Displaying all 15 publications

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  1. Chan LF, Shamsul AS, Maniam T
    Psychiatry Res, 2014 Dec 30;220(3):867-73.
    PMID: 25240940 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.055
    Our study aimed to examine the interplay between clinical and social predictors of future suicide attempt and the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in depressive disorders. Sixty-six Malaysian inpatients with a depressive disorder were assessed at index admission and within 1 year for suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, depression severity, life event changes, treatment history and relevant clinical and socio-demographic factors. One-fifth of suicidal ideators transitioned to a future suicide attempt. All future attempters (12/66) had prior ideation and 83% of attempters had a prior attempt. The highest risk for transitioning from ideation to attempt was 5 months post-discharge. Single predictor models showed that previous psychiatric hospitalization and ideation severity were shared predictors of future attempt and ideation to attempt transition. Substance use disorders (especially alcohol) predicted future attempt and approached significance for the transition process. Low socio-economic status predicted the transition process while major personal injury/illness predicted future suicide attempt. Past suicide attempt, subjective depression severity and medication compliance predicted only future suicide attempt. The absence of prior suicide attempt did not eliminate the risk of future attempt. Given the limited sample, future larger studies on mechanisms underlying the interactions of such predictors are needed.
  2. Chan LF, Maniam T, Shamsul AS
    Crisis, 2011;32(5):283-7.
    PMID: 21940256 DOI: 10.1027/0227-5910/a000088
    Depressed inpatients constitute a high-risk population for suicide attempts.
  3. Lai MH, Maniam T, Chan LF, Ravindran AV
    J. Med. Internet Res., 2014;16(1):e30.
    PMID: 24472876 DOI: 10.2196/jmir.2973
    Suicide is a serious and increasing problem worldwide. The emergence of the digital world has had a tremendous impact on people's lives, both negative and positive, including an impact on suicidal behaviors.
  4. Hu J, Chan LF, Souza RP, Tampakeras M, Kennedy JL, Zai C, et al.
    Neurosci. Lett., 2014 Jan 24;559:39-43.
    PMID: 24275212 DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.11.025
    Evidence has shown that attempted suicide in psychiatric disorders is a complex interplay of genes and environment. Noradrenergic dysfunction due to abnormalities in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior in mood disorders. However, suicide is a leading cause of mortality in schizophrenia too. Recent evidence suggests that TH gene variants may also increase the risk of suicide attempts in schizophrenia patients, although the interaction with established clinical risk factors is unclear. This study aimed to identify TH gene variants conferring risk for suicide attempt in schizophrenia while accounting for the interaction between this gene and clinical risk factors. We performed analysis on four TH SNPs (rs11564717, rs11042950, rs2070762, rs689) and the common TCAT repeat (UniSTS:240639) for 234 schizophrenia patients (51 suicide attempters and 183 non-attempters). Clinical risk factors and ethnic stratification were included as covariates. Single marker analysis identified the SNP rs11564717 (p=0.042) and the TCAT(6) (p=0.004) as risk variants for suicide attempt. We also identified the haplotype A-A-A-G as a risk factor for suicide attempt (p=0.0025). In conclusion, our findings suggest that TH polymorphisms may contribute to the risk of attempted suicide in schizophrenia even after accounting for established clinical risk factors and ethnic stratification. Further larger scale studies are needed to confirm these findings and to understand the mechanisms underlying the role of TH gene variants in suicide attempt in schizophrenia.
  5. Chan LF, Tan SM, Ang JK, Kamal Nor N, Sharip S
    J Child Sex Abus, 2012;21(6):613-20.
    PMID: 23194137 DOI: 10.1080/10538712.2012.719597
    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.
  6. Ashcroft R, Seko Y, Chan LF, Dere J, Kim J, McKenzie K
    Int J Public Health, 2015 Nov;60(7):827-37.
    PMID: 26298442 DOI: 10.1007/s00038-015-0713-8
    OBJECTIVES: We conducted a scoping review to identify and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mental health effects associated with bed bugs.

    METHODS: We employed a five-stage scoping review framework, to systematically identify and review eligible articles. Eligibility criteria included a focus on bed bug infestations and reference to mental health impacts. Descriptive information was then extracted from each article, including the specific mental health effects cited.

    RESULTS: An initial search yielded 920 unique articles on the topic of bed bugs. Of these, 261 underwent abstract review, and 167 underwent full-text review. Full-text review and subsequent review of reference lists yielded a final sample of 51 articles. Numerous mental health effects were linked to bed bug infestations, including severe psychiatric symptoms. However, the majority (n = 31) of the articles were commentary papers; only five original research articles were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although significant mental health effects are often linked to bed bugs, such discussions remain largely anecdotal. Despite recognition that the impact of bed bugs constitutes an important public health concern, little empirical evidence currently exists on this topic.

  7. Woon LS, Tee CK, Gan LLY, Deang KT, Chan LF
    J Psychiatr Pract, 2018 Mar;24(2):121-124.
    PMID: 29509183 DOI: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000292
    Leukopenia is a known hematological side effect of atypical antipsychotics. We report a case of an antipsychotic-naive patient with schizophrenia who developed leukopenia after a single dose of olanzapine, which worsened during subsequent treatment with risperidone. Normalization of the white blood cell counts occurred within 24 hours of risperidone discontinuation. Possible synergistic mechanisms underlying olanzapine-induced and risperidone-induced leukopenia are discussed. This case highlights the challenges in identifying and managing nonclozapine antipsychotic-induced leukopenia in a susceptible patient.
  8. Kanapathy A, Nik Jaafar NR, Shaharir SS, Chan LF, Rozita M, Ch'ng SS
    Lupus, 2019 Jun;28(7):854-861.
    PMID: 31159651 DOI: 10.1177/0961203319852153
    INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment is a common neuropsychiatric manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, it is not routinely assessed for despite its high prevalence and significant disease burden.

    AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and its associated factors among patients diagnosed with SLE in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A total of 200 SLE patients were recruited prospectively from the outpatient clinics of two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia. Standardized clinical interview was utilized to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics. All patients were then assessed using the MoCA questionnaire for presence of cognitive impairment; the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) for presence of depressive symptoms; and the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale (WBFPS) for severity of pain. The evaluation of disease activity and severity were performed by the treating rheumatologists and nephrologists using the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SLICC DI).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of MCI was 35%. The significant associated factors from the bivariate analysis were male gender (p = 0.04), educational level (p = 0.00), WBFPS score (p = 0.035) and anticardiolipin IgM (p = 0.01). Further analysis using logistic regression model found that male gender (OR = 7.43, 95% confidence interval 1.06-52.06, p = 0.04), lower educational level (OR = 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.47-13.21, p = 0.01) and presence of anticardiolipin IgM (OR = 6.81, 95% confidence interval 1.45-32.01, p = 0.031) were associated with impaired MoCA scores. Also, increasing pain scores increased the risk of patients being affected by cognitive impairment.

    CONCLUSION: Over one-third of patients with SLE in our cohort were found to have MCI. Risk factors included male gender, lower educational level, higher pain score and presence of anticardiolipin IgM. Physicians are encouraged to perform routine screening to detect cognitive dysfunction in patients with SLE in their clinical practice as part of a more comprehensive management.
  9. Chai YC, Mahadevan R, Ng CG, Chan LF, Md Dai F
    Int J Soc Psychiatry, 2018 09;64(6):578-588.
    PMID: 30074421 DOI: 10.1177/0020764018792585
    BACKGROUND: Depression has been well studied as part of caregiver burden among patients with severe mental illnesses. Curiously, though, there has been little data in terms of caregiver burden with specific focus on depression among caregivers of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

    AIM: This study aims to determine the rate of depression among caregivers of person with depression and its psychosocial correlates, which include stigma, perceived social support, religious commitment and the severity of the patient's symptoms.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 patients diagnosed with MDD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) together with their caregivers. Apart from gathering social demographic data, patients were administered the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated Version (QIDS-SR 16), whereas the caregivers were required to answer Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Those who scored ⩾5 on PHQ-9 were further assessed with interviewer-rated M.I.N.I. to diagnose the presence of depression.

    RESULTS: A total of 47 (28.5%) caregivers were found to have depressive symptoms. Out of that total, 13 (7.9%) were diagnosed to have MDD using M.I.N.I. From univariate analysis, factors associated with depression in caregivers were the severity of symptoms in patients ( p 

  10. Tan SM, Jong SC, Chan LF, Jamaludin NA, Phang CK, Jamaluddin NS, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:74-81.
    PMID: 23857841 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12048
    Anxiety among house officers may impair functioning and health care delivery. This study aimed to determine the association between anxiety among house officers at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, sociodemographic and work-related factors.
  11. Chan LF, Mohamad Adam B, Norazlin KN, Siti Haida MI, Lee VY, Norazura AW, et al.
    J Adolesc, 2016 10;52:162-9.
    PMID: 27572955 DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.08.006
    Pregnant adolescents are a high-risk population for suicide. However, a knowledge gap still exists on how sexual and religious knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) influence suicidal ideation (SI) in teenage pregnancy. We aim to explore the interplay between psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic factors and KAP of sexual and religious issues as risk factors of SI among 114 pregnant Malaysian adolescents from 6 rehabilitation centers and a tertiary hospital. Single sexual partner was an independent predictor of SI, suggesting the role of less sexual experience as a risk factor for SI after controlling for major depression. Participants who were unsure versus those who agreed with the statement that most religions' viewed sex outside marriage as wrong had a lower risk of SI after controlling for major depression. Pregnant adolescents with a single sexual partner were significantly associated with current SI. Ambivalence towards religious prohibitions on premarital sex may protect against suicidal ideation.
  12. Chan LF, Maniam T, Saini SM, Shah SA, Loh SF, Sinniah A, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:123-6.
    PMID: 23857848 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12057
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data.
    RESULTS: The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11).
    DISCUSSION: Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; risks; sexual abuse; substance abuse; suicidal behavior
  13. Buji RI, Abdul Murad NA, Chan LF, Maniam T, Mohd Shahrir MS, Rozita M, et al.
    Lupus, 2018 Apr;27(5):744-752.
    PMID: 29161964 DOI: 10.1177/0961203317742711
    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are a high-risk population for suicide. Glutamatergic neurosystem genes have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression in SLE and suicidal behaviour in general. However, the role of glutamate receptor gene polymorphisms in suicidal behaviour among SLE patients remains unclear in the context of established clinical and psychosocial factors. We aimed to investigate the association of NR2A gene polymorphism with suicidal ideation in SLE while accounting for the interaction between clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods A total of 130 SLE patients were assessed for mood disorders (MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview), severity of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), suicidal behaviour (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale), socio-occupational functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), recent life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and lupus disease activity (SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index). Eighty-six out of the 130 study participants consented for NR2A genotyping. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed nominal significance for the interaction effect between the NR2A rs2072450 AC genotype and higher severity of socio-occupational impairment with lifetime suicidal ideation in SLE patients ( p = 0.038, odds ratio = 1.364, 95% confidence interval = 1.018-1.827). However, only the association between lifetime mood disorder and lifetime suicidal ideation remained significant after Bonferroni correction ( p 
  14. Chan LF, Eu CL, Soh SY, Maniam T, Shahidii Kadir Z, Chong BTW, et al.
    J Psychiatr Pract, 2018 Jul;24(4):279-291.
    PMID: 30427812 DOI: 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000316
    Ketamine has shown effectiveness as a rapid-acting antidepressant with antisuicidal effects in terms of reduction of suicidal ideation in the short term. However, the evidence for long-term maintenance ketamine therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and suicidal behavior is limited. This case series (N=13) highlights the role of adjunctive serial maintenance ketamine infusions in restoring functionality in treatment-resistant unipolar and bipolar (mixed) depression with significant suicide risk and multiple comorbidities, including alcohol dependence. Two cases of TRD achieved functional remission with long-term maintenance ketamine treatment. The first case illustrates the potential synergistic interaction between ketamine and lamotrigine to achieve a sustained antidepressant response in the patient for 7 months. The second case may possibly be the longest reported case of maintenance ketamine therapy, with treatment continuing for 5 years to date. Ketamine treatment showed acute effectiveness in another 7 cases, especially in terms of reduction of suicidal ideation, albeit without significant long-term antidepressant effect. Factors that may contribute to lack of effectiveness of serial ketamine include inadequate mood stabilization in TRD in bipolar spectrum diagnoses, concomitant benzodiazepine use, complex comorbidities, and adverse effects such as significant hypertension and severe dissociation. Future systematic controlled studies are warranted to establish the efficacy and safety profile of long-term ketamine as maintenance therapy for TRD with suicidal behavior.
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