Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 46 in total

  1. Hashemi SM, Loh TC, Foo HL, Zulkifli I, Hair-Bejo M
    Iran J Vet Res, 2014;15(4):385-91.
    PMID: 27175136
    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary putrescine (PUT) on broiler's response fed low crude protein (CP) diets. A total of 192 male day old chicks were fed with four dietary treatments including two levels of PUT (0 and 0.03%) and two levels of CP (normal and low) with factorial combinations. Weekly growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology (at the age of 21 days) and liver and intestinal tissue polyamines content were measured. As a result of this study lower dietary CP had a significant (P<0.05) lower body weight gain (BWG) and improved protein efficiency ratio (PER). PUT improved energy efficiency ratio (EER) significantly (P<0.05). Dry matter (DM) digestibility was decreased by lower dietary CP whereas 0.03% PUT significantly (P<0.05) increased it. Low CP caused significant (P<0.05) greater calcium digestibility, while this effect was not found when PUT was added. PUT had no effect on intestine villous height and crypt depth. Polyamine content of intestine and liver was influenced by the age of the birds, while PUT had no effects on them. In conclusion, dietary PUT has beneficial effects on EER in chicks fed CP-deficient diet, indicating possible involvement of PUT in energy metabolism. PUT supplementation did not moderate the reduced BWG of the chicks fed low protein. Intestinal and liver polyamine concentration was mainly affected by dietary CP and age of the birds rather than dietary PUT.
  2. Tan BH, Chor Leow T, Foo HL, Abdul Rahim R
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:469298.
    PMID: 24592392 DOI: 10.1155/2014/469298
    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of Lactococcus lactis M4 was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 621 bp which codes for 206 amino acid residues. Expression of sodA under T7 promoter exhibited a specific activity of 4967 U/mg when induced with 1 mM of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The recombinant SOD was purified to homogeneity by immobilised metal affinity chromatography and Superose 12 gel filtration chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses of the recombinant SOD detected a molecular mass of approximately 27 kDa. However, the SOD was in dimer form as revealed by gel filtration chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme had a pI of 4.5 and exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 7.2. It was stable up to 45°C. The insensitivity of this lactococcal SOD to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide established that it was a MnSOD. Although it has 98% homology to SOD of L. lactis IL1403, this is the first elucidated structure of lactococcal SOD revealing active sites containing the catalytic manganese coordinated by four ligands (H-27, H-82, D-168, and H-172).
  3. Chwen LT, Foo HL, Thanh NT, Choe DW
    Asian-Australas J Anim Sci, 2013 May;26(5):700-4.
    PMID: 25049841 DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2012.12561
    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
  4. Raha AR, Varma NR, Yusoff K, Ross E, Foo HL
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2005 Jul;68(1):75-81.
    PMID: 15635459
    The food-grade Lactococcus lactis is a potential vector to be used as a live vehicle for the delivery of heterologous proteins for vaccine and pharmaceutical purposes. We constructed a plasmid vector pSVac that harbors a 255-bp single-repeat sequence of the cell wall-binding protein region of the AcmA protein. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli and expression of the gene fragment was driven by the T7 promoter of the plasmid. SDS-PAGE showed the presence of the putative AcmA' fragment and this was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The protein was isolated and purified using a His-tag affinity column. When mixed with a culture of L. lactis MG1363, ELISA and immunofluorescence assays showed that the cell wall-binding fragment was anchored onto the outer surface of the bacteria. This indicated that the AcmA' repeat unit retained the active site for binding onto the cell wall surface of the L. lactis cells. Stability assays showed that the fusion proteins (AcmA/A1, AcmA/A3) were stably docked onto the surface for at least 5 days. The AcmA' fragment was also shown to be able to strongly bind onto the cell surface of naturally occurring lactococcal strains and Lactobacillus and, with less strength, the cell surface of Bacillus sphericus. The new system designed for cell surface display of recombinant proteins on L. lactis was evaluated for the expression and display of A1 and A3 regions of the VP1 protein of enterovirus 71 (EV71). The A1 and A3 regions of the VP1 protein of EV71 were cloned upstream to the cell wall-binding domains of AcmA protein and successfully expressed as AcmA/A1 and AcmA/A3. Whole-cell ELISA showed the successful display of VP1 protein epitopes of EV71 on the surface of L. lactis. The success of the anchoring system developed in this study for docking the A1 and A3 epitopes of VP1 onto the surface of L. lactis cells opens up the possibilities of peptide and protein display for not only Lactococcus but also for other gram-positive bacteria. This novel way of displaying epitopes on the cell surface of L. lactis and other related organisms should be very useful in the delivery of vaccines and other useful proteins.
  5. Thu TV, Loh TC, Foo HL, Yaakub H, Bejo MH
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2011 Jan;43(1):69-75.
    PMID: 20632092 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-010-9655-6
    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding liquid metabolite combinations produced by Lactobacillus plantarum strains on growth performance, diarrhoea incidence, faecal pH, microfloral counts, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and intestinal villus height and crypt depth of postweaning piglets. A total of 120 piglets (26 days old) were randomly assigned evenly into five treatment groups treated with same basal diet: (1) -ve control (free antibiotic); (2) + ve control (0.03% of chlortetracycline); (3) Com 1 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG11 and RI11 strains); (4) Com 2 (0.3% metabolite of TL1, RG14 and RS5 strains); (5) Com 3 (0.3% metabolite of RG11, RG14 and RI11 strains). After 5 weeks, the average daily feed intake was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the treatments and feed conversion ratio was the highest (P 
  6. Khatun J, Loh TC, Akit H, Foo HL, Mohamad R
    Anim Sci J, 2017 Sep;88(9):1406-1413.
    PMID: 28220633 DOI: 10.1111/asj.12775
    The present study assessed the effect of feeding palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and their combination on performance, fat deposition, fatty acid composition and lipogenic gene expression of broilers reared for 42 days. A total of 144 1-day-old broilers (Cobb500) were randomly allotted into four treatment diets with each having six replicates of six chicks in each replicate following a completely randomized design. Live weight gain and feed efficiency was significantly (P 
  7. Kareem KY, Loh TC, Foo HL, Asmara SA, Akit H
    Poult Sci, 2017 Apr 01;96(4):966-975.
    PMID: 28339522 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pew362
    This study examined the effects of different combinations of inulin and postbiotics RG14 on growth performance, cecal microbiota, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ileal cytokine expression in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-and sixteen, one-day-old chicks were allocated into 6 treatment groups, namely, a basal diet (negative control, NC), basal diet + neomycin and oxytetracycline (positive control, PC), T1 = basal diet + 0.15% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T2 = basal diet + 0.3% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, T3 = basal diet + 0.45% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and T4 = basal diet + 0.6% postbiotic RG14 + 1.0% inulin, and fed for 6 weeks. The results showed that birds fed T1 and T3 diets had higher (P  0.05) among diets. The NC birds had higher (P
  8. Loh TC, Foo HL, Abdul Wahab Z, Tan BK
    Malays J Nutr, 2002 Sep;8(2):125-35.
    PMID: 22692472
    The effects of dietary fat during pregnancy and lactation on growth performance of pups, milk composition and very low density lipoprotein composition in rats were studied. A total of 33 dams were used in this study and each litter was adjusted to 8 pups per dam. The dams were fed on high fat (150 g fat/kg diet, HF), medium fat (75 g fat/kg of diet, MF) and low fat (2.5 g fat/kg diet, LF) diets. The body weights of dams increased during pregnancy and decreased after pregnancy. The HF pups had a higher body weight and higher weight gain than those of LF pups. The amount of feed intake of HF dams was significantly higher than LF and MF dams. The HF dams had significantly higher milk fat and water concentrations than LF dams. The milk protein was not significantly different among the treatment groups. All dams showed hypertriacylglycerolaemia in their very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in late pregnancy. The VLDL-protein concentrations increased during the first week after parturition. The HF dams showed a greater response to the dietary fat than that of LF and MF dams. The findings suggest that addition of fat in the diet during pregnancy and lactation may improve the milk quality through modifying the composition of VLDL contents, leading to better growth of pups.
  9. Koyum KA, Foo HL, Ramli N, Loh TC
    Front Nutr, 2023;10:910537.
    PMID: 36875851 DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2023.910537
    Staple foods produced from composite flour are considered feasible to alleviate protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). However, one of the major limitations of composite flour is poor protein digestibility. The biotransformation process mediated by probiotics via solid-state fermentation (SSF) holds a promising potential to address the poor protein digestibility in composite flour. Yet, there is no report established in this regard to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, 4 strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus UP2 isolated from Malaysian foods that were previously reported to produce versatile extracellular hydrolytic enzymes were employed to biotransform gluten-free composite flour derived from rice, sorghum, and soybean. The SSF process was performed under 30-60% (v/w) moisture content for 7 days, where samples were withdrawn at 24 h intervals for various analyses such as pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), extracellular protease activity, soluble protein concentration, crude protein content, and in vitro protein digestibility. The pH of the biotransformed composite flour showed a significant reduction from the initial range of pH 5.98-6.67 to the final pH of 4.36-3.65, corresponding to the increase in the percentage of TTA in the range of 0.28-0.47% to 1.07-1.65% from days 0 to 4 and remained stable till day 7 of the SSF process. The probiotics strains exhibited high extracellular proteolytic activity (0.63-1.35 U/mg to 4.21-5.13 U/mg) from days 0 to 7. In addition, the treated composite flour soluble protein increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) (0.58-0.60 mg/mL to 0.72-0.79 mg/mL) from days 0 to 7, crude protein content (12.00-12.18% to 13.04-14.39%) and protein digestibility (70.05-70.72% to 78.46-79.95%) from days 0 to 4 of SSF. The results of biotransformation of 50% (v/w) moisture content were mostly comparable to 60% (v/w) moisture content, implying 50% (v/w) moisture content was the most suitable moisture content for the effective biotransformation of gluten-free composite flour mediated by probiotics via SSF since flour quality is better at lower moisture content. As for the overall performance, L. plantarum RS5 was ranked the best strain, attributed to the general improvement in the physicochemical properties of composite flour.
  10. Azizi MN, Loh TC, Foo HL, Teik Chung EL
    Animals (Basel), 2021 Jan 29;11(2).
    PMID: 33572711 DOI: 10.3390/ani11020338
    Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of oil extracted from palm nuts through expeller press or solvent extraction procedures is one of the highest quantities of locally available and potentially inexpensive agricultural product. PKC provides approximately 14-18% of crude protein (CP), 12-20% crude fiber (CF), 3-9% ether extract (EE), and different amounts of various minerals that feasible to be used as a partial substitute of soybean meal (SBM) and corn in poultry nutrition. Poultry's digestibility is reported to be compromised due to the indigestion of the high fiber content, making PKC potentially low for poultry feeding. Nevertheless, solid-state fermentation (SSF) can be applied to improve the nutritional quality of PKC by improving the CP and reducing CF content. PKC also contains β-mannan polysaccharide, which works as a prebiotic. However, there is a wide variation for the inclusion level of PKC in the broiler diet. These variations may be due to the quality of PKC, its sources, processing methods and value-added treatment. It has been documented that 10-15% of treated PKC could be included in the broiler's diets. The inclusion levels will not contribute to a negative impact on the growth performances and carcass yield. Furthermore, it will not compromise intestinal microflora, morphology, nutrient digestibility, and immune system. PKC with a proper SSF process (FPKC) can be offered up to 10-15% in the diets without affecting broilers' production performance.
  11. Loh TC, Choe DW, Foo HL, Sazili AQ, Bejo MH
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:149.
    PMID: 24996258 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-149
    Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are able to colonize the host digestive system, increasing the natural flora and preventing colonization of pathogenic organisms and thus, securing optimal utility of the feed. However, commercial probiotic often do not meet the expected standards and the viability of the efficacy of these strains remains questionable. Another major issue has been highlighted in relation to the application of antibiotic resistant probiotics, the antibiotic resistant gene can be transferred between organisms. Recently, postbiotic metabolites produced from microbes have been extensively studied as feed additive in order to substitute in-feed antibiotics.
  12. Alshelmani MI, Loh TC, Foo HL, Lau WH, Sazili AQ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:729852.
    PMID: 25019097 DOI: 10.1155/2014/729852
    Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC.
  13. Alshelmani MI, Loh TC, Foo HL, Lau WH, Sazili AQ
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:689235.
    PMID: 24319380 DOI: 10.1155/2013/689235
    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.
  14. Baradaran A, Sieo CC, Foo HL, Illias RM, Yusoff K, Rahim RA
    Biotechnol Lett, 2013 Feb;35(2):233-8.
    PMID: 23076361 DOI: 10.1007/s10529-012-1059-4
    Fifty signal peptides of Pediococcus pentosaceus were characterized by in silico analysis and, based on the physicochemical analysis, (two potential signal peptides Spk1 and Spk3 were identified). The coding sequences of SP were amplified and fused to the gene coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cloned into Lactococcus lactis pNZ8048 and pMG36e vectors, respectively. Western blot analysis indicated that the GFP proteins were secreted using both heterologous SPs. ELISA showed that the secretion efficiency of GFP using Spk1 (0.64 μg/ml) was similar to using Usp45 (0.62 μg/ml) and Spk3 (0.58 μg/ml).
  15. Anuradha K, Foo HL, Mariana NS, Loh TC, Yusoff K, Hassan MD, et al.
    J Appl Microbiol, 2010 Nov;109(5):1632-42.
    PMID: 20602654 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04789.x
    To evaluate a live recombinant Lactococcus lactis vaccine expressing aerolysin genes D1 (Lac-D1ae) and/or D4 (Lac-D4ae) in protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
  16. Tai HF, Foo HL, Abdul Rahim R, Loh TC, Abdullah MP, Yoshinobu K
    Microb Cell Fact, 2015;14:89.
    PMID: 26077560 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-015-0280-y
    Bacteriocin-producing Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have vast applications in human and animal health, as well as in food industry. The structural, immunity, regulatory, export and modification genes are required for effective bacteriocin biosynthesis. Variations in gene sequence, composition and organisation will affect the antimicrobial spectrum of bacteriocin greatly. Lactobacillus plantarum I-UL4 is a novel multiple bacteriocin producer that harbours both plw and plnEF structural genes simultaneous which has not been reported elsewhere. Therefore, molecular characterisation of bacteriocin genes that harboured in L. plantarum I-UL4 was conducted in this study.
  17. Choe DW, Loh TC, Foo HL, Hair-Bejo M, Awis QS
    Br Poult Sci, 2012;53(1):106-15.
    PMID: 22404811 DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2012.659653
    1. Various dosages of metabolite combinations of the Lactobacillus plantarum RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (COM456) were used to study the egg production, faecal microflora population, faecal pH, small intestine morphology, and plasma and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens. 2. A total of 500 Lohmann Brown hens were raised from 19 weeks to 31 weeks of age. The birds were randomly divided into 5 groups and fed on various treatment diets: (i) basal diet without supplementation of metabolites (control); (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0·3% COM456 metabolites; (iii) basal diet supplemented with 0·6% COM456 metabolites; (iv) basal diet supplemented with 0·9% COM456 metabolites; and (v) basal diet supplemented with 1·2% COM456 metabolites. 3. The inclusion of 0·6% liquid metabolite combinations, produced from three L. plantarum strains, demonstrated the best effect in improving the hens' egg production, faecal lactic acid bacteria population, and small intestine villus height, and reducing faecal pH and Enterobacteriaceae population, and plasma and yolk cholesterol concentrations. 4. The metabolites from locally isolated L. plantarum are a possible alternative feed additive in poultry production.
  18. Thanh NT, Loh TC, Foo HL, Hair-Bejo M, Azhar BK
    Br Poult Sci, 2009 May;50(3):298-306.
    PMID: 19637029 DOI: 10.1080/00071660902873947
    1. Four combinations of metabolites produced from strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used to study the performance of broiler chickens. 2. A total of 432 male Ross broilers were raised from one-day-old to 42 d of age in deep litter pens (12 birds/pen). These birds were divided into 6 groups and fed on different diets: (i) standard maize-soybean-based diet (negative control); (ii) standard maize-soybean-based diet + Neomycin and Oxytetracycline (positive control); (iii) standard maize-soybean-based diet + 0.3% metabolite combination of Lactobacillus plantarum RS5, RI11, RG14 and RG11 strains (com3456); (iv) standard maize-soybean-based diet + 0.3% metabolite combination of L. plantarum TL1, RI11 and RG11 (Com246); (v) standard maize-soybean-based diet + 0.3% metabolite combination of L. plantarum TL1, RG14 and RG11 (Com256) and (vi) standard maize-soybean-based diet + 0.3% metabolite combination of L. plantarum TL1, RS5, RG14 and RG11 (Com2356). 3. Higher final body weight, weight gain, average daily gain and lower feed conversion ratio were found in all 4 treated groups. 4. The addition of a metabolite combination supplementation also increased faecal lactic acid bacteria population, small intestine villus height and faecal volatile fatty acids and faecal Enterobacteriaceae population.
  19. Izuddin WI, Loh TC, Samsudin AA, Foo HL, Humam AM, Shazali N
    BMC Vet Res, 2019 Sep 02;15(1):315.
    PMID: 31477098 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-2064-9
    BACKGROUND: Postbiotics have been established as potential feed additive to be used in monogastric such as poultry and swine to enhance health and growth performance. However, information on the postbiotics as feed additive in ruminants is very limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of supplementation of postbiotics in newly-weaned lambs on growth performance, digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial population, blood metabolite and expression of genes related to growth and volatile fatty acid transport across the rumen epithelium.

    RESULTS: Postbiotic supplementation increased weight gain, feed intake, nutrient intake and nutrient digestibility of the lambs. No effect on ruminal pH and total VFA, whereas butyrate and ruminal ammonia-N concentration were improved. The lambs fed with postbiotics had higher blood total protein, urea nitrogen and glucose. However, no difference was observed in blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Postbiotics increased the population of fibre degrading bacteria but decreased total protozoa and methanogens in rumen. Postbiotics increased the mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-1 and ruminal MCT-1.

    CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of postbiotics from L. plantarum RG14 in newly-weaned lambs improved growth performance, nutrient intake and nutrient digestibility reflected from better rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, blood metabolites and upregulation of growth and nutrient intake genes in the post-weaning lambs.

  20. Mohamad Zabidi NA, Foo HL, Loh TC, Mohamad R, Abdul Rahim R
    Molecules, 2020 Jun 03;25(11).
    PMID: 32503356 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25112607
    Lactobacillus plantarum RI 11 was reported recently to be a potential lignocellulosic biomass degrader since it has the capability of producing versatile extracellular cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate further the effects of various renewable natural polymers on the growth and production of extracellular cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes by this novel isolate. Basal medium supplemented with molasses and yeast extract produced the highest cell biomass (log 10.51 CFU/mL) and extracellular endoglucanase (11.70 µg/min/mg), exoglucanase (9.99 µg/min/mg), β-glucosidase (10.43 nmol/min/mg), and mannanase (8.03 µg/min/mg), respectively. Subsequently, a statistical optimization approach was employed for the enhancement of cell biomass, and cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzyme productions. Basal medium that supplemented with glucose, molasses and soybean pulp (F5 medium) or with rice straw, yeast extract and soybean pulp (F6 medium) produced the highest cell population of log 11.76 CFU/mL, respectively. However, formulated F12 medium supplemented with glucose, molasses and palm kernel cake enhanced extracellular endoglucanase (4 folds), exoglucanase (2.6 folds) and mannanase (2.6 folds) specific activities significantly, indicating that the F12 medium could induce the highest production of extracellular cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes concomitantly. In conclusion, L. plantarum RI 11 is a promising and versatile bio-transformation agent for lignocellulolytic biomass.
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