RESULTS: A total of 103 cases with intracranial haemorrhage i.e. intracerebral haemorrhage, extradural haemorrhage, subdural haemorrhage, intraventricular haemorrhage, haemorrhagic contusion and subarachnoid haemorrhage, following motor vehicle accidents was undertaken to study factors contributing to either good or poor outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Patients below 12 years of age were excluded. The end point of the study was taken at 24 months post injury. The selected variables were incorporated into models generated by logistic regression techniques of multivariate analysis to see the significant predictors of outcome as well as the correlation between the CT findings with GCS.
CONCLUSION: Significant predictors of outcome were GCS on arrival in the accident emergency department, pupillary reflex and the CT scan findings. The CT predictors of outcome include ICH, EDH, IVH, present of SAH, site of ICH, volumes of EDH and SDH as well as midline shift.
METHODS: A total of 54 patients (8-79 years) with intracranial haemorrhage who underwent both CT examination and six-vessel cerebral angiography were studied over a 2-year period. Cerebral angiography was repeated within 6 weeks if the first angiogram was negative.
RESULTS: Angiography detected vascular lesions in 50% of cases (aneurysm 38.9% and arteriovenous malformation, AVM, 11.1%). In the aneurysm group, angiographic yield was 34.3% whereas in the AVM group, it was 37.9%. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) combined with other types of haemorrhage (such as intracerebral haemorrhage, ICH) was not significantly correlated with the likelihood of finding a vascular lesion, both aneurysm and AVM (p = 0.157). Age less than 50 years had significant correlation (p = 0.021) in the AVM group as well as in the aneurysm group (p < 0.001). A history of hypertension was associated with both aneurysm (p = 0.039) and AVM (p = 0.008). No patients with deep intracerebral haematoma had vascular lesions. The presence of an intravascular haemorrhage (IVH) had significant correlation with aneurysm (p = 0.008) but not AVM. There was no significant difference in mean age between patients with and without a vascular lesion (p = 0.134).
CONCLUSION: Cerebral angiography is justified in patients with ICH accompanied by pure SAH (p = 0.001). Other factors associated with finding a vascular lesion were a history of hypertension and the presence of IVH. Diagnostic cerebral angiography is indicated for patients with ICH and SAH and IVH with a history of hypertension, regardless of age.