Vivipary with precocious seedlings in mangrove plants was thought to be a hindrance to long-range dispersal. To examine the extent of seedling dispersal across oceans, we investigated the phylogeny and genetic structure among East Asiatic populations of Kandelia candel based on organelle DNAs. In total, three, 28 and seven haplotypes of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB-rbcL spacer, cpDNA trnL-trnF spacer, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were identified, respectively, from 202 individuals. Three data sets suggested consistent phylogenies recovering two differentiated lineages corresponding to geographical regions, i.e. northern South-China-Sea + East-China-Sea region and southern South-China-Sea region (Sarawak). Phylogenetically, the Sarawak population was closely related to the Ranong population of western Peninsula Malaysia instead of other South-China-Sea populations, indicating its possible origin from the Indian Ocean Rim. No geographical subdivision was detected within the northern geographical region. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed low levels of genetic differentiation between and within mainland and island populations (phiCT = 0.015, phiSC = 0.037), indicating conspicuous long-distance seedling dispersal across oceans. Significant linkage disequilibrium excluded the possibility of recurrent homoplasious mutations as the major force causing phylogenetic discrepancy between mtDNA and the trnL-trnF spacer within the northern region. Instead, relative ages of alleles contributed to non-random chlorotype-mitotype associations and tree inconsistency. Widespread distribution and random associations (chi2 = 0.822, P = 0.189) of eight hypothetical ancestral cytotypes indicated the panmixis of populations of the northern geographical region as a whole. In contrast, rare and recently evolved alleles were restricted to marginal populations, revealing some preferential directional migration.
To provide theoretical basis for the traceability and quality evaluation of edible bird's nests (EBNs), the Cytb sequence was applied to identify the origin of EBNs. A total of 39 experiment samples were collected from Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand. Genomic DNA was extracted for the PCR reaction. The amplified products were sequenced. 36 sequences were downloaded from Gen Bank including edible nest swiftlet, black nest swiftlet, mascarene swiftlet, pacific swiftlet and germain's swiftlet. MEGA 7.0 was used to analyze the distinction of sequences by the method of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic tree based on Kimera-2-parameter model. The results showed that 39 samples were from three kinds of EBNs. Interspecific divergences were significantly greater than the intraspecific one. Samples could be successfully distinguished by NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic tree. In conclusion, Cytb sequence could be used to distinguish the origin of EBNs and it is efficient for tracing the origin species of EBNs.
We evaluated adherence with raloxifene therapy compared with daily bisphosphonate in Asian postmenopausal women at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. In this 12-month observational study conducted in Asia (Hong Kong, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan), 984 postmenopausal women (aged 55 years or older) were treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day (n = 707; 72%) or daily bisphosphonate (alendronate 10 mg/day; n = 206; 21%, or risedronate 5 mg/day; n = 71; 7%) during their normal course of care. Patients were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Baseline characteristics (including age, race, education, menopausal status, and baseline fractures) were comparable between the raloxifene and bisphosphonate groups. More women on raloxifene completed the study compared with those on bisphosphonate (50.2% versus 37.5%; P < 0.001). Patients also took raloxifene for a longer period than bisphosphonate (median, 356 versus 348 days; P = 0.011). Compared with those taking bisphosphonate, significantly fewer patients taking raloxifene discontinued the study because of stopping treatment (5.7% versus 10.1%, P = 0.017) or changing treatment (2.8% versus 9.7%, P < 0.001). Inconvenient dosing was reported as a primary reason for discontinuation due to stopping or changing treatment in 19 (6.9%) bisphosphonate patients compared with 0 raloxifene patients. The percentage of patients who had consumed 80% or more of their study medication was similar for raloxifene patients (48-56 weeks; 95.2%) and bisphosphonate patients (48-56 weeks; 93.3%). More raloxifene patients responded that they were satisfied with their medication than bisphosphonate patients at 48-56 weeks (P = 0.002). We concluded that Asian postmenopausal women at increased risk of osteoporotic fractures showed a greater propensity to remain on raloxifene compared with bisphosphonate. The women on raloxifene exhibited lower discontinuation rates and higher treatment satisfaction.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p
Specific ethnic genetic backgrounds are associated with the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) especially in Asians. However, there have been no large cohort, multiple-country epidemiological studies of medication risk related to SJS/TEN in Asian populations. Thus, we analyzed the registration databases from multiple Asian countries who were treated during 1998-2017. A total 1,028 SJS/TEN cases were identified with the algorithm of drug causality for epidermal necrolysis. Furthermore, those medications labeled by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as carrying a risk of SJS/TEN were also compared with the common causes of SJS/TEN in Asian countries. Oxcarbazepine, sulfasalazine, COX-II inhibitors, and strontium ranelate were identified as new potential causes. In addition to sulfa drugs and beta-lactam antibiotics, quinolones were also a common cause. Only one acetaminophen-induced SJS was identified, while several medications (e.g., oseltamivir, terbinafine, isotretinoin, and sorafenib) labeled as carrying a risk of SJS/TEN by the FDA were not found to have caused any of the cases in the Asian countries investigated in this study.