Nowadays, functional food market is dominated by dairy-based probiotic products, mainly
yogurt. The nutritional values of yogurt can be further enhanced by the inclusion of miracle
fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) and potential probiotic Lactococcus lactis Gh1. The present
work investigated the anti-oxidative capacity and survivability of probiotic strains of six
yogurts fortified with S. dulcificum pulp extract and encapsulated L. lactis Gh1 (in
alginate-starch coating agent via extrusion technique). The flavonoid contents (TFC) were not
significantly different between yogurts, whereas the phenolic contents (TPC) showed an
increasing trend throughout the storage. Among the yogurts, the one supplemented with both
S. dulcificum and encapsulated L. lactis Gh1 showed the highest TFC (1.18 µg QE/mL) and
TPC (15.382 μg GAE/mL). The antioxidant assay (DPPH) showed a gradual increase on the
first 7 d, but decreased afterward. In comparison, yogurts fortified with S. dulcificum demonstrated higher antioxidant activity (± 80% DPPH inhibition) than the plain yogurts (± 50%
DPPH inhibition). The viability of starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) drastically increased during the first week (log 8 ~ 10
CFU/mL) especially for yogurts containing free cell L. lactis, but subsequently decreased ( log
6 ~ 8 CFU/mL). The viability of L. lactis Gh1 in yogurts maintained at high count (log 9.43
and 9.04 CFU/mL) throughout 21 d when it was being encapsulated. In general, the fortification of S. dulcificum extract with microencapsulated L. lactis Gh1 had greatly enhanced the
quality and potential benefits of the functional yogurts.
This short-term study which was carried out in a small group of pre- and postmenopausal women at Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II (HRPZII) aims to compare between Tscores detected by heel Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) and by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and spine. The prevalence of osteoporosis by heel QUS was 63.3% and up to 16.7% by DXA. Insufficient or weak agreement exists between T-score measurements by heel QUS and axial DXA. Significant correlations were found between measurements of T-scores by both methods, with r values from 0.364 to 0.91. Although some correlation was found, significant discrepancy in the frequency of osteoporosis using different methods and sites is substantial.
Biliary cystadenoma is a rare neoplasm of the biliary ductal system. Surgical management yields an excellent result. We present a case of recurrent biliary cystadenoma in the left lobe of the liver. The cyst was successfully treated with hepatic segmentectomy. The lobulated smoothly marginated septated cystic lesion noted on computed tomography (CT) were highlighted and the other imaging studies, differential diagnosis and management were reviewed.
Epidermoid cysts of the central nervous system are described as rare, benign, slow growing lesions with a history of high rate of recurrence even after surgical removal. This lesion is rarely located at the cerebellopontine angle and is found to be composed of solid and cystic components with close adherence to vital neurovascular structures that might complicate its removal. We present a rare case of a twenty-five year old housewife with signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure due to the above pathology after multiple episodes of intra-tumoral bleeding. Microneurosurgical techniques were used for tumour dissection and excision. The patient recovered well after a three-year follow-up. This is the fourth example in the index medicus of bleeding seen in a histopathologically proven cerebellopontine angle intraepidermoid cyst.
The beneficial effects of stereotactic third ventriculostomy versus ventriculoperitoneal shunt were evaluated in 62 paediatric patients and analysed in relation to age, sex, clinical history, presence of meningomyelocele, magnetic resonance imaging measurements of hydrocephalus and third ventricle floor size. The third ventriculostomy were done on 50 patients using the Richard-Wolf Caemaert Endoscope and the Leksell Stereotactic Frame Model G. These patients were operated using the 4-French Fogarty catheter to open the base of the third ventricle. During the same period of study 12 paediatric patients with aqueduct stenosis who were managed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt were included. Both surgical procedures were compared. Statistically univariate analysis revealed that those patient with an age group of more than six months undergoing ventriculostomy had good outcome. Multivariate analysis revealed that past history of haemorrhage and/or meningitis were predictors of poor outcome. Sex, size of lumbar meningocele at birth, abnormal ventricular anatomy or narrow third ventricular floor size were non predictors of bad outcome in these patients. There was no difference in outcome in both the shunt or ventriculostomy group.
Four patients underwent reconstruction of anterior cranial fossa of skull defects between November 1997 and January 1998. All of them had traumatic anterior cranial fossa defect and were reconstructed with lyophilised bovine cortical bone graft. There was no cerebrospinal fluid leakage, meningitis, extradural abscess or other infections. This study demonstrates that the use of bovine bone graft in the reconstruction of anterior base defects is safe.
Human interferon alpha (IFN-α) was expressed in two strains of Lactococcus lactis by aid of two promoters (P32 and Pnis) giving rise to two recombinant strains: MG:IFN and NZ:IFN, respectively. The expression of IFN was confirmed by ELISA and western blotting. Highest production was achieved using glucose for growth of both recombinant strains with nisin, used for induction of the recombinant strain with Pnis promoter, at 30 ng/ml. The optimum time for MG:IFN was 9 h and for NZ:IFN was 4.5 h. The highest productions by MG:IFN and NZ:IFN were 1.9 and 2.4 μg IFN/l, respectively. Both of the expressed IFNs showed bioactivities of 1.9 × 10(6) IU/mg that were acceptable for further clinical studies.
Kojic acid monooleate is a fatty acid derivative of kojic acid which can be widely used as a skin whitening agent in a cosmetic applications. In avoiding any possible harmful effects from chemically synthesized product, the enzymatic synthesis appears to be the best way to satisfy the consumer demand nowadays. The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor meihei (lipozyme RMIM) to catalyze the direct esterification of kojic acid and oleic acid was investigated. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and 5-level-4-factor central composite rotatable were employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters such as enzyme amount (0.1-0.4 g), temperature (30-60 degrees C), substrate molar ratio (1-4 mmol, kojic acid:oleic acid) and reaction time (24-48 h) on percentage molar conversion to kojic acid monooleate. Analysis of the product using TLC, GC and FTIR showed the presence of kojic acid monooleate. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic reaction were obtained after analysis with backward elimination using 0.17 g of enzyme and 4 mmol of substrate at 52.50 degrees C for 42 h. Under these conditions the esterification percentage was 37.21%. The results demonstrated that response surface methodology can be applied effectively to optimize the lipase-catalysed synthesis of kojic acid monooleate. The optimum conditions can be used to scale up the process.
This study was undertaken to optimize yeast extract, glucose, and vitamin concentrations; and also culture pH for maximizing the growth of a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and to assess the effects of these factors by using response surface methodology. A central composite design was used as an experimental design for the allocation of treatment combinations. A polynomial regression model with cubic and quartic terms was used for analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the effects involving yeast extract, glucose, vitamins and pH on the growth of L. rhamnosus were significant, and the strongest effect was given by the yeast extract concentration. Estimated optimum conditions of the factors for the growth of L. rhamnosus are as follows: pH=6.9; vitamin solution=1.28% (v/v); glucose=5.01% (w/v) and yeast extract=6.0% (w/v).
Research was undertaken to investigate the treatment of fishery washing water using Bacillus sphaericus, and to recover the spores for subsequent use as bioinsecticide to control the population of mosquitoes. This treatment method could reduce pollution due to organic matter by decreasing the value of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) by about 85% and 92%, respectively. The maximum concentration of spores (83.3 x 10(7) spores ml(-1)) using normal concentration of filtered fishery washing water was only about 27% lower than that obtained in fermentation using 0.25% (w/v) yeast extract. The larvicidal activity of the spores produced in fermentation using fishery washing water to Culex quinquefaciatus, as measured by LD50 after 48 h, was almost the same as the larvicidal activity of spores obtained from fermentation using yeast extract.
The aim of this study was to compare nonsurgical versus stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematomas in relation to clinical aspects, computed tomographic imaging features of the brain, laboratory parameters and specific risk factors that may influence the outcome in southeast Asian Malay patients. Fifty-five of the patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) underwent stereotactic aspiration and 57 did not. Analysis was done on risk factors, locations and treatments of ICH, and the final outcomes measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale. A total of 112 patients were evaluated. Mean age was 52 years with ages ranging from 12 to 80 years. Hypertension was seen in 60.7% of patients with ICH. The mortality rate was 25% by 3 months. 58.9% had a poor final outcome, while 41.1% had a good outcome. The selected variables were incorporated into models generated by multiple logistic regression method analysis to define the significant predictors of outcome. Significant predictors of outcome were the Glasgow Coma Scale score on admission, the duration of surgery and the total volume of the hematoma. Significant predictors of mortality were high total white blood cell differential count, low plasma protein, and high plasma lactate dehydrogenase and brain edema. The study suggests that stereotactic aspiration of patients with ICH does not offer any definite advantage over conservative treatment.
We report three cases of large occipito-encephaloceles that were managed in the Neurosciences Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over the last 5 years. All patients had pre-operative MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) evolution and mapping of the sagittal sinus tract. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of all three patients were initially diverted by means of ventricular shunt two weeks prior to shunt removal. The slow drainage of CSF prevented electrolyte and volume disturbances due to sudden decompression during their definitive occipital encephalocele operations. After 3 years follow-up, all these patients are progressing well.
The effects of medium strategy, number of impellers, aeration mode, and mode of operation on Morinda elliptica cell suspension cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor are described. A lower number of impellers and continuous aeration contributed toward high cell growth rate, whereas a higher number of impellers reduced cell growth rate, although not anthraquinone yield. The semicontinuous mode could indirectly imitate the larger scale version of production medium strategy and improved anthraquinone production even with 0. 012% (v/v) antifoam addition. Production medium promoted both growth (maximum dry cell weight of 24.6 g/L) and anthraquinone formation (maximum content of 19.5 mg/g of dry cell weight), without any necessity for antifoam addition. Cultures in production medium or with higher growth rate and anthraquinone production were less acidic than cultures in growth medium or with lower growth rate and anthraquinone production. Using the best operating variables, growth of M. elliptica cells (24.6 g/L) and anthraquinone yield (0.25 g/L) were 45% and 140%, respectively, lower than those using a shake flask culture after 12 days of cultivation.
This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads based on Kappa-Carrageenan (κ-Carrageenan) and bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The silver nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous Citrullus colocynthis seed extract as both reducing and capping agent. Cross-linked κ-Carrageenan/Ag-NPs hydrogel beads were prepared using potassium chloride as the cross-linker. The hydrogel beads were characterized using XRD and FESEM. Moreover, swelling property of the hydrogel beads was investigated. The Ag release profile of the hydrogels was obtained by fitting the experimental data to power law equation. The direct visualization of the green synthesized Ag-NPs using TEM shows particle size in the range of 23±2nm. The bio-nanocomposite hydrogels showed lesser swelling behavior in comparison with pure κ-Carrageenan hydrogel. Regardless the slow Ag release, κ-Carrageenan/Ag-NPs presented good antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Methicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aurous, Peseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli with maximum zones of inhibition 11±2mm. Cytotoxicity study showed that the bio-nanocomposite hydrogels with non-toxic effect of concentration below 1000μg/mL have great pharmacological potential and a suitable level of safety for use in the biological systems.
Direct conversion of gelatinized sago starch into kojic acid by Aspergillus flavus strain having amylolytic enzymes was carried out at two different scales of submerged batch fermentation in a 250-mL shake flask and in a 50-L stirred-tank fermentor. For comparison, fermentations were also carried out using glucose and glucose hydrolyzate from enzymic hydrolysis of sago starch as carbon sources. During kojic acid fermentation of starch, starch was first hydrolyzed to glucose by the action of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase during active growth phase. The glucose remaining during the production phase (non-growing phase) was then converted to kojic acid. Kojic acid production (23.5 g/L) using 100 g/L sago starch in a shake flask was comparable to fermentation of glucose (31.5 g/L) and glucose hydrolyzate (27.9 g/L) but in the 50-L fermentor was greatly reduced due to non-optimal aeration conditions. Kojic acid production using glucose was higher in the 50-L fermentor than in the shake flask.
The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.
The use of nontoxic biological compounds in the synthesis of nanomaterials is an economic and eco-friendly approach. The present work was undertaken to develop zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) by a green method using simple precursor from the solution consisting of zinc acetate and the flower extract of Anchusa italica (A. italica). Effect of annealing temperature on structural and antimicrobial properties was investigated. The crystalline structure of ZnO-NPs was shown using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that ZnO-NPs are hexagonal in shapes with mean particle size of ~8 and ~14nm at 100°C and 200°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 3.27eV to 3.30eV with the decreasing of the particle size. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO-NPs towards Gram positive (Bacillus megaterium and Stapphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) pathogens decreased with the increasing of the heat treating temperature. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on Vero cells, a dose dependent toxicity with non-toxic effect of concentration below 142μg/mL was shown. The results indicated that A. italica is an appropriate reaction media to prepare ZnO-NPs for cosmetic and bio-medical productions.
The Cr(III) sorption experiments onto Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass were conducted at different pH values (2-6) under the conditions of initial metal concentration of 10-50 mg/L and the chemical compositions of Cr-Cu and Cr-Cd. The Cr(III) sorption capacities were slightly dependent on pH, and the maximum sorption capacity was 0.86 mg/g at pH 3. The sorption capacities increased with increase in the initial metal concentration, whereas it was suppressed by the presence of Cu(II) and Cd(III) in the solution. The Cr(III) sorption equilibrium was evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich and BET isotherms. The sorption mechanisms were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The main mechanisms were ion exchange coupled with a complexation mechanism. Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass represents a potential for Cr(III) ion removal from aqueous solution.