Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Hamdy O, Barakatun-Nisak MY
    Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am., 2016 12;45(4):799-817.
    PMID: 27823606 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecl.2016.06.010
    Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a key component of diabetes management. The importance of balancing macronutrients, reducing carbohydrate load, lowering glycemic index, and implementing an overall healthy dietary pattern are emerging as better approaches for MNT in diabetes. Recent research points to improved glycemic control, reduction in body weight, and improvement in many cardiovascular risk factors when these approaches are provided by registered dietitians or health care providers. This review article discusses the current evidence about the role of sensible nutrition in diabetes management. Specific eating plans for weight reduction and for patients with type 1 diabetes are also discussed.
  2. Firouzi S, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Azmi KN
    J Res Med Sci, 2015 Jan;20(1):40-6.
    PMID: 25767521
    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Malaysia, with most patients poorly controlled. Hence, this study aimed to determine nutritional and metabolic status as well as blood pressure of Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and identify associated risk factors for poor glycemic control.
  3. Lee ZY, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Noor Airini I, Heyland DK
    Nutr Clin Pract, 2016 Feb;31(1):68-79.
    PMID: 26385874 DOI: 10.1177/0884533615601638
    Nutrition support is an integral part of care among critically ill patients. However, critically ill patients are commonly underfed, leading to consequences such as increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, time on mechanical ventilation, infectious complications, and mortality. Nevertheless, the prevalence of underfeeding has not resolved since the first description of this problem more than 15 years ago. This may be due to the traditional conservative feeding approaches. A novel feeding protocol (the Enhanced Protein-Energy Provision via the Enteral Route Feeding Protocol in Critically Ill Patients [PEP uP] protocol) was proposed and proven to improve feeding adequacy significantly. However, some of the components in the protocol are controversial and subject to debate. This article is a review of the supporting evidences and some of the controversy associated with each component of the PEP uP protocol.
  4. Cheng SH, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Anthony J, Ismail A
    J Res Med Sci, 2015 Oct;20(10):1000-6.
    PMID: 26929767 DOI: 10.4103/1735-1995.172796
    Cosmos caudatus is widely used as a traditional medicine in Southeast Asia. C. caudatus has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid. Studies have shown that C. caudatus exhibits high anti-oxidant capacity and various medicinal properties, including anti-diabetic activity, anti-hypertensive properties, anti-inflammatory responses, bone-protective effect, and anti-microbial activity. This review aims to present the potential medicinal benefits of C. caudatus from the available scientific literature. We searched PubMed and ScienceDirect database for articles published from 1995 to January 2015. Overall, 15 articles related to C. caudatus and its medicinal benefits are reviewed. All these studies demonstrated that C. caudatus is effective, having demonstrated its anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, bone-protective, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal activity in both in vitro and animal studies. None of the studies showed any negative effect of C. caudatus related to medicinal use. Currently available evidence suggests that C. caudatus has beneficial effects such as reducing blood glucose, reducing blood pressure, promoting healthy bone formation, and demonstrating anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. However, human clinical trial is warranted.
  5. Lee ZY, Noor Airini I, Barakatun-Nisak MY
    Clin Nutr, 2018 08;37(4):1264-1270.
    PMID: 28599979 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2017.05.013
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effect of provision of full feeding or permissive underfeeding on mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is still controversial. This study investigated the relationship of energy and protein intakes with 60-day mortality, and the extent to which ICU length of stay and nutritional risk status influenced this relationship.

    METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted among critically ill patients aged ≥18 years, intubated and mechanically ventilated within 48 h of ICU admission and stayed in the ICU for at least 72 h. Information on baseline characteristics and nutritional risk status (the modified Nutrition Risk in Critically ill [NUTRIC] score) was collected on day 1. Nutritional intake was recorded daily until death, discharge, or until the twelfth evaluable days. Mortality status was assessed on day 60 based on the patient's hospital record. Patients were divided into 3 groups a) received <2/3 of prescribed energy and protein (both <2/3), b) received ≥2/3 of prescribed energy and protein (both ≥2/3) and c) either energy or protein received were ≥2/3 of prescribed (either ≥2/3). The relationship between the three groups with 60-day mortality was examined by using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the influence of ICU length of stay (≥7 days) and nutritional risk status.

    RESULTS: Data were collected from 154 mechanically ventilated patients (age, 51.3 ± 15.7 years; body mass index, 26.5 ± 6.7 kg/m2; 54% male). The mean modified NUTRIC score was 5.7 ± 1.9, with 56% of the patients at high nutritional risk. The patients received 64.5 ± 21.6% of the amount of energy and 56.4 ± 20.6% of the amount of protein prescribed. Provision of energy and protein at ≥2/3 compared with <2/3 of the prescribed amounts was associated with a trend towards increased 60-day mortality (Adjusted odds ratio [Adj OR] 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-5.38; p = 0.074). No difference in mortality status was found between energy and protein provision at either ≥2/3 compared with <2/3 of the prescribed amounts (Adj OR 1.61, 95% CI, 0.58-4.45; p = 0.357). Nutritional risk status, not ICU length of stay, influenced the relationship between nutritional adequacy and 60-day mortality.

    CONCLUSIONS: Energy and protein adequacy of ≥2/3 of the prescribed amounts were associated with a trend towards increased 60-day mortality among mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. However, neither energy nor protein adequacy alone at ≥ or <2/3 adequacy affect 60-day mortality. Increased mortality was associated with provision of energy and protein at ≥2/3 of the prescribed amounts, which only affected patients with low nutritional risk.

  6. Cheng SH, Ismail A, Anthony J, Ng OC, Hamid AA, Barakatun-Nisak MY
    PMID: 26713097 DOI: 10.1155/2015/405615
    Objectives. Optimizing glycemic control is crucial to prevent type 2 diabetes related complications. Cosmos caudatus is reported to have promising effect in improving plasma blood glucose in an animal model. However, its impact on human remains ambiguous. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of C. caudatus on glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. In this randomized controlled trial with two-arm parallel-group design, a total of 101 subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to diabetic-ulam or diabetic controls for eight weeks. Subjects in diabetic-ulam group consumed 15 g of C. caudatus daily for eight weeks while diabetic controls abstained from taking C. caudatus. Both groups received the standard lifestyle advice. Results. After 8 weeks of supplementation, C. caudatus significantly reduced serum insulin (-1.16 versus +3.91), reduced HOMA-IR (-1.09 versus +1.34), and increased QUICKI (+0.05 versus -0.03) in diabetic-ulam group compared with the diabetic controls. HbA1C level was improved although it is not statistically significant (-0.76% versus -0.37%). C. caudatus was safe to consume. Conclusions. C. caudatus supplementation significantly improves insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  7. Barakatun Nisak MY, Ruzita AT, Norimah AK, Gilbertson H, Nor Azmi K
    J Am Coll Nutr, 2010 Jun;29(3):161-70.
    PMID: 20833988 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2010.10719830
    OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of low glycemic index (GI) dietary advice on eating patterns and dietary quality in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

    METHODS: Asian patients with T2DM (N  =  104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietary intake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record.

    RESULTS: At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ  =  -0.1 ± 0.2%).

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM.
  8. Firouzi S, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Ismail A, Majid HA, Nor Azmi K
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2013 Sep;64(6):780-6.
    PMID: 23484591 DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2013.775227
    Evidences from several studies suggest that probiotics affect glucose homeostasis. This paper reviews the results of animal and human studies on the role of probiotics in modulating glucose homeostasis.
  9. Firouzi S, Majid HA, Ismail A, Kamaruddin NA, Barakatun-Nisak MY
    Eur J Nutr, 2017 Jun;56(4):1535-1550.
    PMID: 26988693 DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1199-8
    AIM: Evidence of a possible connection between gut microbiota and several physiological processes linked to type 2 diabetes is increasing. However, the effect of multi-strain probiotics in people with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of multi-strain microbial cell preparation-also refers to multi-strain probiotics-on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes.

    DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial.

    SETTING: Diabetes clinic of a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 136 participants with type 2 diabetes, aged 30-70 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either probiotics (n = 68) or placebo (n = 68) for 12 weeks.

    OUTCOMES: Primary outcomes were glycemic control-related parameters, and secondary outcomes were anthropomorphic variables, lipid profile, blood pressure and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium quantities were measured before and after intervention as an indicator of successful passage of the supplement through gastrointestinal tract.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed on all participants, while per-protocol (PP) analysis was performed on those participants who had successfully completed the trial with good compliance rate.

    RESULTS: With respect to primary outcomes, glycated hemoglobin decreased by 0.14 % in the probiotics and increased by 0.02 % in the placebo group in PP analysis (p 

  10. Huei Phing C, Abu Saad H, Barakatun Nisak MY, Mohd Nasir MT
    J Exerc Sci Fit, 2017 Dec;15(2):55-62.
    PMID: 29541133 DOI: 10.1016/j.jesf.2017.07.003
    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL).

    Results: There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  11. Ch'ng LZ, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Wan Zukiman WZH, Abas F, Wahab NA
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2019 05 29;13(4):2339-2345.
    PMID: 31405640 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2019.05.026
    Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) plays an essential role in overall glycemic management. Less focus is given on managing postmeal hyperglycemia despite the facts that, it is a common feature of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the existing literature on the nutritional approaches to improve postmeal hyperglycemia in patients with T2D. We searched multiple databases for the studies examining the nutritional approaches to manage postmeal glucose in patients with T2D. We included studies that involve human trials that were published in English for the past 10 years. Our review of the current literature indicates that the postmeal hyperglycemia can be improved with four nutritional approaches. These approaches include (i) utilizing the appropriate amount and selecting the right type of carbohydrates, (ii) using specific types of dietary protein, (iii) manipulating the meal timing and orders and (iv) others (promoting postmeal physical activity, incorporating diabetes-specific formula and certain functional foods). The potential mechanisms underlying these approaches are discussed and the identified gaps warranted further research. This array of nutritional strategies provide a set of options for healthcare professionals to facilitate patients with T2D in achieving the optimal level of postmeal glucose.
  12. Hashim SA, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Abu Saad H, Ismail S, Hamdy O, Mansour AA
    Nutrients, 2020 Oct 15;12(10).
    PMID: 33076406 DOI: 10.3390/nu12103152
    While the role of medical and nutrition factors on glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been well-established, the association between health literacy (H.L.) and glycemic control is inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association of H.L. and nutritional status assessments with glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 280 T2DM respondents (mean (SD) age = 49.7 (10.3) years, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) = 9.9 (2.6) %, and Body Mass Index = 32.7 (15.1) kg/m2) were included in this study. A short-form Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) assessed the H.L. levels. Nutritional status assessments included client history, glycemic control, anthropometric, and biochemical data. The mean (S.D.) H.L. score was 45.7 (24.6), with 56% of the respondents had inadequate H.L. Inadequate H.L. was more common among those females; housewives, low education, received oral antidiabetic therapy, and shorter diabetes duration. Respondents with inadequate H.L. were significantly older and had higher HbA1c than those with marginal and adequate H.L. Meanwhile, respondents with inadequate and marginal H.L. levels had significantly higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure than the respondents with adequate H.L. Low H.L. scores, self-employment status, received dual antidiabetic therapy (insulin with oral agents), received insulin alone, and had higher fasting blood glucose explained about 21% of the total variation in HbA1c (adjusted R2 = 0.21; p < 0.001). Respondents with inadequate H.L. had poor glycemic control. The H.L. scores, together with nutritional status assessments, were the factors that predicted poor glycemic control among adults with T2DM.
    Study site: Faiha Specialized Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolism Centre (FDEMC), Basrah, Iraq
  13. Lee ZY, Ong SP, Ng CC, Yap CSL, Engkasan JP, Barakatun-Nisak MY, et al.
    Clin Nutr, 2021 03;40(3):1338-1347.
    PMID: 32919818 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2020.08.022
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In critically ill patients, direct measurement of skeletal muscle using bedside ultrasound (US) may identify a patient population that might benefit more from optimal nutrition practices. When US is not available, survey measures of nutrition risk and functional status that are associated with muscle status may be used to identify patients with low muscularity. This study aims to determine the association between baseline and changing ultrasound quadriceps muscle status with premorbid functional status and 60-day mortality.

    METHODS: This single-center prospective observational study was conducted in a general ICU. Mechanically ventilated critically ill adult patients (age ≥18 years) without pre-existing systemic neuromuscular diseases and expected to stay for ≥96 h in the ICU were included. US measurements were performed within 48 h of ICU admission (baseline), at day 7, day 14 of ICU stay and at ICU discharge (if stay >14 days). Quadriceps muscle layer thickness (QMLT), rectus femoris cross sectional area (RFCSA), vastus intermedius pennation angle (PA) and fascicle length (FL), and rectus femoris echogenicity (mean and standard deviation [SD]) were measured. Patients' next-of-kin were interviewed by using established questionnaires for their pre-hospitalization nutritional risk (nutrition risk screening-2002) and functional status (SARC-F, clinical frailty scale [CFS], Katz activities of daily living [ADL] and Lawton Instrumental ADL).

    RESULTS: Ninety patients were recruited. A total of 86, 53, 24 and 10 US measures were analyzed, which were performed at a median of 1, 7, 14 and 22 days from ICU admission, respectively. QMLT, RFCSA and PA reduced significantly over time. The overall trend of change of FL was not significant. The only independent predictor of 60-day mortality was the change of QMLT from baseline to day 7 (adjusted odds ratio 0.95 for every 1% less QMLT loss, 95% confidence interval 0.91-0.99; p = 0.02). Baseline measures of high nutrition risk (modified nutrition risk in critically ill ≥5), sarcopenia (SARC-F ≥4) and frailty (CFS ≥5) were associated with lower baseline QMLT, RFCSA and PA and higher 60-day mortality.

    CONCLUSIONS: Every 1% loss of QMLT over the first week of critical illness was associated with 5% higher odds of 60-day mortality. SARC-F, CFS and mNUTRIC are associated with quadriceps muscle status and 60-day mortality and may serve as a potential simple and indirect measures of premorbid muscle status at ICU admission.

  14. Lee ZY, Yap CSL, Hasan MS, Engkasan JP, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Day AG, et al.
    Crit Care, 2021 07 23;25(1):260.
    PMID: 34301303 DOI: 10.1186/s13054-021-03693-4
    BACKGROUND: The optimal protein dose in critical illness is unknown. We aim to conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effect of higher versus lower protein delivery (with similar energy delivery between groups) on clinical and patient-centered outcomes in critically ill patients.

    METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CINAHL from database inception through April 1, 2021.We included RCTs of (1) adult (age ≥ 18) critically ill patients that (2) compared higher vs lower protein with (3) similar energy intake between groups, and (4) reported clinical and/or patient-centered outcomes. We excluded studies on immunonutrition. Two authors screened and conducted quality assessment independently and in duplicate. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled risk ratio (dichotomized outcomes) or mean difference (continuous outcomes).

    RESULTS: Nineteen RCTs were included (n = 1731). Sixteen studies used primarily the enteral route to deliver protein. Intervention was started within 72 h of ICU admission in sixteen studies. The intervention lasted between 3 and 28 days. In 11 studies that reported weight-based nutrition delivery, the pooled mean protein and energy received in higher and lower protein groups were 1.31 ± 0.48 vs 0.90 ± 0.30 g/kg and 19.9 ± 6.9 versus 20.1 ± 7.1 kcal/kg, respectively. Higher vs lower protein did not significantly affect overall mortality [risk ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.10, p = 0.34] or other clinical or patient-centered outcomes. In 5 small studies, higher protein significantly attenuated muscle loss (MD -3.44% per week, 95% CI -4.99 to -1.90; p 

  15. Mohammad A, Falahi E, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Hanipah ZN, Redzwan SM, Yusof LM, et al.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2021 05 31;15(4):102158.
    PMID: 34186370 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.031
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The studies have shown that α-tocopherol supplementation could improve lipid profile in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Nonetheless, the result remains inconsistent. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of α-tocopherol supplement on lipid parameters in DM patients.

    METHODS: We conducted an extensive search via Cochrane Library, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases to acquire the reported RCTs up to October 2020.

    RESULTS: The results showed no effects of α-tocopherol supplementation on lipid profile in DM patients except when used ≥12 weeks.

    CONCLUSIONS: α-tocopherol supplementation in DM patients had no significant effect on lipid profiles.

  16. Lee ZY, Hasan MS, Day AG, Ng CC, Ong SP, Yap CSL, et al.
    PMID: 34021917 DOI: 10.1002/jpen.2194
    BACKGROUND: Nutrition risk, sarcopenia, and frailty are distinct yet inter-related. They may be due to suboptimal or prevented by optimal nutrition intake. The combination of nutrition risk (modified nutrition risk in the critically ill [mNUTRIC]), sarcopenia (SARC-CALF) and frailty (clinical frailty scale [CFS]) in a single score may better predict adverse outcomes and prioritizing resources for optimal nutrition (and exercise) in the intensive care unit (ICU).

    METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a single-center prospective observational study that enrolled mechanically ventilated adults with expected ≥96 hours ICU stay. SARC-F and CFS questionnaires were administered to patient's next-of-kin and mNUTRIC were calculated. Calf-circumference was measured at the right calf. Nutrition data was collected from nursing record. The high-risk scores (mNUTRIC ≥5, SARC-CALF >10 or CFS ≥4) of these variables were combined to become the NUTRIC-SF score (range: 0-3).

    RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were analyzed. Multiple logistic model demonstrated increasing mNUTRIC score was independently associated with 60-day mortality while increasing SARC-CALF and CFS showed a strong trend towards higher 60-day mortality. Discriminative ability of NUTRIC-SF for 60-day mortality is better than it's component (AUROC 0.722, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.677-0.868). Every increment of 300 kcal/day and 30 g/day is associated with a trend towards higher rate of discharge alive for high [≥2; Adjusted Hazard Ratio 1.453 (95% CI 0.991-2.130) for energy, 1.503 (95% CI 0.936-2.413) for protein] but not low (<2) NUTRIC-SF score.

    CONCLUSION: NUTRIC-SF score may be a clinically relevant risk stratification tool in the ICU. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Nurain MN, Marmuji LZ, Mastura I, Michael FH, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Yusof M, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):55-59.
    PMID: 32175041
    Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and her developing fetus. Management of the condition at the primary care level includes pre-conception care, screening, diagnosis, as well as antenatal and postpartum care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in ensuring its holistic management.
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