Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Tan SN, Gendeh HS, Sani A, Mat-Baki M
    Int J Surg Case Rep, 2016;21:99-103.
    PMID: 26957189 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.02.012
    Myeloid Sarcoma (MS) or Granulocytic Sarcoma is an uncommon laryngeal malignancy. It may arise from myelodysplastic syndromes, malignancy or de novo. Presentation in the larynx is rare and some may present with Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) whereby the later may be asymptomatic.
  2. Gendeh HS, Azman M, Mat Baki M, Mohamed AS
    J Laryngol Otol, 2021 Nov 25.
    PMID: 34819184 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215121003820
    BACKGROUND: Post-laryngectomy tracheostomal stenosis is common and often results in an inadequate airway. Several techniques have been described to minimise tracheostomal stenosis. The star technique involves an 'X' incision with four flaps sutured into the trachea. The petal technique involves two inferior flaps on either side being sutured into the trachea. The authors combined the star and petal techniques, resulting in an innovative fish mouth technique.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: This innovation involves two lateral skin flaps being sutured into an incision on either side of the lateral wall of the trachea. This results in an elongated, broadened and elliptical tracheostoma, mimicking that of a fish mouth.

    CONCLUSION: Benefits of the fish mouth technique include adequate stoma size for respiration, easier clearing of secretions, self-sufficiency without a stent, easier cleaning of a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis, and stoma occlusion for voice production. The fish mouth technique is easily reproducible and suitable for those with a voice prosthesis.

  3. Abdul Razak SF, Gendeh HS, Idris A
    BMJ Case Rep, 2023 Aug 27;16(8).
    PMID: 37640417 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2022-253868
    SummarySchwannoma, a type of benign neurological tumour arising from Schwann cells, is commonly seen in the head and neck region. However, the incidence of cervical lymph node schwannoma is extremely rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. Schwannomatosis is a disease characterised by a constellation of multiple schwannomas seen in a patient, guided by at least one confirmational histological diagnosis. This is a case of a painless progressively enlarging submandibular swelling which is confirmed as a schwannoma based on histology. The patient is also diagnosed with schwannomatosis as the patient has multiple neurological tumours. Nodal schwannoma has a good prognosis and no documentation of recurrence in the literature. It may arise from sympathetic nerves located within the lymph node.
  4. Kosai NR, Gendeh HS, Noorharisman M, Sutton PA, Das S
    PMID: 25257156 DOI: 10.14712/18059694.2014.45
    Small bowel obstruction is a common clinical problem presenting with abdominal distention, colicky pain, absolute constipation and bilious vomiting. There are numerous causes, most commonly attributed to an incarcerated hernia, adhesions or obstructing mass secondary to malignancy. Here we present an unusual cause of a small bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated incisional hernia in association with an acute organoaxial gastric volvulus.
  5. Gendeh HS, Abdullah AB, Goh BS, Hashim ND
    Ear Nose Throat J, 2019 Aug;98(7):416-419.
    PMID: 31018687 DOI: 10.1177/0145561319840166
    Intracranial complications secondary to chronic otitis media (COM) include otogenic brain abscess and sinus thrombosis. Intravenous antibiotics and imaging have significantly reduced the incidence of intracranial complications secondary to COM. However, the same does not apply to a developing country like Malaysia, which still experiences persisting otogenic complications. This case series describes 3 patients with COM and intracranial complications. All 3 patients had COM with mastoiditis, with 1 of the 3 having a cholesteatoma. Postulated reasons for the continued occurrence include poor access to health care, poor compliance with medication, and the lack of pneumococcal vaccination during childhood. In conclusion, public awareness and a timely specialty referral can reduce the incidence of intracranial complications of COM.
  6. Rampal S, Tan EK, Gendeh HS, Prahaspathiji LJ, Zainal S, Amir S
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 01;75(1):80-82.
    PMID: 32008027
    A 68-year-old female presented with a 1-month history of lower back pain with right-sided radiculopathy and numbness. She was diagnosed with lumbar spondylosis and treated conservatively with analgesia and physiotherapy. Imaging showed multiple susuk, a metal alloy, in the lower back region and other regions of the body. The patient had undergone traditional medicine consultation 10 years earlier when the susuk was inserted in the lower back as talisman. The practice of the insertion of susuk is popular in rural East Malaysia and Indonesia. These foreign bodies act as possible causes of chronic inflammation and granuloma formation. In addition, the localised heighten peril upon imaging. This report suggests that the insertion of multiple susuk as talisman carries risk to safety of patients when imaging, and this practice complicates the management of musculoskeletal disorders.
  7. Liew W, Wai YY, Kosai NR, Gendeh HS
    Hernia, 2017 08;21(4):549-554.
    PMID: 28417279 DOI: 10.1007/s10029-017-1611-1
    PURPOSE: Laparoscopic hernioplasty has become a popular choice for inguinal hernia repair since its advent in 1990s. Postoperative pain is an undesirable clinical outcome impairing daily activity of 22.5% of patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperative acute and chronic pain via inflammatory markers as an objective assessment following tacks or glue mesh fixation in TEP repair.

    METHODS: Sixty-six (66) patients with unilateral uncomplicated inguinal hernia were randomized into 34 patients in the tacker and 32 patients in cyanoacrylate glue mesh fixation in TEP repair. The extent of surgical trauma was evaluated by measuring inflammatory markers of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count at 48 h, and ESR at 3 months postoperatively. Postoperative acute and chronic pain was assessed by recording the visual analogue scale scores and surgical complications were recorded over 3 months of the study period.

    RESULTS: The median CRP and WBC levels at postoperative 48 h in both groups raised significantly from the baseline values (p  0.05). The median ESR level increased significantly at 3 months postoperatively from baseline in the glue mesh fixation group only (p  0.05). There was no significant difference for VAS scores at all timelines between the tacker and glue mesh fixation group (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Cyanoacrylate glue mesh fixation technique as an alternative method to mechanical fixation in TEP repair is comparable to tacker and can be considered to be safe and feasible.

  8. Tan SN, Gendeh HS, Gendeh BS, Ramzisham AR
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Nov;71(Suppl 3):1683-1686.
    PMID: 31763224 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-015-0918-4
    Hemangioma is a disease of head and neck commonly, but its presence in the nasal cavity or sinus is rare. It is a form of benign tumour of vascular origin consisting of predominantly blood vessels. It can be categorized into capillary, cavernous and mixed type in accordance to its histopathology features. Retrospectively, we reviewed five cases of nasal hemangioma presenting at University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) between September 2007 and May 2015. Information on the patients age, gender, ethnicity, clinical symptoms, imaging findings (if available), treatment modalities were collected retrospectively for analysis. Five patients were analysed. Females were more affected than male with ratio of 4:1. All patients presented with unilateral lobular capillary hemangioma of the nasal cavity with 60 % (3/5) of the lesions on the right side and 40 % (2/5) on the left side. The common symptoms at presentation were epitaxis and nasal obstruction (5/5, 100 %), followed by rhinorrhea (3/5, 60 %) and facial pain (1/5, 20 %). All the patients underwent a surgical excision of the hemangioma. The five patients had no recurrence on subsequent follow ups. Computed tomography of paranasal sinuses can be performed to exclude bony erosions. Endoscopic sinus haemangioma excision provide good visualisation and better outcomes. In conclusion, nasal hemangioma should always be differential diagnosis for nasal lesions and surgical excision is still the preferred first line treatment.
  9. Mawaddah A, Gendeh HS, Lum SG, Marina MB
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):23-35.
    PMID: 32342928
    INTRODUCTION: To review the present literature on upper respiratory tract sampling in COVID-19 and provide recommendations to improve healthcare practices and directions in future studies.

    METHODS: Twelve relevant manuscripts were sourced from a total of 7288 search results obtained using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. The search keywords used were COVID-19, nasopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, swabs, SARS and CoV2. Original manuscripts were obtained and analysed by all authors. The review included manuscripts which have not undergone rigorous peer-review process in view of the magnitude of the topic discussed.

    RESULTS: The viral load of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract was significantly higher during the first week and peaked at 4-6 days after onset of symptoms, during which it can be potentially sampled. Nasopharyngeal swab has demonstrated higher viral load than oropharyngeal swab, where the difference in paired samples is best seen at 0-9 days after the onset of illness. Sensitivity of nasopharyngeal swab was higher than oropharyngeal swabs in COVID-19 patients. Patient self-collected throat washing has been shown to contain higher viral load than nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab, with significantly higher sensitivity when compared with paired nasopharyngeal swab.

    RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine nasopharyngeal swab of suspected COVID-19 infection should take anatomy of the nasal cavity into consideration to increase patient comfort and diagnostic yield. Routine oropharyngeal swab should be replaced by throat washing which has demonstrated better diagnostic accuracy, and it is safe towards others.

  10. Kosai NR, Gendeh HS, Norfaezan AR, Razman J, Sutton PA, Das S
    Int Surg, 2015 Jun;100(6):1148-52.
    PMID: 25578789 DOI: 10.9738/INTSURG-D-14-00205.1
    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.
  11. Gendeh HS, Hashim ND, Mohammad Yunus MR, Gendeh BS, Kosai NR
    ANZ J Surg, 2018 09;88(9):937-938.
    PMID: 27122196 DOI: 10.1111/ans.13624
  12. Kosai NR, Amin-Tai H, Gendeh HS, Salleh S, Reynu R, Taher MM, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2015;166(3):110-3.
    PMID: 26152617 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1839
    Acute abdominal pain in pregnancy remains a surgical conundrum. A 25-year-old primigravid at 29 weeks gestation presented with a two-week history of epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. She had a distended abdomen consistent with a full term gravid uterus; tender at the epigastric and right hypochondrium suggestive of small bowel obstruction or acute appendicitis. Abdominal ultrasound was inconclusive but abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) suggested small bowel volvulus. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a segmental jejunal volvulus and small bowel diverticulum contributing to the volvulus. A short segmental bowel resection was performed. Histopathology confirmed a Meckel's Diverticulum. The patient recovered well but underwent premature labour 10 days later. Small bowel obstruction secondary to Meckel's diverticulum is rare in pregnancy. In an acute gestational abdomen, clinical examination is key. Radiological imaging may be helpful, whilst surgical intervention is confirmatory and therapeutic in the event of an obstructive volvulus.
  13. Wong DKC, Gendeh HS, Thong HK, Lum SG, Gendeh BS, Saim A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 09;75(5):574-581.
    PMID: 32918429
    INTRODUCTION: Multiple anecdotal reports suggest that smell and taste loss were early subclinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients. The objective of this review was to identify the incidence of smell and taste dysfunction in COVID-19, determine the onset of their symptoms and the risk factors of anosmia, hyposmia, ageusia or dysgeusia for COVID-19 infection.

    METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar on 15th May 2020, with search terms including SARS-COV-2, coronavirus, COVID-19, hyposmia, anosmia, ageusia and dysgeusia. The articles included were cross sectional studies, observational studies and retrospective or prospective audits, letters to editor and short communications that included a study of a cohort of patients. Case reports, case-series and interventional studies were excluded.

    DISCUSSION: A total of 16 studies were selected. Incidence of smell and taste dysfunction was higher in Europe (34 to 86%), North America (19 to 71%) and the Middle East (36 to 98%) when compared to the Asian cohorts (11 to 15%) in COVID-19 positive patients. Incidence of smell and taste dysfunction in COVID-19 negative patients was low in comparison (12 to 27%). Total incidence of smell and taste dysfunction from COVID-19 positive and negative patients from seven studies was 20% and 10% respectively. Symptoms may appear just before, concomitantly, or immediately after the onset of the usual symptoms. Occurs predominantly in females. When occurring immediately after the onset of the usual symptoms, the median time of onset was 3.3 to 4.4 days. Symptoms persist for a period of seven to 14 days. Patients with smell and taste dysfunction were reported to have a six to ten-fold odds of having COVID-19.

    CONCLUSION: Smell and taste dysfunction has a high incidence in Europe, North America, and the Middle East. The incidence was lower in the Asia region. It is a strong risk factor for COVID-19. It may be the only symptom and should be added to the list of symptoms when screening for COVID- 19.

  14. Gendeh BS, Gendeh HS, Purnima S, Comoretto RI, Gregori D, Gulati A
    Indian J Pediatr, 2019 Jan;86(Suppl 1):20-24.
    PMID: 30623311 DOI: 10.1007/s12098-018-2824-8
    Foreign body aspiration in children is a problem that can lead to several complications, including death. In this retrospective publication review from 1970 to 2015, there were altogether 42 Malaysian children below the age of 15 y reported with foreign body (FB) ingestion. There were 31 boys and 11 girls between 2 and 177 mo of age. The incidence of FB ingestion in children varied with dietary practices. Peanut was the most common food-related substance inhaled followed by watermelon seed and coconut kernel. The most common non-food related substances were metal objects (toys, springs, hair clips) and plastic objects (ballpoint tips, pencil caps and whistles). Successful removal of FB by bronchoscopy is achieved in the vast majority of cases except for a case of impacted whistle inhalation and a neglected laryngeal FB which required a tracheostomy. One child required thoracotomy for the removal of a peanut in the right bronchus. The incidence of food-related substance inhalation was more common than non-food related substance (30:7). From this review, the key messages are two: first, prevention can be achieved by educating parents not to allow access to small objects or dangerous foods to children below 3 y age; Second, emergency first aid home measures, in the combination form of back blows in the head down position and chest or abdominal thrusts, should be early performed according to the pediatric age group and can be quite effective.
  15. Syazni MA, Gendeh HS, Kosai NR, Ramzisham AR, Gendeh BS, Basiron NH, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 02;72(1):80-82.
    PMID: 28255152 MyJurnal
    Sternal metastasis from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is rare and presents a conundrum for surgeons. We present a lady diagnosed with follicular thyroid carcinoma and sternal metastasis who underwent thyroidectomy, sternectomy and sternoplasty with titanium mesh and acrylic plate. She developed a surgical site infection, of which multiple conservative approaches were attempted. She eventually required removal of the implant. Closure of sternal defect was completed with bilateral pectoralis major advancement flaps. This article highlights a series of complications faced during the course of treatment and how they were managed in a tertiary healthcare centre.
  16. Thong HK, Wong DKC, Gendeh HS, Saim L, Athar PPBSH, Saim A
    J Med Life, 2021;14(4):468-480.
    PMID: 34621369 DOI: 10.25122/jml-2020-0119
    The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought unprecedented changes in the way conventional health care is delivered. This study examined if clinicians' perceptions regarding telemedicine and its barriers to implementation in Malaysia have changed during this pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Malaysian medical doctors of various specialties in four urban healthcare facilities between June 2020 and July 2020. A total of 146 (41.7%) out of 350 responses were obtained. 62% of doctors reported a reduction greater than 50% in outpatient visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of doctors either found telemedicine useful in situations similar to COVID-19 (34.2%) or that it is essential to their daily practice (42.5%). However, only 22% reported using telemedicine for consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. 74% of doctors felt that telemedicine would only benefit up to 30% of their patient population. Significantly more female doctors (80%) felt that telemedicine would benefit their patients compared to male doctors (45.8%) (P=0.03). Physicians (51.3%) were more inclined to adopt telemedicine in comparison to surgeons (32.4%) (P=0.03). The majority cited medico-legal issues and consent (80.6%), billing and charges (66.7%) and insurance reimbursement (62.5%), technical difficulties (62.5%) as their barrier to the adoption of telemedicine. Female doctors and physicians were more willing to adopt telemedicine when compared to male doctors and surgeons. Although the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to improve the perception, significant barriers should be resolved before many can incorporate it into their practice.
  17. Zahedi FD, Husain S, Wan Hamizan AK, Tuang GJ, Gendeh HS, Oui TJ, et al.
    J Laryngol Otol, 2023 Feb;137(2):174-177.
    PMID: 35469585 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215121004709
    BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment may be present among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 self-perceived as asymptomatic. This study aimed to assess olfactory function among these individuals.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving patients with coronavirus disease 2019 self-perceived as asymptomatic was conducted. Assessments included the subjective Malaysian Smell and Taste Questionnaire and the culturally adapted Malaysian version of the objective Sniffin' Sticks Identification smell test.

    RESULTS: In 81 participants (mean age of 31.59 ± 12.04 years), with mean time from diagnosis to smell test of 7.47 ± 3.79 days, subjective assessment showed that 80.2 per cent were asymptomatic (questionnaire score of 6) and 19 per cent had mild symptoms (questionnaire score of 7 and 8). The mean objective smell test score was 10.89 ± 2.11. The prevalence of olfactory impairment was 76.6 per cent among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 self-perceived as asymptomatic. There was no association between the questionnaire and the smell test scores (p = 0.25). There was a correlation between the smell test score and the duration from diagnosis to smell test (p = 0.04).

    CONCLUSION: The objective assessment demonstrated that coronavirus disease 2019 patients who perceived themselves as asymptomatic showed olfactory impairment.

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