Displaying all 14 publications

  1. Teo PS, Nurul-Fadhilah A, Foo LH
    J Sci Med Sport, 2013 Jul;16(4):327-31.
    PMID: 22858164 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2012.06.012
    To assess the validity and reproducibility of a new computer-based physical activity questionnaire (cPAQ) to estimate the habitual physical activity levels in Malaysian adolescents.
  2. Abdullah NF, Teo PS, Foo LH
    Nutrients, 2016 Sep 12;8(9).
    PMID: 27626444 DOI: 10.3390/nu8090551
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the ethnic differences in dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A population-based study of 454 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years was included. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns and three dietary patterns were identified based on the principal component analysis method.

    RESULTS: Malay adolescents had significantly higher scores for the Western-based food pattern and local-based food pattern, whereas Chinese adolescents showed higher scores for the healthy-based food pattern. Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were positively associated with healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p < 0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) (p = 0.014) and fast food (p = 0.041) were negatively associated. High weekly breakfast skipping (p < 0.001) and EatOut (p = 0.003) were positively associated with a Western-based pattern, whereas age (p < 0.001) and household income (p = 0.005) were negatively associated. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p = 0.013) was positively associated with local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p < 0.001), PA levels (p < 0.001) and maternal education level (p = 0.035) showed positive associations with the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut (p = 0.001) and fast food intakes (p = 0.001) were negatively associated. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p = 0.007), fast food (p = 0.023) and carbonated beverages (p = 0.023), and daily snacking practice (p = 0.004) were positively associated with higher Western-based food pattern, whereas age (p = 0.004) was inversely associated.

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that there were significant differences in dietary patterns and its association factors between Malay and Chinese adolescents. More importantly, these findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy Western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and, consequently, increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.

  3. Nurul-Fadhilah A, Teo PS, Foo LH
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(1):97-103.
    PMID: 22374566
    Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) must be tailored to the target populations because dietary habits vary within the populations due to differences in cultural and lifestyles practices. Limited information is available to assess the validity of FFQ used among Malaysian adolescents.
  4. Foo LH, Wen YS, Kadir AA
    Sci Rep, 2023 May 09;13(1):7498.
    PMID: 37161054 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-34668-w
    Sarcopenia is an emerging public health problem worldwide, but very limited information exits concerning the influence of lifestyle factors and inflammation on sarcopenia among community-dwelling older populations in Asia, including Malaysia. A total of 230 apparently healthy community-dwelling middle-aged and older Chinese adults were included in the study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess dietary and lifestyle practices, while pro-inflammatory cytokine status was assessed by blood interleukin-6 concentrations (IL-6). Sarcopenia risk was assessed by the newly revised diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 12.5% with similar proportions of males and females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age and higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-6 were significantly associated with a greater risk of sarcopenia, after adjustments for potential known biological and body composition factors. The present findings indicate that older adults aged 70 years and above with higher inflammation levels had a significantly increased risk of sarcopenia. Hence, effective dietary and lifestyle intervention strategies should emphasize reducing the inflammation associated with aging to prevent the rapid loss of muscle mass and strength that can lead to sarcopenia.
  5. Nurul-Fadhilah A, Teo PS, Huybrechts I, Foo LH
    PLoS One, 2013;8(3):e59297.
    PMID: 23520556 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059297
    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.
  6. Foo LH, Suzina AH, Azlina A, Kannan TP
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2008 Oct;87(1):215-21.
    PMID: 18085658
    Coral matrix of Porites sp. has the suitable properties for bone cell growth. This study was aimed to study the gene expression levels of osteoblast specific genetic markers; RUNX2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin from osteoblasts seeded in coral scaffold, which are important in determining the feasibility of osteoblasts. Human osteoblasts were inoculated onto the processed coral in Dulbecco's Minimum Essential Medium. The cells were trypsinized on day 1, 7, 14, 18, and 21 and added with RNALater for preservation of RNA in cells. The RNA was extracted using commercial RNA extraction kit and the respective genes were amplified using RT-PCR kit and analyzed qualitatively on 1.5% agarose gel. The expressions were evaluated with the Integrated Density Value based on the intensity of band for different periods of cell harvest. Increased expressions of the RUNX2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin genes in the present study proved that coral is a favorable carrier for osteogenetically competent cells to attach and remain viable.
  7. Foo LH, Khor GL, Tee ES, Dhanaraj P
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2004 Sep;55(6):517-25.
    PMID: 15762316
    Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. The prevalence of anaemia in the developing countries is three to four times higher than that in the developed countries. The iron status was assessed in 199 apparently healthy male and female adolescents aged 12-19 years living in a fishing community in Sabah, Malaysia. Data on socio-economic characteristics, lifestyles, anthropometry measurements, iron status, and dietary intake were gathered. Dietary intake of energy, iron, and most nutrients (with the exception of protein and vitamin C) were below the recommended levels for Malaysian adolescents. Three-quarters of the iron was derived from plant foods. The mean haemoglobin value for the male was 13.9 +/- 1.3 g/dl with 9.5% having less than 12 g/dl, while the respective figures for the female were 12.4 +/- 1.6 g/dl and 28.6%. The mean serum ferritin concentrations for male and female adolescents were 21.5 and 15.4 microg/l, respectively; with 25.7% of the males and 49.5% of the females having deficient levels of ferritin. Dietary intake of total energy and iron, and gender were found to be independent determinants of serum ferritin and haemoglobin levels, accounting for over 40% of the variations for each of these iron indicators. In males, but not in females, the intake of dietary protein and iron, and physical activity were also found to be significant determinants of serum ferritin. The age of subjects and household size were significant determinants of haemoglobin levels for male subjects, but not for female subjects. The findings indicate the importance of adequate intake of energy and dietary iron for improving the iron status of adolescents.
  8. Foo LH, Khor GL, Tee ES, Prabakaran D
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(1):48-55.
    PMID: 15003914
    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency in the world affecting the general health and wellbeing of millions. In Malaysia, moderately high prevalences of anaemia have been reported amongst infants, young children and women of childbearing age. Data is scant for the adolescents. This study was undertaken to assess the iron status and dietary intake of 165 adolescents, comprising 74 male and 91 female subjects, aged 12 to 19 years, from the rural communities in Tuaran District of Sabah, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of study subjects. Multiple iron status indicators namely, serum ferritin (SF), transferrin saturation (TS), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) were determined for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 15.2 +/-2.1 years. While the majority of the subjects (77.6%) had normal body mass index (BMI) values, 17.6% were underweight and 4.8% overweight. About 35% to 40% of the subjects showed deficient values for haematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and transferrin saturation (TS), and 20% were anaemic (Hb <12 g/L). Using the multiple criteria of iron status indicators, the prevalence of iron depletion, iron deficiency and IDA in the male and female adolescents were 5.4% vs. 6.6%, 18.9% vs. 26.4% and 5.4% vs. 26.4%, respectively. Iron deficiency anaemia (85.0%) contributed largely to the prevalence of anaemia. The dietary iron intake of the adolescents was unsatisfactory, with approximately 98% of subjects failing to meet the Malaysian RDA level. Almost all the female subjects (91%) had dietary iron intake below two-thirds of the RDA level compared with a much smaller proportion for the male adolescents (68%). The prevalence of IDA in the present study population, especially in the female adolescents, appears to be a significant public health problem. Priority should therefore be given to the eradication of iron deficiency in adolescents from low-income areas by dietary modification and micronutrient supplementation amongst female adolescents.
  9. Foo LH, Khor GL, Tee, E. Siong ES, Prabakaran D
    Malays J Nutr, 2006;12(1):11-21.
    Dietary intakes and lifestyle habits during adolescence may predict the occurrence of obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases later in life. The purpose of this study was to determine dietary intake of adolescents in a fishing community in Tuaran District, Sabah. A total of 199 apparently healthy adolescents comprising 94 male and 105 female subjects were purposively selected for the study. The mean age of the subjects was 15.2 f 2.2 years with female subjects having a higher mean age of 15.7 f 2.4 years compared to the males (14.6 k1.8 years). The mean BMI of the subjects was 18.4 f 2.9 kg/m2 with females having a significantly higher BMI (18.9 f 2.8 kg/m2) than the males (17.8 f 3.0 kg/m2). Based on the WHO classification (WHO, 1995), 19.6% of the subjects could be classified as thin while 4.5% were at risk of overweight. Overall for both sexes, intake of energy and most nutrients were below the Malaysian recommended nutrient intake (RNI) levels for adolescents, with the exception of vitamin C and niacin. The male subjects showed higher mean intake for vitamin A, thiamine, niacin and vitamin C than the females. Calcium and iron intake ranked among the lowest levels, at 33.4% and 47.2% respectively of the RNI values for both sexes. The main sources of energy were rice, flour products and tubers while fish and seafood were the chief sources of protein. Majority of the subjects (84%) reported taking breakfast daily, which often consisted of fried noodles, fried banana, doughnuts and coffee. Consumption of snacks was popular and commonly consumed snacks were bread, biscuits, and fried banana. The present study revealed that 25.5% and 14.3% of the male and female adolescents respectively were thin, with majority of them consuming inadequate levels of energy and several key nutrients. The results underscore the need for adolescents to be targeted for nutrition and health education as they go through a period of marked physical, physiological and psychological changes.
  10. Foo LH, Lee YH, Suhaida CY, Hills AP
    BMC Public Health, 2020 Apr 25;20(1):552.
    PMID: 32334561 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08461-7
    BACKGROUND: There is little information about the diet, lifestyle and parental characteristics associated with habitual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in Asian children. The aim of the present study was to assess cross-sectional associations between habitual SSB consumption and preschoolers' diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour as well as parental and child characteristics in Malaysian preschoolers aged 3 to 6 y.

    METHODS: A total of 590 preschoolers, comprising 317 boys and 273 girls were included. Pre-pilot parental questionnaires were used to assess diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour practices and anthropometry was assessed in preschoolers and their parents.

    RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that preschoolers with more frequent weekly intake of snacks [OR 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.4; p 

  11. Teo PS, Nurul-Fadhilah A, Aziz ME, Hills AP, Foo LH
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2014 Jun;11(6):5828-38.
    PMID: 24886753 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110605828
    AIM: To determine the influence of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on obesity profiles of 454 Malaysian adolescents aged 12 to 19.
    METHODS: Validated PA and SB questionnaires were used and body composition assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).
    RESULTS: Gender-specific multivariate analyses showed boys with high levels of total PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exhibited significantly lower levels of total body fat, percent body fat and android fat mass compared with low PA and MVPA groups, after adjusting for potential confounders. Girls with high SB levels showed significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and DXA-derived body fat indices than those at lower SB level. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that boys with low levels of total PA and MVPA had significantly greater obesity risk, 3.0 (OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.1; p < 0.05) and 3.8-fold (OR 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.1; p < 0.01), respectively, than more active boys. Only in girls with high SB level was there a significantly increased risk of obesity, 2.9 times higher than girls at low SP levels (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 1.0-7.5; p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that higher PA duration and intensity reduced body fat and obesity risk while high screen-based sedentary behaviors significantly adversely influenced body fat mass, particularly amongst girls when the PA level was low.
  12. Foo LH, Teo PS, Abdullah NF, Aziz ME, Hills AP
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):348-56.
    PMID: 23945404 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.02
    The main objective of this paper was to determine the utility of various anthropometric measures to assess total and regional body fatness using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion in 454 adolescent boys and girls aged 12-19 years. Multivariable regression analyses of gender-specific and gender-combined models were used to determine anthropometric measures on DXA-derived body fatness models, after adjusting for known confounding biological factors. Partial correlation analyses, after adjusting for age, pubertal growth status and ethnicity in boys and girls, showed that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WhtR) were significantly correlated with total body fat (TBF), percent body fat (%BF), android region fat (ARF) and trunk fat (TF) (all p<0.0001). BMI was the greatest independent determinant, contributing 43.8%-80.9% of the total variance for DXA-derived body fatness models. Results confirmed that a simple anthropometric index such as the BMI is a good surrogate indicator of body fat levels in Malay and Chinese adolescents.
  13. Lim KK, Chan YY, Mahmud NA, Ismail H, Tan BC, Chua BK, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(2):980-986.
    Introduction Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) during pregnancy may impair the neurological development of the fetus. The aim of this study is to determine the iodine status among pregnant women (PW) in Sarawak after introduction of mandatory universal salt iodisation (USI) for seven years.
    Methods A total of 508 first trimester PW attending government Maternal and Child Health Care clinics in all 11 divisions in Sarawak between 1st April and 15th June 2015 were recruited. Urine samples were obtained and analysed for urinary iodine concentration (UIC) using the modified Sandell-Kolthoff reaction method. For pregnant women, an adequate iodine intake was defined as a median UIC between 150-249 µg/L according to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD’s criterion. For further analyses, the 11 divisions were then combined into 3 regions, namely Northern (Miri, Bintulu, Limbang), Central (Kapit, Mukah, Sibu, Sarikei, Betong) and Southern (Kota Samarahan, Kuching, Sri Aman).
    Results TThe median UIC of the PW in Sarawak was 105.6 µg/L, indicating iodine deficiency. A total of 330 (65.0%) PW had UIC<150 µg/L. In terms of urinary iodine levels by region, the median UIC in Northern, Central and Southern regions were 136.3 µg/L, 85.5 µg/L and 97.4 µg/L respectively. The differences in median UIC between regions were significant. In addition, the Northern region (p = 0.001), Malay/Melanau ethnicity (p = 0.015) and parous parity (p = 0.014) were significantly associated with higher median UIC. No significant association was found for locality, age nor gravida.
    Conclusions This study indicates inadequate iodine status among PW in Sarawak despite seven years of mandatory USI. In fact, the majority of PW appear not to be protected against IDD and its consequences. In future, a comprehensive study should be carried out to determine the levels of iodine in salt at the retail outlets, villages and households in Sarawak.
    Keywords Iodine deficiency disorders - Pregnant women - Mandatory USI - Sarawak
  14. Lim KK, Chan YY, Teh CH, Ismail H, Yusof R, Muhi J, et al.
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2017 8 15;26(5):861-866.
    PMID: 28802296 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.092016.06
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod.

    RESULTS: In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of <150 μg/L.

    CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women from the rural divisions in Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

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