACE inhibitory peptides isolated from other edible mushrooms, AHEPVK, RIGLF and PSSNK have lower IC₅₀ values. Therefore, these peptides may serve as an ideal ingredient in the production of antihypertensive supplements.
  18. Lau BF, Abdullah N, Aminudin N, Lee HB
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Oct 28;150(1):252-62.
    PMID: 23993912 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.034
    The sclerotium of the "tiger's milk mushroom" (Lignosus rhinocerotis) is used as tonic and folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, fever, cough and asthma by the local and indigenous communities. It is traditionally prepared by either boiling or maceration-like methods; however, there is no attempt to understand how different processing methods might affect their efficacies as anticancer agents.
  19. Yasin Y, Ismail NM, Hussein MZ, Aminudin N
    J Biomed Nanotechnol, 2011 Jun;7(3):486-8.
    PMID: 21830495
    A drug-inorganic nanostructured material involving pharmaceutically active compound lawsone intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Law-LDHs) with Zn/AI = 4 has been assembled by co-precipitation and ion exchange methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis indicate a successful intercalation of lawsone between the layers of layered double hydroxides. It suggests that layered double hydroxides may have application as the basis of a drug delivery system.
  20. Lau CC, Abdullah N, Shuib AS, Aminudin N
    J Agric Food Chem, 2012 Dec 19;60(50):12341-8.
    PMID: 23190208 DOI: 10.1021/jf3042159
    Mushrooms are high in protein content, which makes them potentially a good source of antihypertensive peptides. Among the mushrooms tested, protein extracts from Pleurotus cystidiosus (E1Pc and E5Pc) and Agaricus bisporus (E1Ab and E3Ab) had high levels of antihypertensive activity. The protein extracts were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) into six fractions. Fraction 3 from E5Pc (E5PcF3) and fraction 6 from E3Ab (E3AbF6) had the highest antihypertensive activities. SDS-PAGE analysis showed E5PcF3 consisted mainly of low molecular weight proteins, whereas E3AbF6 contained a variety of high to low molecular weight proteins. There were 22 protein clusters detected by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis with five common peaks found in E5PcF3 and E3AbF6, which had m/z values in the range of 3940-11413. This study suggests that the antihypertensive activity in the two mushroom species could be due to proteins with molecular masses ranging from 3 to 10 kDa.
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