METHODS: Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of L. leucocephala and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to establish their identity. The in vitro antioxidant effect of endophytic crude extract (LL) was evaluated using 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) free radical scavenging methods. The in vitro antidiabetic properties of LL were evaluated using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition assay.
RESULTS: The isolated endophytic bacteria were identified as Cronobacter sakazakii. LL displayed potent free radical scavenging effect against ABTS and DPPH radicals with an inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) value of 17.49 ± 0.06 and 11.3 ± 0.1 μg/mL respectively. LL exhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 23.3 ± 0.08 and 23.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL respectively compared to the standard drug (acarbose). Both glucose loaded normoglycemic rats and STZ induced diabetic rats treated with LL (200 mg/kg) exhibited a considerable reduction in blood glucose levels p<0.01 after 8 h of treatment when compared to normal and diabetic control rats respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the study shows that LL has a wellspring of natural source of antioxidants, and antidiabetic agents and phytoconstituents present in endophytes could be the rich source for bioactive compounds.
METHOD: Hydrazinyl thiazole substituted coumarins 4-20 were synthesized via two step reaction. First step was the acid catalyzed reaction of 3-formyl/acetyl coumarin derivatives with thiosemicarbazide to form thiosemicarbazone intermediates 1-3, followed by the reaction with different phenacyl bromides to afford products 4-20. All the synthetic analogs 4-20 were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques such as EI-MS, HREI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Stereochemical assignment of the iminic double bond was carried out by the NOESY experiments. Elemental analysis was found in agreement with the calculated values.
RESULTS: Compounds 4-20 were screened for α-amylase inhibitory activity and showed good activity in the range of IC50 = 1.829 ± 0.102-3.37 ± 0.17 µM as compared to standard acarbose (IC50 = 1.819 ± 0.19 µM). Compounds were also investigated for their DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and displayed good radical scavenging potential. In addition to that molecular modelling study was conducted on all compounds to investigate the interaction details of compounds 4- 20 (ligands) with active site (receptor) of enzyme.
CONCLUSION: The newly identified hybrid class may serve as potential lead candidates for the management of diabetes mellitus.
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, an endophyte was isolated from the leaves of T. indica and screened for its antimicrobial potential.
METHODS: The selected endophyte was identified by 16s rRNA partial genome sequencing and investigated for their antimicrobial potency. The preliminary phytochemical tests were conducted for the affirmation of phytoconstituents in the endophytic crude ethyl acetate extract of T. indica (TIM) and total phenolic content was performed. The antimicrobial potential of TIM was evaluated against human pathogenic ATCC gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.
RESULTS: TIM exhibited an appreciable amount of gallic acid equivalent phenolic content (21.6 ± 0.04 mg GAE/g of crude extract). TIM showed the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) at 250 μg/mL and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) at 500 μg/mL among the selected human pathogenic ATCC strains. At MIC of 500 μg/mL, TIM displayed a significant zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa and N. gonorrhoeae.
CONCLUSION: The results from our study highlighted for the first time the antimicrobial potential of endophytic bacterial strain Bacillus velezensis in T. indica leaves and it could be further explored as a source of natural antimicrobial agents.