Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Mousavi SM, Naghsh A, Abu-Bakar SA
    J Digit Imaging, 2015 Aug;28(4):417-27.
    PMID: 25736857 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-015-9770-z
    This paper presents an automatic region of interest (ROI) segmentation method for application of watermarking in medical images. The advantage of using this scheme is that the proposed method is robust against different attacks such as median, Wiener, Gaussian, and sharpening filters. In other words, this technique can produce the same result for the ROI before and after these attacks. The proposed algorithm consists of three main parts; suggesting an automatic ROI detection system, evaluating the robustness of the proposed system against numerous attacks, and finally recommending an enhancement part to increase the strength of the composed system against different attacks. Results obtained from the proposed method demonstrated the promising performance of the method.
  2. Komara M, Vasudevan R, Ismail P, Bakar SA, Pishva SR, Heidari F
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(2):2939-48.
    PMID: 24782128 DOI: 10.4238/2014.April.16.2
    The sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in blood pressure regulation. Beta 2 (β2) adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms have been associated with hypertension in different populations with conflicting results. We examined the association of three common polymorphisms, Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, and Thr164Ile, of the β2 adrenoceptor gene in Malaysian hypertensive subjects. A total of 160 hypertensive and control subjects were recruited. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and anthropometric measurements were obtained from each subject. Biochemical analyses of lipid profiles were conducted with an autoanalyzer. DNA samples were extracted from blood and buccal cells. Genotyping was accomplished with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. SBP, DBP, body mass index, and biochemical factors all differed significantly between case and control subjects (P < 0.05). The genotype frequencies of Arg16Arg, Arg16Gly, and Gly16Gly were 22.5, 70, and 7.5% among cases and 33.1, 63.1, and 3.8% among controls, respectively. The genotype frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu, and Glu27Glu among cases were 41.1, 50, and 1.9% compared to 77.5, 20.6, and 1.9% among controls, respectively. In this study, the Gln27Glu polymorphism was significantly associated with Malaysian hypertensive subjects (P < 0.05). Therefore, the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2 adrenoceptor could be a risk factor associated with hypertension among Malaysians.
  3. Mousavi SM, Naghsh A, Abu-Bakar SA
    J Digit Imaging, 2014 Dec;27(6):714-29.
    PMID: 24871349 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-014-9700-5
    The ever-growing numbers of medical digital images and the need to share them among specialists and hospitals for better and more accurate diagnosis require that patients' privacy be protected. As a result of this, there is a need for medical image watermarking (MIW). However, MIW needs to be performed with special care for two reasons. Firstly, the watermarking procedure cannot compromise the quality of the image. Secondly, confidential patient information embedded within the image should be flawlessly retrievable without risk of error after image decompressing. Despite extensive research undertaken in this area, there is still no method available to fulfill all the requirements of MIW. This paper aims to provide a useful survey on watermarking and offer a clear perspective for interested researchers by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of different existing methods.
  4. Noor NM, Rijal OM, Yunus A, Abu-Bakar SA
    Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2010 Mar;34(2):160-6.
    PMID: 19758785 DOI: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2009.08.005
    This paper presents a statistical method for the detection of lobar pneumonia when using digitized chest X-ray films. Each region of interest was represented by a vector of wavelet texture measures which is then multiplied by the orthogonal matrix Q(2). The first two elements of the transformed vectors were shown to have a bivariate normal distribution. Misclassification probabilities were estimated using probability ellipsoids and discriminant functions. The result of this study recommends the detection of pneumonia by constructing probability ellipsoids or discriminant function using maximum energy and maximum column sum energy texture measures where misclassification probabilities were less than 0.15.
  5. Tung WS, Bakar SA, Sekawi Z, Rosli R
    PMID: 17445254
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative viral agent responsible for large outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a common rash illness in children and infants. There is no effective antiviral treatment for severe EV71 infections and no vaccine is available. The objectives of this study were to design and construct a DNA vaccine against Enterovirus 71 using the viral capsid protein (VP1) gene of EV71 and to verify the functionality of the DNA vaccine in vitro and in vivo.
  6. Ahmad F, Bakar SA, Ibrahim AZ, Read RW
    Planta Med., 1997 Apr;63(2):193-4.
    PMID: 17252347
  7. Altowayti WAH, Algaifi HA, Bakar SA, Shahir S
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2019 May 15;172:176-185.
    PMID: 30708229 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.01.067
    Globally, the contamination of water with arsenic is a serious health issue. Recently, several researches have endorsed the efficiency of biomass to remove As (III) via adsorption process, which is distinguished by its low cost and easy technique in comparison with conventional solutions. In the present work, biomass was prepared from indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strain WS3 and was evaluated to remove As (III) from aqueous solution under different contact time, temperature, pH, As (III) concentrations and adsorbent dosages, both experimentally and theoretically. Subsequently, optimal conditions for As (III) removal were found; 6 (ppm) As (III) concentration at 37 °C, pH 7, six hours of contact time and 0.50 mg/ml of biomass dosage. The maximal As (III) loading capacity was determined as 10.94 mg/g. The equilibrium adsorption was simulated via the Langmuir isotherm model, which provided a better fitting than the Freundlich model. In addition, FESEM-EDX showed a significant change in the morphological characteristic of the biomass following As (III) adsorption. 128 batch experimental data were taken into account to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model that mimicked the human brain function. 5-7-1 neurons were in the input, hidden and output layers respectively. The batch data was reserved for training (75%), testing (10%) and validation process (15%). The relationship between the predicted output vector and experimental data offered a high degree of correlation (R2 = 0.9959) and mean squared error (MSE; 0.3462). The predicted output of the proposed model showed a good agreement with the batch work with reasonable accuracy.
  8. Teng TS, Ishak NL, Subha ST, Bakar SA
    EXCLI J, 2019;18:223-228.
    PMID: 31217785 DOI: 10.17179/excli2018-1971
    CSF leak in penetrating skull base injury is relatively rare compared to close head injury involving skull base fracture. We report a 5-year-old boy presented with epistaxis and impacted pencil into the left nostril. The child was hemodynamically stable without any neurological deficit. Intraoperatively, there was a nasal septal defect posteriorly with anterior skull base fracture associated with CSF leak. The pencil was removed from the left nostril and the CSF leak was repaired using harvested abdominal fat under the same setting. Computed Tomography (CT) of the brain showed right cribriform plate fracture with small pneumocranium. Postoperatively, a prophylactic antibiotic was given for seven days and he was discharged well. Subsequent clinic visits up to one-year postoperative period showed no recurrence of the CSF leak. History taking, physical examination and CT imaging give valuable diagnostic values in managing the penetrating skull base injury. Early intervention for removal of the foreign body and repair of the CSF leak is advocated to prevent catastrophic complication.
  9. Abu Bakar SA, Muda SM, Mohd Arifin SR, Ishak S
    Enferm Clin, 2019 09;29 Suppl 2:725-732.
    PMID: 31337573 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.06.012
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the existing literature on mothers' perception towards the impact of expressing breast milk for their premature infant in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    METHOD: Guided by the PRISMA Statement review checklist, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science database has identified 10 related studies. The articles were assessed and analyzed after evaluated using The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools (JBI). Thematic analysis was obtained after using Nvivo software as a tool for data analysis by author.

    RESULT: Further review of these articles resulted in three main themes-maternal changes during expressing breast milk, pumping challenges and impact of motivation factors to initiating lactation.

    CONCLUSION: Expressing breast milk should be recognized as an important way to restructure motherhood with a preterm infant in NICU. However, maintaining expressed breast milk during preterm infants' treatment period in NICU may increase stress and difficulties for some mothers. Some recommendations are emphasized in relation to the need for more qualitative studies in this issue, which is to have a specific and standard systematic review method for guide research synthesis in context of climate change adaptation.

  10. Hassan H, Bakar SA, Halim KN, Idris J, Saad FF, Nordin AJ
    Curr Radiopharm, 2016;9(2):121-7.
    PMID: 26239237
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 18F-Fluorocholine has been suggested as one of the reputable imaging tracers for diagnosis of prostate tumour in Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography (PET/CT) modality. Nevertheless, it has never been synthesised in Malaysia. We acknowledged that the major problem with 18F-Fluorocholine is due to its relatively low radiochemical yield at the end of synthesis (EOS). Therefore, this article presents improved 18FFluorocholine radiochemical yields after carrying out optimisation on azeotropic drying of 18F-Fluorine.

    METHODS: In the previous study, the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine in the reactor was conducted at atmospheric pressure (0 atm) and shorter duration time. In this study, however, the azeotropic drying of non-carried-added (n.c.a) 18FFluorine was made at a high vacuum pressure (- 0.65 to - 0.85 bar) with an additional time of 30 seconds. At the end of the synthesis, the mean radiochemical yield was statistically compared between the two azeotropic drying conditions so as to observe whether the improvement made was significant to the radiochemical yield.

    RESULTS: From the paired sample t-test analysis, the improvement done to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine was statistically significant (p < 0.05). With the improvement made, the 18F-Fluorcholine radiochemical yield was found to have increase by one fold.

    CONCLUSION: Improved 18F-Fluorocholine radiochemical yields were obtained after the improvement had been done to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine. It was also observed that improvement made to the azeotropic drying of non-carrier-added (n.c.a) 18F-Fluorine did not affect the 18F-Fluorocholine quality control analysis.

  11. Hearn AJ, Ross J, Bernard H, Bakar SA, Hunter LT, Macdonald DW
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0151046.
    PMID: 27007219 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151046
    The marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata is a poorly known wild cat that has a broad distribution across much of the Indomalayan ecorealm. This felid is thought to exist at low population densities throughout its range, yet no estimates of its abundance exist, hampering assessment of its conservation status. To investigate the distribution and abundance of marbled cats we conducted intensive, felid-focused camera trap surveys of eight forest areas and two oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Study sites were broadly representative of the range of habitat types and the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance and fragmentation present in contemporary Sabah. We recorded marbled cats from all forest study areas apart from a small, relatively isolated forest patch, although photographic detection frequency varied greatly between areas. No marbled cats were recorded within the plantations, but a single individual was recorded walking along the forest/plantation boundary. We collected sufficient numbers of marbled cat photographic captures at three study areas to permit density estimation based on spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses. Estimates of population density from the primary, lowland Danum Valley Conservation Area and primary upland, Tawau Hills Park, were 19.57 (SD: 8.36) and 7.10 (SD: 1.90) individuals per 100 km2, respectively, and the selectively logged, lowland Tabin Wildlife Reserve yielded an estimated density of 10.45 (SD: 3.38) individuals per 100 km2. The low detection frequencies recorded in our other survey sites and from published studies elsewhere in its range, and the absence of previous density estimates for this felid suggest that our density estimates may be from the higher end of their abundance spectrum. We provide recommendations for future marbled cat survey approaches.
  12. Abu Bakar SA, Nadarajah S, Absl Kamarul Adzhar ZA, Mohamed I
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(6):e0156537.
    PMID: 27272043 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156537
    In this paper, we introduce the R package gendist that computes the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the quantile function and generates random values for several generated probability distribution models including the mixture model, the composite model, the folded model, the skewed symmetric model and the arc tan model. These models are extensively used in the literature and the R functions provided here are flexible enough to accommodate various univariate distributions found in other R packages. We also show its applications in graphing, estimation, simulation and risk measurements.
  13. Mohamed A, Ardyani T, Bakar SA, Brown P, Hollamby M, Sagisaka M, et al.
    Adv Colloid Interface Sci, 2016 Apr;230:54-69.
    PMID: 26888600 DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2016.01.003
    Graphene is the newest member of the carbon family, and has revolutionized materials science especially in the field of polymer nanocomposites. However, agglomeration and uniform dispersion remains an Achilles' heel (even an elephant in the room), hampering the optimization of this material for practical applications. Chemical functionalization of graphene can overcome these hurdles but is often rather disruptive to the extended pi-conjugation, altering the desired physical and electronic properties. Employing surfactants as stabilizing agents in latex technology circumvents the need for chemical modification allowing for the formation of nanocomposites with retained graphene properties. This article reviews the recent progress in the use of surfactants and polymers to prepare graphene/polymer nanocomposites via latex technology. Of special interest here are surfactant structure-performance relationships, as well as background on the roles surfactant-graphene interactions for promoting stabilization.
  14. Kamari A, Putra WP, Yusoff SN, Ishak CF, Hashim N, Mohamed A, et al.
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2015 Dec;95(6):790-5.
    PMID: 26395356 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-015-1650-1
    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.
  15. Han LM, Haron Z, Yahya K, Bakar SA, Dimon MN
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(4):e0120667.
    PMID: 25875019 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120667
    Strategic noise mapping provides important information for noise impact assessment and noise abatement. However, producing reliable strategic noise mapping in a dynamic, complex working environment is difficult. This study proposes the implementation of the random walk approach as a new stochastic technique to simulate noise mapping and to predict the noise exposure level in a workplace. A stochastic simulation framework and software, namely RW-eNMS, were developed to facilitate the random walk approach in noise mapping prediction. This framework considers the randomness and complexity of machinery operation and noise emission levels. Also, it assesses the impact of noise on the workers and the surrounding environment. For data validation, three case studies were conducted to check the accuracy of the prediction data and to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of this approach. The results showed high accuracy of prediction results together with a majority of absolute differences of less than 2 dBA; also, the predicted noise doses were mostly in the range of measurement. Therefore, the random walk approach was effective in dealing with environmental noises. It could predict strategic noise mapping to facilitate noise monitoring and noise control in the workplaces.
  16. Alabsi AM, Bakar SA, Ali R, Omar AR, Bejo MH, Ideris A, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(12):8645-60.
    PMID: 22272097 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12128645
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is used as an antineoplastic agent in clinical tumor therapy. It has prompted much interest as an anticancer agent because it can replicate up to 10,000 times better in human cancer cells than in most normal cells. This study was carried out to determine the oncolytic potential of NDV strain AF2240 and V4-UPM on WEHI-3B leukemia cell line. Results from MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the CD(50) values for both strains were 2 and 8 HAU for AF2240 and V4-UPM, respectively. In addition, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and trypan blue dye exclusion assays showed inhibition in cell proliferation after different periods. Increase in the cellular level of caspase-3 and detection of DNA laddering using agarose gel electrophoresis on treated cells with NDV confirmed that the mode of cell death was apoptosis. In addition, flow-cytometry analysis of cellular DNA content showed that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 region (apoptosis peaks). In conclusion, NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM caused cytolytic effects against WEHI-3B leukemic cell line.
  17. Oo A, Rausalu K, Merits A, Higgs S, Vanlandingham D, Bakar SA, et al.
    Antiviral Res., 2018 02;150:101-111.
    PMID: 29269135 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.12.012
    The past decade has seen the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) as a major global health threat, affecting millions around the world. Although fatal infections are rare among infected patients, the occurrence of long-lasting polyarthralgia has a significant impact on patients' quality of lives and ability to work. These issues were the stimuli for this study to determine the potential of baicalin, a bioflavonoid, as the novel antiviral compound against CHIKV. It was found that baicalin was well tolerated by Vero, BHK-21 and HEK 293T cells with maximal nontoxic doses >600 μM, ≈ 350 μM and ≈110 μM, respectively. Antiviral assays indicated that baicalin was the most effective inhibitor when tested for its direct virucidal activity with EC50 ≈ 7 μM, followed by inhibition of virus entry into the host cell, attachment of virus particle to cellular receptors and finally intracellular replication of viral RNA genome. In silico analysis using molecular docking demonstrated close interactions between baicalin and CHIKV envelope protein with considerably strong binding affinity of -9.7 kcal/mol. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that baicalin had the greatest effect on the synthesis of viral negative stand RNA with EC50 ≈ 0.4 μM followed by the inhibition of synthesis of positive-strand genomic (EC50 ≈ 13 μM) and subgenomic RNAs (EC50 ≈ 14 μM). These readings indicate that the compound efficiently inhibits replicase complexes formation but is a less potent inhibitor of existing replicase complexes. Coherent with this hypothesis, the use of recombinant CHIKV replicons harboring Renilla luciferase marker showed that replication of corresponding replicon RNAs was only slightly downregulated at higher doses of baicalin, with EC50 > 100 μM. Immunofluorescence and western blotting experiments demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of expression of different viral proteins. It was also observed that levels of important protein markers for cellular autophagy (LC3) and apoptosis (Bax) were reduced in baicalin treatment groups as compared with untreated virus infected controls. In summary, given its low toxicity and high efficacy against CHIKV, baicalin has great potential to be developed as the novel antiviral compound for CHIKV. In vivo studies to evaluate its activity in a more complexed system represent a necessary step for future analysis.
  18. Noor NM, Yunus A, Bakar SA, Hussin A, Rijal OM
    Comput Med Imaging Graph, 2011 Apr;35(3):186-94.
    PMID: 21036539 DOI: 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2010.10.002
    This paper investigates a novel statistical discrimination procedure to detect PTB when the gold standard requirement is taken into consideration. Archived data were used to establish two groups of patients which are the control and test group. The control group was used to develop the statistical discrimination procedure using four vectors of wavelet coefficients as feature vectors for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), lung cancer (LC), and normal lung (NL). This discrimination procedure was investigated using the test group where the number of sputum positive and sputum negative cases that were correctly classified as PTB cases were noted. The proposed statistical discrimination method is able to detect PTB patients and LC with high true positive fraction. The method is also able to detect PTB patients that are sputum negative and therefore may be used as a complement to the gold standard.
  19. Oo A, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Bakar SA, Zandi K
    Arch. Virol., 2019 Feb;164(2):585-593.
    PMID: 30392049 DOI: 10.1007/s00705-018-4083-4
    At present, there is no effective antiviral agent for Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus that is known for its teratogenic effects on newborns. Baicalein and baicalin were found to be capable of downregulating ZIKV replication up to 10 hours postinfection, while prophylactic effects were evident in pre-treated cells. Baicalein exhibited its highest potency during intracellular ZIKV replication, whereas baicalin was most effective against virus entry. Our in silico interaction assays predicted that both compounds exhibited the strongest binding affinities towards ZIKV NS5, while the virus envelope glycoprotein was the least likely target protein. These findings serve as a crucial platform for further in-depth studies to decipher the underlying anti-ZIKV mechanism(s) of each compound.
  20. Mo SY, Lai OM, Chew BH, Ismail R, Bakar SA, Jabbar NA, et al.
    Eur J Nutr, 2019 Aug;58(5):1873-1885.
    PMID: 29872922 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-018-1738-6
    PURPOSE: We aim to investigate the postprandial effects of palm olein (PO) and chemically interesterified palm olein (IPO) with different proportions of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position using high oleic sunflower oil (HOS) as control fat on concentrations of gut hormones, glucose homeostasis, satiety, lipid and inflammatory parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects.

    METHODS: Using a randomised double-blind crossover design, 21 (men = 6, women = 15) T2D subjects consumed test meals (3.65 MJ) consisting of a high fat muffin (containing 50 g test fats provided as PO, IPO or HOS) and a milkshake. Postprandial changes in gut hormones, glucose homeostasis, satiety, lipid and inflammatory parameters after meals were analysed. Some of the solid fractions of the IPO were removed and thus the fatty acid composition of the PO and IPO was not entirely equal (PO vs IPO: palmitate 39.8 vs 38.7; oleate 43.6 vs 45.1). PO, IPO and HOS contained 9.7, 38.9 and 0.2 g/100 g total fatty acids of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position, respectively. At 37 °C, IPO contained 4.2% SFC whereas PO and HOS were completely melted.

    RESULTS: Our novel observation shows that the incremental area under curve (iAUC) 0-6 h of plasma GIP concentration was on average 16% lower following IPO meal compared with PO and HOS (P 

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