METHOD: We undertook a search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature and also summarized our published results in this field.
RESULTS: The present review focuses on novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in details which can provide access to management and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. This coupled with the recently available genome sequence information together with high throughput genomics technology and innovative approaches should stimulate interest in the rational design of preventative and therapeutic measures. Current treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis is problematic and often leads to infection recurrence. Better understanding of diagnosis, pathogenesis, pathophysiology and therapeutic regimens, would lead to novel strategies in treatment and prophylaxis.
Methods: Several compounds were synthesized and their molecular identity was confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance. Potential anticancer properties were determined using cytopathogenicity assays and growth inhibition assays using cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Cells were incubated with different concentrations of compounds belonging to Benzodioxane, Naphthalene diimide, Aminophenol derivatives and Porphyrins and effects were determined. HeLa cells cytopathogenicity was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release using cytotoxicity detection assay. Growth inhibition assays were performed by incubating 50% semi-confluent HeLa cells with Benzodioxane, Naphthalene diimide, Aminophenol derivatives and Porphyrin compounds and HeLa cell proliferation was observed. Growth inhibition and host cell death were compared in the presence and absence of drugs.
Results: Cytopathogenicity assays showed that the selected compounds were cytotoxic against HeLa cells, killing up to 90% of cells. Growth inhibition assays exhibited 100% growth inhibition. These effects are likely via oxidative stress, production of reactive oxygen species, changes in cytosolic and intracellular calcium/adenine nucleotide homeostasis, inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase/cyclooxygenase and/or glutathione depletion.
Conclusions: Benzodioxane, Naphthalene diimide, Aminophenol derivatives and Porphyrins exhibited potent anticancer properties. These findings are promising and should pave the way in the rationale development of anticancer drugs. Using different cancer cell lines, future studies will determine their potential as anti-tumour agents as well as their precise molecular mode of action.
METHODS: Three different varieties of CoNPs were synthesized by utilizing hydrothermal and ultrasonication methods and were thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Amoebicidal, encystation, excystation, and host cell cytopathogenicity assays were conducted to study the antiacanthamoebic effects of CoNPs.
RESULTS: The results of the antimicrobial evaluation revealed that cobalt phosphate Co3(PO4)2 hexagonal microflakes, and 100 nm large cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) nanoflakes showed potent amoebicidal activity at 100 and 10 µg/ml against Acanthamoeba castellanii as compared to granular cobalt oxide (Co3O4) of size 35-40 nm. Furthermore, encystation and excystation assays also showed consistent inhibition at 100 µg/ml. CoNPs also inhibited amoebae-mediated host cell cytotoxicity as determined by lactate dehydrogenase release without causing significant damage to human cells when treated alone.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, these findings determined, for the first time, the effects of composition, size and morphology of CoNPs against A. castellanii. Co3(PO4)2 hexagonal microflakes showed the most promising antiamoebic effects as compared to Co(OH)2 nanoflakes and granular Co3O4. The results reported in the present study hold potential for the development of antiamoebic nanomedicine.
Materials and Methods: We identified and performed five primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasties between 1 May 2019 and 1 June 2020. All patients were contactable and available for analysis. Assessment of functional outcomes was performed using the Constant-Murley score, the patient satisfaction score (PSS), and imaging studies. The mean follow-up from operation to the time of reporting was 9.6 months (range, 3 to 14 months).
Results: The median age for our patients was 58 years (±11.91). The most common indication for surgery was post-traumatic arthritis, followed by rotator cuff arthropathy and osteoarthritis. The mean Constant score improved from 9.0 pre-operatively to 52.3 post-operatively at a mean of 9.6 months. The majority of the patients were satisfied with the surgery as the post-operative range of motion, especially anterior elevation and abduction, improved in four of our patients and there were no short-term complications, for example, of infection or revisions, reported at the last follow-up.
Conclusion: This study has shown that reverse total shoulder arthroplasty can yield good short-term outcomes for the treatment of complex shoulder problems in addition to cuff tear arthropathy. It should be considered a treatment for rotator cuff tears, severe arthritis and ≥ 3 parts proximal humeral fractures.