Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

  1. Ebrahimi M, Alijanianzadeh M
    Mol Divers, 2023 Feb 20.
    PMID: 36808582 DOI: 10.1007/s11030-023-10624-8
    Malaysia reported the first human case of Nipah virus (NiV) in late September 1998 with encephalitis and respiratory symptoms. As a result of viral genomic mutations, two main strains (NiV-Malaysia and NiV-Bangladesh) have spread around the world. There are no licensed molecular therapeutics available for this biosafety level 4 pathogen. NiV attachment glycoprotein plays a critical role in viral transmission through its human receptors (Ephrin-B2 and Ephrin-B3), so identifying small molecules that can be repurposed to inhibit them is crucial to developing anti-NiV drugs. Consequently, in this study annealing simulations, pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics were used to evaluate seven potential drugs (Pemirolast, Nitrofurantoin, Isoniazid Pyruvate, Eriodictyol, Cepharanthine, Ergoloid, and Hypericin) against NiV-G, Ephrin-B2, and Ephrin-B3 receptors. Based on the annealing analysis, Pemirolast for efnb2 protein and Isoniazid Pyruvate for efnb3 receptor were repurposed as the most promising small molecule candidates. Furthermore, Hypericin and Cepharanthine, with notable interaction values, are the top Glycoprotein inhibitors in Malaysia and Bangladesh strains, respectively. In addition, docking calculations revealed that their binding affinity scores are related to efnb2-pem (- 7.1 kcal/mol), efnb3-iso (- 5.8 kcal/mol), gm-hyp (- 9.6 kcal/mol), gb-ceph (- 9.2 kcal/mol). Finally, our computational research minimizes the time-consuming aspects and provides options for dealing with any new variants of Nipah virus that might emerge in the future.
  2. Kumari Ramiah S, Meng GY, Ebrahimi M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:949324.
    PMID: 25386625 DOI: 10.1155/2014/949324
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).
  3. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM
    Nutrients, 2014 Sep;6(9):3913-28.
    PMID: 25255382 DOI: 10.3390/nu6093913
    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression.
  4. Jafari S, Ebrahimi M, Luangtongkum T
    Poult Sci, 2021 Apr 23;100(8):101213.
    PMID: 34237548 DOI: 10.1016/j.psj.2021.101213
    Campylobacter, a leading cause of foodborne diseases, is well recognized worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are considered as major sites for Campylobacter infection in humans. The extensive uses of antibiotics mostly as growth promoters and for therapeutic purposes have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of foodborne pathogens including Campylobacter. A key tenet of this paper is the need for reviewing the previous studies conducted around the globe on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. isolates in duck to better understand the sources and trends of infection. Based on published data, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in duck and duck-related samples ranged from 0% to 100% and was largely influenced by the isolation method. Among Campylobacter spp., C. jejuni was the predominant cause of campylobacteriosis, followed by C. coli. Campylobacter spp. from ducks were mostly resistant to fluoroquinolones and tetracycline and a lesser extent to gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Some studies showed that ducks may pose a risk for acquiring campylobacteriosis because they had genotypes quite similar to human isolates detected previously. A continued monitoring approach is needed, at national and international levels, with enhanced surveillance and reporting of trends, as well as harmonization of surveillance systems toward a one-health approach to monitoring antimicrobial resistance in animal production particularly if increased resistance rates are being demonstrated.
  5. Sajjadi M, Oskoueian E, Karimi E, Ebrahimi M
    Metab Brain Dis, 2021 10;36(7):1859-1869.
    PMID: 34273042 DOI: 10.1007/s11011-021-00768-7
    The Amygdalus spinosissima (Rosaceae) plant has been used in the Iranian folk medicine as a remedy for the burn wound. Hence, in this study, we aimed to determine the possible medicinal potential of the plant focusing on the root part. The bioactive phenolic and flavonoid compounds present in the root extract of the Amygdalus spinosissima plant as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were determined. Moreover, the effects of root extract on learning and memory in mice were evaluated. The results revealed that the root methanolic extract contained phenolic and flavonoid compounds including apigenin, quercetin, rutin, kaempferol, gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid. The extract possessed antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities in vitro. These biological activities were attributed to the presence of phenolics and flavonoids. The A. spinosissima root extract improved learning and memory function in scopolamine-induced memory dysfunction in mice as determined using the Morris water maze task. The extract modulated the AChE, BChE, and inflammatory genes and enhanced the expression of the antioxidant enzymes in the brain. Consequently, A. spinosissima root extract could be considered as a promising source of potent bioactive compounds in the retarding the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
  6. Nahi A, Othman R, Omar D, Ebrahimi M
    Pol J Microbiol, 2016 Aug 26;65(3):377-382.
    PMID: 29334074 DOI: 10.5604/17331331.1215618
    A study was carried out to determine the effects of paraquat, pretilachlor and 2, 4-D on growth and nitrogen fixing activity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sb16) and pH of Jensen's N-free medium. The growth of Sb16 and pH of medium were significantly reduced with full (X) and double (2X) doses of tested herbicides, but nitrogen fixing activity was decreased by 2X doses. The nitrogenase activity had the highest value in samples treated with 1/2X of 2, 4-D on fifth incubation day, but 2X of 2, 4-D had the most adverse effect. An inhibition in the growth and nitrogenase activity was recovered on the last days of incubation.
  7. Bagheri R, Farahani FK, Ebrahimi M
    J Interpers Violence, 2023 Aug;38(15-16):9492-9513.
    PMID: 37102584 DOI: 10.1177/08862605231168824
    The objective of this article is to assess the effect of domestic violence on abortion and investigate the mediating role of unwanted pregnancy. A secondary analysis was conducted on the National Family Survey data. This survey was a cross-sectional study conducted across Iran in 2018. The association between domestic violence and abortion was analyzed using the Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) with WarpPLS version 8.0. From among 1,544 married women (mean age 42.8 years) who participated in this survey, 27% (418 women) reported experiencing at-least one-lifetime of abortion. Overall, two in three women (67.3%) experienced at least one form of domestic violence. Almost half of the women with experience of abortion (49.3%) reported at least one unwanted pregnancy in their life course. The bivariate analysis showed a significant positive relationship between domestic violence and abortion, and there was a positive direct effect of domestic violence on unwanted pregnancy. Moreover, age had a negative direct and indirect effect on unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Although, the direct effect of domestic violence on abortion was not significant in the Structure Equation Model, a positive indirect effect of domestic violence on abortion through unwanted pregnancy was confirmed. The effect of unwanted pregnancy on abortion was particularly strong (β = .395, p 
  8. Adeyemi KD, Ebrahimi M, Samsudin AA, Sabow AB, Sazili AQ
    J Anim Sci Technol, 2015;57:42.
    PMID: 26644913 DOI: 10.1186/s40781-015-0076-y
    Dietary fats can alter the deposition and distribution of body fats in ruminants. The deposition and distribution of body fat play a vital role in the quality of ruminant carcasses and are of great commercial value since they influence the profitability and consumer acceptability of ruminant meat. The current study examined the effects of dietary blend of 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil (BCPO) on carcass characteristics, meat yield and accretion of fatty acid (FA) in subcutaneous, omental, perirenal, and mesentery adipose depots and m. supraspinatus (SS) in goats.
  9. Kaka A, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Yimer N, Khumran AM, Behan AA, et al.
    Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2015 Feb;50(1):29-33.
    PMID: 25366298 DOI: 10.1111/rda.12445
    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of α-linolenic acid (ALA) on frozen-thawed quality and fatty acid composition of bull sperm. For that, twenty-four ejaculates obtained from three bulls were diluted in a Tris extender containing 0 (control), 3, 5, 10 and 15 ng/ml of ALA. Extended semen was incubated at 37°C for 15 min, to allow absorption of ALA by sperm cell membrane. The sample was chilled for 2 h, packed into 0.25-ml straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Subsequently, straws were thawed and evaluated for total sperm motility (computer-assisted semen analysis), membrane functional integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test), viability (eosin-nigrosin), fatty acid composition (gas chromatography) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). A higher (p < 0.05) percentage of total sperm motility was observed in ALA groups 5 ng/ml (47.74 ± 07) and 10 ng/ml (44.90 ± 0.7) in comparison with control (34.53 ± 3.0), 3 ng/ml (34.40 ± 2.6) and 15 ng/ml (34.60 ± 2.9). Still, the 5 ng/ml ALA group presented a higher (p < 0.05) percentage of viable sperms (74.13 ± 0.8) and sperms with intact membrane (74.46 ± 09) than all other experimental groups. ALA concentration and lipid peroxidation in post-thawed sperm was higher in all treated groups when compared to the control group. As such, the addition of 5 ng/ml of ALA to Tris extender improved quality of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa.
  10. Taheri S, Abdullah TL, Karimi E, Oskoueian E, Ebrahimi M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(7):13077-90.
    PMID: 25056545 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150713077
    The present study was conducted in order to assess the effect of various doses of acute gamma irradiation (0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy) on the improvement of bioactive compounds and their antioxidant properties of Curcuma alismatifolia var. Sweet pink. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) analysis uncovered that various types of phenolic, flavonoid compounds, and fatty acids gradually altered in response to radiation doses. On the other hand, antioxidant activities determined by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reduction, antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay showed a higher irradiation level significantly increased the antioxidant properties. This study revealed an efficient effect of varying levels of gamma radiation, based on the pharmaceutical demand to enhance the accumulation and distribution of bioactive compounds such as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, fatty acids, as well as their antioxidant activities in the leaves of C. alismatifolia var. Sweet pink.
  11. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Meng GY, Soleimani Farjam A
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:749341.
    PMID: 24719886 DOI: 10.1155/2014/749341
    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.
  12. Tekeleselassie AW, Goh YM, Rajion MA, Motshakeri M, Ebrahimi M
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:757593.
    PMID: 24294136 DOI: 10.1155/2013/757593
    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 10⁵ ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 10⁵ ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.
  13. Memon AA, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Goh YM, Ebrahimi M, Nadia FM
    Reprod. Domest. Anim., 2013 Apr;48(2):325-30.
    PMID: 22909427 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02155.x
    To improve the Boer goat semen quality during cryopreservation process, three experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of (i) different concentration of ascorbic acid supplementation (ii) rate of cooling with chilled semen characteristics and (iii) method of freezing on post-thaw Boer goat sperm using Tris-based extender. Ascorbic acid at 8.5 mg/ml improved the sperm parameters (motility, integrity of membrane and acrosome, morphology and viability), compared to control in cooled samples (p < 0.05). With regard to other concentrations and post-thawed parameters, ascorbic acid at 2.5-8.5 mg/ml led to higher percentages of sperm motility and integrities of membrane and acrosome when compared to control (p < 0.05). Slow cooling rises to higher percentages of sperm motility, acrosome integrity and viability, in comparison with fast cooling, in terms of cooled and frozen samples (p < 0.05). Programmable freezing method produced the higher percentages of sperm motility, integrities of membrane and acrosome and viability when compared to the freezing method of polystyrene box during goat sperm freezing (p < 0.05). In conclusion, chilled and post-thawed sperm quality of Boer goat was improved when a Tris-based extender supplemented with ascorbic acid was used at stages of different cooling rates and freezing methods.
  14. Maroufyan E, Kasim A, Ebrahimi M, Loh TC, Hair-Bejo M, Soleimani AF
    Poult Sci, 2012 Sep;91(9):2173-82.
    PMID: 22912451 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2012-02317
    This study was carried out to investigate the modulatory effects of dietary methionine and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio on immune response and performance of infectious bursal disease (IBD)-challenged broiler chickens. In total, 350 one-day-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 1 of the 6 dietary treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. There were 3 n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (45, 5.5, and 1.5) and 2 levels of methionine (NRC recommendation and twice NRC recommendation). The results showed that birds fed with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 had higher BW, lower feed intake, and superior FCR than other groups. However, the highest antibody response was observed in birds with dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 1.5. Lowering n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio reduced bursa lesion score equally in birds fed with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 5.5 and 1.5. Supplementation of methionine by twice the recommendation also improved FCR and reduced feed intake and bursa lesion score. However, in this study, the optimum performance (as measured by BW, feed intake, and FCR) did not coincide with the optimum immune response (as measured by antibody titer). It seems that dietary n-3 PUFA modulates the broiler chicken performance and immune response in a dose-dependent but nonlinear manner. Therefore, it can be suggested that a balance of moderate level of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (5.5) and methionine level (twice recommendation) might enhance immune response together with performance in IBD-challenged broiler chickens.
  15. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ
    J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 2012 Dec;96(6):962-9.
    PMID: 21848848 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2011.01206.x
    The effects of different inclusion levels of oil palm fronds (OPF) on the fatty acid profile of the longissimus dorsi (LD), biceps femoris (BF) and infraspinatus (IS) muscle of goats fed for 100 days are described. Twenty-four individually housed Kacang crossbred male goats (averaged 21.7 ± 0.97 kg BW) were allocated to three groups receiving either a 100% concentrate control diet (CON), diet with 25% inclusion level of OPF (HAF) or a diet with 50% inclusion of OPF. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed at 3.0% of BW daily. Samples of LD, BF and IS muscles were taken at slaughter for the determination of fatty acid profiles. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the LD and BF muscles of the OPF group were significantly (p 
  16. Memon AA, Wahid H, Rosnina Y, Goh YM, Ebrahimi M, Nadia FM
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2012 Dec;136(1-2):55-60.
    PMID: 23182473 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2012.10.020
    This study was conducted to determine the effect of antioxidants on standard semen parameters, lipid peroxidation and fertility of Boer goat semen after cryopreservation. Ejaculates from four bucks were collected, evaluated and pooled at 37°C. The pooled semen was diluted with Tris citric acid fructose for washing. Semen samples, which were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the antioxidant ascorbic acid (8.5mg/ml), butylated hydroxytoluene (2mM), cysteine (5mM) and hypotaurine (10mM) and an extender without antioxidant supplementation were cooled to 4°C and frozen in 0.25 straws with programmable freezer and finally stored in liquid nitrogen. Data (10 replicates) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Mean (±SEM) progressive motility was significantly higher in ascorbic acid than other supplement groups and control samples (P>0.05). Best values were observed in ascorbic acid followed by BHT, cysteine, and hypotaurine. Antioxidant supplementation in extender showed significant (P<0.05) better values than the control group for sperm membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability. The ability of antioxidants to reduce the lipid peroxidation (LPO) after freeze thawing was measured by the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the thiobarbituric acid method. Results showed that addition of antioxidants significantly reduced the rate of LPO in comparison to control (P<0.05). Ascorbic acid exhibited better values (1.27±0.28), than butylated hydroxytoluene, cysteine and hypotaurine 1.32±0.42, 2.27±0.16 and 2.38±0.17 respectively, which are significantly better than control (3.52±0.54). Higher pregnancy rate was observed with ascorbic acid followed by butylated hydroxtolune, hypotaurine and cysteine. However, differences in the fertility rate were non-significant with hypotaurine, cysteine and control groups.
  17. Ebrahimi M, Rajion MA, Goh YM, Sazili AQ, Schonewille JT
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:194625.
    PMID: 23484090 DOI: 10.1155/2013/194625
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding oil palm frond silage based diets with added linseed oil (LO) containing high α -linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), namely, high LO (HLO), low LO (LLO), and without LO as the control group (CON) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue and the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α , PPAR- γ , and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in Boer goats. The proportion of C18:3n-3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue was increased (P < 0.01) by increasing the LO in the diet, suggesting that the FA from HLO might have escaped ruminal biohydrogenation. Animals fed HLO diets had lower proportions of C18:1 trans-11, C18:2n-6, CLA cis-9 trans-11, and C20:4n-6 and higher proportions of C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3, and C22:6n-3 in the subcutaneous adipose tissue than animals fed the CON diets, resulting in a decreased n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (FAR) in the tissue. In addition, feeding the HLO diet upregulated the expression of PPAR- γ (P < 0.05) but downregulated the expression of SCD (P < 0.05) in the adipose tissue. The results of the present study show that LO can be safely incorporated in the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with potential health beneficial FA (i.e., n-3 FA).
  18. Sheikhlar A, Meng GY, Alimon R, Romano N, Ebrahimi M
    J Aquat Anim Health, 2017 Dec;29(4):225-235.
    PMID: 28937913 DOI: 10.1080/08997659.2017.1374310
    Aqueous and methanol extracts of lemon Citrus limon peel, Euphorbia hirta (aerial parts), and fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. A swab paper disk method showed that the methanol extract of E. hirta (EHE) had the largest inhibition zone and the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration compared to all other herbal extracts. Based on these results, EHE was included in the diets of Sharptooth Catfish Clarias gariepinus at 0 (control), 2, 5, or 7 g/kg of diet (experiment 1). Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, with 30 fish (mean weight ± SE = 9.4 ± 0.4 g) in each replicate. After 30 d, the growth, feed intake, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and plasma biochemical parameters were measured. With a separate batch of Sharptooth Catfish, the efficacy of the EHE diets in conferring fish resistance to A. hydrophila over 30 d was compared to that of a diet containing oxytetracycline (OTC; experiment 2). Six treatments were conducted in triplicate groups of 30 fish (mean weight ± SE = 9.0 ± 0.3 g); the Control fish were fed the control diet and were not injected with A. hydrophila, while the Control-AH and OTC-AH groups were infected with A. hydrophila and were fed either the control diet or the diet containing OTC at 1 g/199 g. The other three treatments included fish that were injected with A. hydrophila but fed diets with increasing EHE at 2, 5, or 7 g/kg. Experiment 1 showed no change to growth, feeding efficiency, HSI, or plasma biochemical parameters. In experiment 2, however, fish that were fed dietary EHE at 5 g/kg had significantly lower mortality than the Control-AH group, with further resistance observed for fish fed EHE at 7 g/kg. Dietary OTC was more effective than EHE as a prophylactic to A. hydrophila infection in Sharptooth Catfish. Nevertheless, EHE can potentially be a valuable dietary supplement to improve the resistance of Sharptooth Catfish to A. hydrophila infection. Received May 3, 2017; accepted August 24, 2017.
  19. Ebrahimi M, Abdullah SN, Abdul Aziz M, Namasivayam P
    J Plant Physiol, 2016 Sep 01;202:107-20.
    PMID: 27513726 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.07.001
    CBF/DREB1 is a group of transcription factors that are mainly involved in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. They belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily of plant-specific transcription factors. A gene encoding a new member of this group was isolated from ripening oil palm fruit and designated as EgCBF3. The oil palm fruit demonstrates the characteristics of a climacteric fruit like tomato, in which ethylene has a major impact on the ripening process. A transgenic approach was used for functional characterization of the EgCBF3, using tomato as the model plant. The effects of ectopic expression of EgCBF3 were analyzed based on expression profiling of the ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, anti-freeze proteins (AFPs), abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth and development. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated altered phenotypes compared to the wild type tomatoes. Delayed leaf senescence and flowering, increased chlorophyll content and abnormal flowering were the consequences of overexpression of EgCBF3 in the transgenic tomatoes. The EgCBF3 tomatoes demonstrated enhanced abiotic stress tolerance under in vitro conditions. Further, transcript levels of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, including three SlACSs and two SlACOs, were altered in the transgenic plants' leaves and roots compared to that in the wild type tomato plant. Among the eight AFPs studied in the wounded leaves of the EgCBF3 tomato plants, transcript levels of SlOSM-L, SlNP24, SlPR5L and SlTSRF1 decreased, while expression of the other four, SlCHI3, SlPR1, SlPR-P2 and SlLAP2, were up-regulated. These findings indicate the possible functions of EgCBF3 in plant growth and development as a regulator of ethylene biosynthesis-related and AFP genes, and as a stimulator of abiotic stress tolerance.
  20. Motshakeri M, Ebrahimi M, Goh YM, Matanjun P, Mohamed S
    J Sci Food Agric, 2013 May;93(7):1772-8.
    PMID: 23208488 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.5971
    BACKGROUND: Sargassum polycystum, a brown seaweed, contains various nutrients and bioactive compounds that have antioxidant and healing properties. The research hypothesises that antioxidants and pigments in dietary S. polycystum extracts can improve insulin sensitivity, blood sugar levels and blood lipid levels in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. The diabetes was induced by a high-sugar, high-fat diet for 16 weeks to enhance insulin resistance, followed by a low-dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg kg(-1) body weight). The doses of S. polycystum tested on diabetic rats were 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) body weight for the ethanolic extract or 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) for the water extract. Normal rats, untreated diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic rats (n = 6) were used as control.

    RESULTS: Both doses of the alcohol extract of S. polycystum and the 300 mg kg(-1) water extract, significantly reduced blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C ) levels. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and plasma atherogenic index were significantly decreased after 22 days treatment in all seaweed groups. Unlike metformin, S. polycystum did not significantly change plasma insulin in the rats, but increased the response to insulin.

    CONCLUSION: The consumption of either ethanolic or water extracts of S. polycystum dose dependently reduced dyslipidaemia in type 2 diabetic rats. S. polycystum is a potential insulin sensitiser, for a comestible complementary therapy in the management of type 2 diabetes which can help reduce atherogenic risk.

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