Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Sinniah D, Baskaran G
    Lancet, 1981 Feb 28;1(8218):487-9.
    PMID: 6110100
    Vomiting, drowsiness, metabolic acidosis, polymorphonuclear leucocytosis, and encephalopathy developed in thirteen infants within hours of ingestion of margosa oil. Liver biopsy of one infant and necropsy examination of ICR strain mice after experimentally induced margosa-oil poisoning demonstrated pronounced fatty infiltration of the liver and proximal renal tubules as well as cerebral oedema. Electron microscopy demonstrated mitochondrial damage. These findings indicate that margosa oil may be involved in the aetiology of Reye's syndrome among Indians in Malaysia.
  2. Retnasabapathy A, Baskaran G
    PMID: 4432112
  3. Sinniah D, Baskaran G, Vijayalakshmi B, Sundaravelli N
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1981;75(6):903-4.
    PMID: 7330956
  4. Sinniah R, Sinniah D, Chia LS, Baskaran G
    J Pathol, 1989 Nov;159(3):255-64.
    PMID: 2593049
    The aetiology and pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome (RS) are incompletely understood. A number of environmental toxins and biological agents, including viruses, have been postulated to cause RS, either acting alone or synergistically. Most investigations have suggested that the primary insult is in the liver mitochondria, leading to a complex biochemical catastrophe, with death from encephalopathy. Margosa oil (MO), a long-chain fatty acid compound, has been shown to cause a Reye-like syndrome with death from hepatoencephalopathy, in children in Malaysia and India. The present time-course study performed in MO-administered mice showed the development of hepatic lesions with many features of RS. MO acts rapidly, within 30 min, on the nuclei of hepatocytes inducing mitoses and binucleated cells. This is followed by mitochondrial injury, with swelling, rarefaction of matrix, loss of dense bodies, pleomorphism, and loss of ribosomes starting at 60 min. There is loss of liver glycogen, and proliferation and hypertrophy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), followed by the presence of lipid droplets in the hyaloplasm, and globules within dilated cisterns of the ER. Additional fatty acids from lipolysis of body adipocytes, and fat globules from intestinal MO ingestion further aggravate the liver fatty change. There is evidence of fat globule ingestion by endocytosis into hepatocytes at the level of the sinusoids. The development of microvesicular liver steatosis and glycogen depletion due to involvement of liver cell organelles occur rapidly as in RS.
  5. Sundram K, Pathmanathan R, Wong KT, Baskaran G
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1997 Mar;6(1):31-5.
    PMID: 24394650
    Thirty six-male New Zealand White rabbits subdivided into four dietary groups (9 animals per group) were fed high fat (36% en), cholesterol-free diets for nine months. The dietary oil blends were formulated to contain high levels of the target fatty acids namely trans-rich (partially hydrogenated soybean oil; TRANS), cis monounsaturated-rich (rapeseed, sunflower seed oil and palm olein; MONO), palmitic-rich (palm olein; POL) and lauric-myristic rich (coconut, palm kernel and corn oils; LM). Ad libitum feeding of the rabbits resulted in normal growth throughout the nine months and no differences in the final body weights of the animals were evident at autopsy. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly elevated only by the LM enriched diet compared with all other treatments; values were comparable between the other three treatment groups. Changes in the total cholesterol were not reflected in the VLDL and LDL lipoproteins. However, HDL-cholesterol was significantly lowered by the TRANS diet compared with all other dietary groups. HDL-cholesterol was also significantly increased by the LM diet in comparison to the POL-diet. Both adipose and liver triglyceride fatty acid compositions tended to reflect the type of fatty acids fed the animals. Trans fatty acids were evident only in animals fed the trans diet and it was apparent that the trans fatty acids competed with linoleic acid for incorporation into these tissues. Increased concentrations of lauric and myristic fatty acids in the LM-fed animals were also evident. In the POL and high MONO fed rabbits, palmitic and oleic fatty acids (respectively) were concentrated in the adipose and liver. The diets, however, failed to induce severe atherosclerosis in this study. This can be explained, in part, by the lack of dietary cholesterol and the use of plant (rather than animal) proteins in our dietary formulations. The effect of these important atherosclerosis modulators in association with these fatty acids requires further evaluation.
  6. Sinniah D, Sinniah R, Baskaran G, Pathmanathan R, Yamashita F, Yoshino M
    Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1990 Aug;32(4):462-8.
    PMID: 2288230
    Glucose and steroids have been used in the treatment of children with Reye's syndrome, while carnitine and coenzyme Q10 have been the subject of some recent studies which suggest that these agents may have a role in the treatment of Reye's syndrome and Reye-like syndrome due to margosa oil poisoning. Because of the paucity of causes of Reye's syndrome seen at any one centre, the clinical variability of the disease, and limited knowledge of definite aetiologic factors, controlled clinical trials are not easy to carry out or to interpret in human cases. These caveats were overcome by evaluation of these four treatment modalities in an established margosa-oil-induced animal model of Reye's syndrome. Effectiveness of the treatment modalities was determined from clinical response and histopathologic parameters (grading of light microscopic fatty changes and ultrastructural changes in the hepatocytes). Results show that carnitine per se produces a small improvement in survival, but statistically, more significant benefit is seen with glucose administration. Carnitine plus 10% dextrose appears to produce better results. Evaluation of coenzyme Q10 and carnitine on histopathologic parameters in the liver after a sublethal dose of margosa oil showed no obvious ameliorating effect on liver pathology. Steroids (dexamethasone/methylprednisolone) had no beneficial effects in reducing mortality, affecting glycogen storage or lipid accumulation. Changes in the mitochondria, ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum were unaltered from the groups treated with margosa oil alone. While glucose and carnitine supplements appear to be beneficial, the other modes of therapy do not seem to hold much promise in the treatment of Reye-like syndrome in the margosa-oil-induced animal model.
  7. Baskaran G, Masdor NA, Syed MA, Shukor MY
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:678356.
    PMID: 24194687 DOI: 10.1155/2013/678356
    Heavy metals pollution has become a great threat to the world. Since instrumental methods are expensive and need skilled technician, a simple and fast method is needed to determine the presence of heavy metals in the environment. In this study, an inhibitive enzyme assay for heavy metals has been developed using crude proteases from Coriandrum sativum. In this assay, casein was used as a substrate and Coomassie dye was used to denote the completion of casein hydrolysis. In the absence of inhibitors, casein was hydrolysed and the solution became brown, while in the presence of metal ions such as Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺, the hydrolysis of casein was inhibited and the solution remained blue. Both Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ exhibited one-phase binding curve with IC₅₀ values of 3.217 mg/L and 0.727 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for Hg were 0.241 and 0.802 mg/L, respectively, while the LOD and LOQ for Zn were 0.228 and 0.761 mg/L, respectively. The enzyme exhibited broad pH ranges for activity. The crude proteases extracted from Coriandrum sativum showed good potential for the development of a rapid, sensitive, and economic inhibitive assay for the biomonitoring of Hg²⁺ and Zn²⁺ in the aquatic environments.
  8. Baskaran G, Salvamani S, Ahmad SA, Shaharuddin NA, Pattiram PD, Shukor MY
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:509-17.
    PMID: 25609924 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S75056
    The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl), 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases.
  9. Baskaran G, Salvamani S, Azlan A, Ahmad SA, Yeap SK, Shukor MY
    PMID: 26697097 DOI: 10.1155/2015/751714
    Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba) using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD), 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
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