Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 82 in total

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  1. Cheah YK
    PMID: 25897281 MyJurnal
    In the context of global increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases, the objective of the present study is to investigate the factors affecting individuals' decisions to use health-promoting goods and services.
  2. Cheah YK
    PMID: 23613658 MyJurnal
    In light of the fact that chronic diseases were becoming more prevalent recently, the primary objective of the study was to examine the socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle determinants of the use of preventive medical care in Penang, Malaysia.
  3. Cheah YK
    Malays J Nutr, 2011 Dec;17(3):385-91.
    PMID: 22655460 MyJurnal
    Given the importance of physical activity to health, this study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang.
  4. Cheah YK, Meltzer D
    J Gen Intern Med, 2020 Sep;35(9):2680-2686.
    PMID: 32185659 DOI: 10.1007/s11606-020-05766-6
    BACKGROUND: There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases among the elderly in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine ethnic differences in participation in medical check-ups among the elderly.

    DESIGN: A nationally representative data set was employed. Multiple logistic regressions were utilised to examine the relationship between ethnicity and the likelihood of undergoing medical check-ups. The regressions were stratified by age, income, marital status, gender, household location, insurance access and health status. These variables were also controlled for in the regressions (including stratified regressions).

    PARTICIPANTS: The respondents were required to be residents of Malaysia and not be institutionalised. Overall, 30,806 individuals were selected to be interviewed, but only 28,650 were actually interviewed, equivalent to a 93% response rate. Of those, only 2248 were used in the analyses, because 26,402 were others or below aged 60.

    MAIN MEASURES: The dependent variable was participation in a medical check-up. The main independent variables were the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian).

    KEY RESULTS: Among the elderly aged 70-79 years, Chinese (aOR 1.89; 95% CI 1.28, 2.81) and Indians (aOR 2.39; 95% CI 1.20, 4.74) were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malays. Among the elderly with monthly incomes of ≤ RM999, Chinese (aOR 1.44; 95% CI 1.12, 1.85) and Indians (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 0.99, 2.28) were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malays. Indian males were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malay males (aOR 2.32; 95% CI 1.15, 4.67). Chinese with hypercholesterolaemia (aOR 1.45; 95% CI 1.07, 1.98) and hypertension (aOR 1.32; 95% CI 1.02, 1.72) were more likely to undergo medical check-ups than Malays.

    CONCLUSIONS: There were ethnic differences in participation in medical check-ups among the elderly. These ethnic differences varied across age, income, marital status, gender, household location, insurance access and health status.

  5. Cheah YK, Goh KL
    J Diabetes, 2016 Feb 12.
    PMID: 26872319 DOI: 10.1111/1753-0407.12388
    An early detection of raised blood glucose can reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Despite being the high risk group, a significant proportion of the elderly population does not undergo blood glucose screening. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting blood glucose screening among the elderly.
  6. Cheah YK, Poh BK
    PMID: 24955308 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrp.2013.12.002
    In light of the importance of physical activity, the aim of the present study is to examine the factors affecting participation in physical activity among adults in Malaysia.
  7. Cheah YK, Naidu BM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(4):1125-30.
    PMID: 22799293
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of present study is to investigate the determinants of smoking behaviour among adults in Malaysia.

    METHOD: Findings of the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-3) by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, were used. The sample consisted of 34,539 observations. A logistic regression model was thus applied to estimate the probability to participate in smoking.

    RESULTS: Age, income, gender, marital status, ethnicity, employment status, residential area, education, lifestyle and health status were statistically significant in affecting the likelihood of smoking. Specifically, youngsters, low income earners, males, unmarried individuals, Malays, employed individuals, rural residents and primary educated individuals were more likely to smoke.

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors have significant impacts on smoking participation in Malaysia. Based on these empirical findings, several policy implications are suggested.

  8. Cheah YK, Su TT
    JUMMEC, 2012;15(2):1-7.
    MyJurnal
    The objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the acquisition of health information on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) among Malaysian adults. A robust analysis was conducted on cross-sectional survey data obtained from 398 respondents in Penang (Malaysia) between August to October 2010. An ordered probit model was applied to examine the factors affecting the scale of health information. The results suggest that old individuals, rural dwellers, having chronic disease and history of serious family illnesses are 0.19%, 2.39%, 2.2% and 2.71% less likely to acquire poor health information on NCDs than others, whereas Malays, Chinese, males and those of low educated are 8.76%, 6.22%, 2.94% and 21.62% more likely to acquire poor health information on NCDs than others. Based on these findings, several intervention measures toward increasing the health knowledge among the population are recommended, which include the use of language-based mass media to advertise the information on diseases, designing health awareness campaigns in urban areas and introducing more basic health related subjects and courses into primary and secondary schools.
  9. Cheah YK, Chong YW
    Glob Health Promot, 2018 Mar;25(1):63-72.
    PMID: 27406823 DOI: 10.1177/1757975916649135
    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.
  10. Lee SS, Cheah YK
    J Immunol Res, 2019;2019:3046379.
    PMID: 30944831 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3046379
    Cellular components of the tumour microenvironment (TME) are recognized to regulate the hallmarks of cancers including tumour proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, as well as chemotherapeutic resistance. The linkage between miRNA, TME, and the development of the hallmarks of cancer makes miRNA-mediated regulation of TME a potential therapeutic strategy to complement current cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in cancer therapy, lung cancer remains the deadliest form of cancer among males in the world and has overtaken breast cancer as the most fatal cancer among females in more developed countries. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for NSCLC, which is the most common type of lung cancer. Hence, this review will focus on current literature pertaining to antitumour or protumourigenic effects elicited by nonmalignant stromal cells of TME in NSCLC through miRNA regulation as well as current status and future prospects of miRNAs as therapeutic agents or targets to regulate TME in NSCLC.
  11. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Phang SN, Hazilah N
    Public Health, 2017 May;146:84-91.
    PMID: 28404478 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.01.009
    OBJECTIVES: The rapid rise in the prevalence of physical inactivity-related diseases has become a serious public health issue worldwide. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting participation in physical activity among urban dwellers in Malaysia.
    STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study measures physical activity using a rigorous regression model.
    METHODS: Data are obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 (NHMS 2011). A lognormal hurdle model is used to analyse the participation decision and the amount decision of physical activity.
    RESULTS: The results show that income, gender, ethnicity, marital status and employment status are significantly associated with participation decision and amount decision. However, age, insurance and self-rated health only affect participation decision, whereas family size, education and smoking only affect amount decision.
    CONCLUSIONS: It can, thus, be concluded that sociodemographic, insurance, lifestyle and health factors play an important role in determining physical activity behaviour among urban dwellers. When formulating policies, special attention must be paid to these factors.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2011)
  12. Cheah YK, Lim HK, Kee CC
    Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2018 Jun;5(2):49-54.
    PMID: 30805533 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.02.001
    Background and objectives: The objective of the present study is to examine factors affecting time spent in physical activity among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Patients and methods: A nationally representative data of adolescents that consists of 25399 respondents is used. The demographic (age, gender, education) and lifestyle (fruits and vegetables consumption, carbonated soft drink consumption, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, sex behaviour, participation in physical education class, obesity) determinants of physical activity are assessed using binomial regression.

    Results: The results show that age is negatively associated with time spent in physical activity. However, being male and education levels are positively related to time spent in physical activity. Having unhealthy lifestyle and being obese are associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical education seems to promote participation in physical activity.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, demographic and lifestyle factors play an important role in determining levels of physical activity among adolescents. In order to reduce the prevalence of physically inactive adolescents, policy makers should focus primarily on late adolescents, females, adolescents who engage in unhealthy lifestyle and seldom attend physical education classes, as well as obese adolescents.

  13. Cheah YK, Teh CH, Lim KH
    DOI: 10.1177/0022042618821195
    The objective of the present study is to examine the sociodemographic determinants of amount of smoking knowledge in Malaysia. Data are obtained from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). The GATS uses a multistage stratified sampling. A total of 4,153 respondents are used for analyses. The effects of sociodemographic factors on smoking knowledge are examined using a negative binomial regression. Age, wealth index, education, ethnicity, house locality, and smoking behavior are significantly associated with smoking knowledge. In particular, there are negative relationships between smoking knowledge and higher wealth index, less-educated individuals, Chinese, rural dwellers, and smokers. The present study concludes that sociodemographic factors play an important role in determining smoking knowledge. Hence, as an intervention measure directed toward improving the knowledge of smoking among Malaysian population, effective policies should pay special attention to individuals who are likely to have poor information on smoking.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
  14. Cheah YK, Lim HK, Kee CC
    J Pediatr Nurs, 2019 07 29;48:92-97.
    PMID: 31369963 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2019.07.012
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between high-risk behaviours and personal and family factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A nationwide data set was examined for this secondary data analysis. The dependent variable was the degree of risk, which was measured based on the number of high-risk behaviours in which adolescents participated. Age, gender, ethnicity, self-rated academic performance, family size, parental marital status and parental academic attainment were included as independent variables. Analyses stratified by educational level were conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using ordered logit.

    RESULTS: The most common high-risk behaviour among Malaysian adolescents was physical inactivity (35.97%), followed by smoking (13.27%) and alcohol consumption (4.45%). The majority of adolescents had low risks (52.93%), while only a small proportion had high risks (6.08%). Older age was associated with increased odds of having high risks (OR: 1.26). Male adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category compared to female adolescents (OR: 1.28). Compared to Malays, Chinese adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category (OR: 1.71), whereas Indian adolescents had lower odds (OR: 0.65). Excellent academic performance was associated with reduced odds of participating in high-risk behaviours (OR: 0.41).

    CONCLUSION: Personal factors are important determinants of high-risk behaviours. This study provides a better understanding of those adolescent groups that are at greater risk.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: An intervention directed towards reducing participation in high-risk behaviours among adolescents who have both poor academic performance and less-educated parents may yield promising outcomes.

  15. Khoo CH, Sim JH, Salleh NA, Cheah YK
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2015 Jan;107(1):23-37.
    PMID: 25312847 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-014-0300-7
    Salmonella is an important food-borne pathogen causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. Salmonellosis may be caused by any one of over 2,500 serovars of Salmonella. Nonetheless, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Agona are the second most prevalent serovars isolated from humans and livestock products respectively. Limited knowledge is available about the virulence mechanisms responsible for diarrheal disease caused by them. To investigate the contribution of sopB, sopD and pipD as virulence factors in intracellular infections and the uniqueness of these bacteria becoming far more prevalent than other serovars, the infection model of Caenorhabditis elegans and phenotypic microarray were used to characterize their mutants. The strains containing the mutation in sopB, sopD and pipD genes were constructed by using latest site-specific group II intron mutagenesis approach to reveal the pathogenicity of the virulence factors. Overall, we observed that the mutations in sopB, sopD and pipD genes of both serovars did not exhibit significant decrease in virulence towards the nematode. This may indicate that these virulence effectors may not be universal virulence factors involved in conserved innate immunity. There are significant phenotypic differences amongst strains carrying sopB, sopD and pipD gene mutations via the analysis of biochemical profiles of the bacteria. Interestingly, mutant strains displayed different susceptibility to chemical stressors from several distinct pharmacological and structural classes when compared to its isogenic parental strains. These metabolic and chemosensitivity assays also revealed multiple roles of Salmonella virulence factors in nutrient metabolism and antibiotic resistance.
  16. Chu WC, Aziz AF, Nordin AJ, Cheah YK
    Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost., 2016 Sep;22(6):581-8.
    PMID: 25667236 DOI: 10.1177/1076029615571628
    Genetic variants of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, respectively, and might increase the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study is to investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of CAD and to evaluate their potential interactions. A total of 237 patients with CAD and 101 controls were genotyped. The association of the polymorphism with the risk of CAD varied among the ethnic groups. Moreover, the concomitant presence of both CETP B1 and eNOS 4a alleles significantly increased the risk of CAD in the Malay group (OR = 33.8, P < .001) and the Indian group (OR = 10.9, P = .031) but not in the Chinese group. This study has identified a novel ethnic-specific gene-gene interaction and suggested that the combination of CETP B1 allele and eNOS 4a allele significantly increases the risk of CAD in Malays and Indians.
  17. Cheah YK, Azahadi M, Phang SN, Abd Manaf NH
    Psychiatry Res, 2018 03;261:319-324.
    PMID: 29331849 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.12.086
    Suicide has become a serious matter in both developed and developing countries. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting suicidal behaviour among adults in Malaysia. A nationally representative data which consists of 10,141 respondents is used for analysis. A trivariate probit model is utilised to identify the probability of having suicide ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt. Results of the regression analysis show that to ensure unbiased estimates, a trivariate probit model should be used instead of three separate probit models. The determining factors of suicidal behaviour are income, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, self-rated health and being diagnosed with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour is lower among higher income earners and older individuals. Being male and married significantly reduce the propensity to engage in suicidal behaviour. Of all the ethnic groups, Indian/others displays the highest likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour. There is a positive relationship between poor health condition and suicide. Policies targeted at individuals who are likely to adopt suicidal behaviour may be effective in lowering the prevalence of suicide.
  18. Hong Y, Hassan N, Cheah YK, Jalaludin MY, Kasim ZM
    PMID: 29423125
    The Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children & Adolescents was developed by a multidisciplinary development group and approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia in 2015. A systematic review of 15 clinical questions was conducted using the evidence retrieved mainly from MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. Critical appraisal was done using the Critical Appraisal Skills. Recommendations were formulated on the accepted 136 evidences using the principles of Grading Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation tailored to the local setting. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, which usually occurs at an early age, and is associated with various complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular morbidity. Good glycaemic control early in the disease results in lower frequency of chronic diabetes complications, which in turn reduces the healthcare cost. Accurate classification of diabetes and optimum management with the aim to achieve glycaemic targets is of utmost importance.
  19. Lum LC, Thong MK, Cheah YK, Lam SK
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1995 Dec;15(4):335-9.
    PMID: 8687212 DOI: 10.1080/02724936.1995.11747794
    In dengue shock syndrome, an acute increase in capillary permeability results in leakage of plasma into the interstitial space. Pleural effusion is commonly seen in dengue shock syndrome. We report three cases of dengue-associated adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in children, in all of whom dengue haemorrhagic fever, presenting with grade 3 or grade 4 dengue shock syndrome with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, was confirmed. The criteria for the diagnosis of ARDS were based on the expanded definition of ARDS by Murray et al. Treatment consisted of fluid resuscitation, correction of coagulopathy and mechanical ventilation. All three children had multi-organ impairment, but it was more severe in the two who died. The one survivor was well at discharge.
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