Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Lee-Yin C, Ismaill BS, Salmijah S, Halimah M
    J Environ Biol, 2013 Sep;34(5):957-61.
    PMID: 24558812
    The influence of temperature, moisture and organic matter on the persistence of cyfluthrin was determined using three types of Malaysian soils, namely clay, clay loam and sandy clay loam obtained from a tomato farm in Cameron Highlands, Pahang. The persistence of cyfluthrin was observed in the laboratory at two temperature levels of 25 and 35 degreeC and field water capacity of 30 and 80%. Treated soil samples were incubated in a growth chamber for 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days. The results from the incubation studies showed that temperature and organic matter content significantly reduced the half-life (t1/2) values of cyfluthrin in the three soil types, but moisture content had very little effect. It was observed that cyfluthrin persisted longer at lower temperature and moisture content and higher organic matter content in all the three soil types. The present study demonstrated that under the tropical conditions of Malaysia, cyfluthrin dissipated rapidly in soils compared to its dissipation in soils of temperate regions, evidently due to high temperature.
  2. Halimah M, Tan YA, Ismail BS
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2004;39(5-6):765-77.
    PMID: 15620085
    Four methods were developed for the analysis of fluroxypyr in soil samples from oil palm plantations. The first method involved the extraction of the herbicide with 0.05 M NaOH in methanol followed by purification using acid base partition. The concentrated material was subjected to derivatization and then cleaning process using a florisil column and finally analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). By this method, the recovery of fluroxypyr from the spiked soil ranged from 70 to 104% with the minimum detection limit at 5 microg/kg. The second method involved solid liquid extraction of fluroxypyr using a horizontal shaker followed by quantification using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with UV detector. The recovery of fluroxypyr using this method, ranged from 80 to 120% when the soil was spiked with fluroxypyr at 0.1-0.2 microg/g soil. In the third method, the recovery of fluroxypyr was determined by solid liquid extraction using an ultrasonic bath. The recovery of fluroxypyr at spiking levels of 4-50 microg/L ranged from 88 to 98% with relative standard deviations of 3.0-5.8% with a minimum detection limit of 4 microg/kg. In the fourth method, fluroxypyr was extracted using the solid liquid extraction method followed by the cleaning up step with OASIS HLB (polyvinyl dibenzene). The recovery of fluroxypyr was between 91 and 95% with relative standard deviations of 4.2-6.2%, respectively. The limit of detection in method 4 was further improved to 1 pg/kg. When the weight of soil used was increased 4 fold, the recovery of fluroxypyr at spiking level of 1-50 microg/kg ranged from 82-107% with relative standard deviations of 0.5-4.7%.
  3. Halimah M, Tan YA, Aini K, Ismail BS
    J Environ Sci Health B, 2003 Jul;38(4):429-40.
    PMID: 12856925
    Improved methods for extraction and clean up of fluroxypyr residue in water have been established. Two methods of fluroxypyr extraction were used, namely, Direct Measurement of fluroxypyr and Concentration of fluroxypyr onto A Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Adsorbent, followed by elution with solvent before determination of fluroxypyr. The recovery for Direct Measurement of fluroxypyr in water containing 8-100 microg L(-1), ranged from 86 to 110% with relative standard deviation of 0.7 to 2.15%. For the second method, three types of SPE were used, viz. C18, C18 end-capped and polyvinyl dibenzene (ISOLUTE ENV+). The procedure involved concentrating the analyte from fluroxypyr-spiked water at pH 3, followed by elution of the analyte with 4 mL of acentonitrile. The recovery of fluroxypyr from the spiked sample at 1 to 50 microg L(-1) after eluting through either C18 or C18 end-capped ranged from 40-64% (with relative standard deviation of 0.7 to 2.15) and 41-65% (with standard deviation of 1.52 to 11.9). The use of ISOLUTE ENV+, gave better results than the C18, C18 end-capped or the Direct Measurement Methods. The recovery and standard deviation of fluroxypyr from spiked water using ISOLUTE ENV+ ranged from 91-102% and 2.5 to 5.3, respectively.
  4. Maznah Z, Halimah M, Ismail BS
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2018 May;100(5):677-682.
    PMID: 29516138 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-018-2312-x
    The residual levels and persistence of thiram in the soil, water and oil palm seedling leaves were investigated under field conditions. The experimental plots were carried out on a clay loam soil and applied with three treatments namely; manufacturer's recommended dosage (25.6 g a.i. plot-1), manufacturer's double recommended dosage (51.2 g a.i. plot-1), and control (water) were applied. Thiram residues were detected in the soil from day 0 to day 3 in the range of 0.22-27.04 mg kg-1. Low concentrations of thiram were observed in the water and leave samples in the range of 0.27-2.52 mg L-1 and 1.34-12.28 mg kg-1, respectively. Results have shown that thiram has a rapid degradation and has less persistence due to climatic factors. These findings suggest that thiram is safe when applied at manufacturer's recommended dosage on oil palm seedlings due to low residual levels observed in soil and water bodies.
  5. Halimah M, Ismail BS, Nashriyah M, Maznah Z
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2016 Jan;96(1):120-4.
    PMID: 26546229 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-015-1685-3
    The mobility of (14)C-chlorpyrifos using soil TLC was investigated in this study. It was found that chlorpyrifos was not mobile in clay, clay loam and peat soil. The mobility of (14)C-chlorpyrifos and non-labelled chlorpyrifos was also tested with silica gel TLC using three types of developing solvent hexane (100%), hexane:ethyl acetate (95:5, v/v); and hexane:ethyl acetate (98:2, v/v). The study showed that both the (14)C-labelled and non-labelled chlorpyrifos have the same Retardation Factor (Rf) for different developing solvent systems. From the soil column study on mobility of chlorpyrifos, it was observed that no chlorpyrifos residue was found below 5 cm depth in three types of soil at simulation rainfall of 20, 50 and 100 mm. Therefore, the soil column and TLC studies have shown similar findings in the mobility of chlorpyrifos.
  6. Lsmail BS, Choo LY, Salmijah S, Halimah M, Tayeb MA
    J Environ Biol, 2015 Sep;36(5):1105-11.
    PMID: 26521552
    The sorption and desorption of cyfluthrin mixture isomers were determined using batch equilibration method and mobility was studied under laboratory conditions, using packed soil column. The soil types used in the study were clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam obtained from three tomato farms in Cameron Highlands. A low Freundlich adsorption distribution coefficient K(ads(f)) for cyfluthrin was observed for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils (95.69, 21.64 and 8.99 l/kg, respectively). Results showed that cyfluthrin had high Freundlich organic matter (OM) distribution coefficient K(oc) values of 5799, 2278 and 1635 lkg(-1) for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils, respectively. These values indicate that cyfluthrin is considered immobile in Malaysian soils with different textures, based on the value of K(oc) by McCall. Adsorption of cyfluthrin was significantly (P < 0.05) affected with soil pH, fertilizer NPK, organic matter content and temperature. It was observed that approximately 95.8%, 93.8% and 91.8% of the adsorbed cyfluthrin remained sorbed after four successive rinses for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils. Soil column test showed that cyfluthrin was not detected in leachate. Cyfluthrin was detected in topsoil and its concentration decreased with depth. The downward movement of cyfluthrin in sandy clay loam soil was more than that in clay loam and clayey soils. Approximately, 80.9%, 77.8% and 67.3% cyfluthrin was observed at the depth of 0-5 cm (rainfall 350 mm) for clayey, clay loam and sandy clay loam soils respectively. Mobility of cyfluthrin showed that the percentage of cyfluthrin leached into soil was not affected by the amount of rainfall. The result clearly showed that cyfluthrin molecules were bound strongly to all the three Malaysian soil types.
  7. Sinniah M, Halimah M, Krishnamurthy T, Lye MS, Choo CH, Shamsiah I
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):336-40.
    PMID: 7674968
    Immunisation of health care workers and staff working in laboratory and hospital settings has been implemented since 1988. However due to the high cost of currently available HBV vaccine, many health personnel outside the Ministry of Health are not being immunised. This study sought to determine the immunogenicity of three doses of a low cost plasma-derived Korean HBV vaccine on employees of an institute for mentally handicapped and their spouses and children. We found that the Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC to be safe and immunogenic. The response to 10 mcg and 20 mcg Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC after third dose was good with 100% seroconversion.
  8. Maznah Z, Halimah M, Shitan M, Kumar Karmokar P, Najwa S
    PLoS One, 2017;12(1):e0166203.
    PMID: 28060816 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0166203
    Ganoderma boninense is a fungus that can affect oil palm trees and cause a serious disease called the basal stem root (BSR). This disease causes the death of more than 80% of oil palm trees midway through their economic life and hexaconazole is one of the particular fungicides that can control this fungus. Hexaconazole can be applied by the soil drenching method and it will be of interest to know the concentration of the residue in the soil after treatment with respect to time. Hence, a field study was conducted in order to determine the actual concentration of hexaconazole in soil. In the present paper, a new approach that can be used to predict the concentration of pesticides in the soil is proposed. The statistical analysis revealed that the Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) techniques would be appropriate in this study. The EDA techniques were used to fit a robust resistant model and predict the concentration of the residue in the topmost layer of the soil.
  9. Halimah MK, Ami Hazlin MN, Muhammad FD
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Apr 15;195:128-135.
    PMID: 29414569 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.12.054
    A series of glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2)0.7(B2O3)0.3]0.7(ZnO)0.3}1-x(Dy2O3)xwhere x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05M fraction were synthesized through conventional melt-quenching method. The most common way to fabricate a glass material is by fusion of two or more component oxides followed by their quenching. This technique is known as melt-quenching technique. Kaur et al. (2016) [1] highlighted that the melt-quenching method able to enhance the mechanical properties like hardness and flexural strength of the material. The nature of the glass systems is proven to be amorphous based on the XRD pattern. The FTIR spectra of the glass systems confirm the existence of five bands which are assigned for the BO4, BO3,TeO4and TeO3vibrational groups. The density of the glass systems is increased with the addition of Dy2O3while the molar volume is found to be inversely proportional to the density of the proposed glass. The optical properties of the glasses are determined through the absorption spectra obtained from the UV-VIS spectrophotometer. From the absorption spectra, the indirect and direct optical band gaps and the Urbach energy are found to be inversely proportional to each other. As the molar fraction of the Dy2O3increased, the optical band gaps are observed to increase as opposed to the Urbach energy. For this glass system, the values of refractive index, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and the optical basicity are found to decrease as the addition of the dysprosium oxide is increased. From the emission spectra, two intense blue and yellow emission bands are observed, which correspond to the4F9/2→6H15/2and4F9/2→6H13/2transitions of Dy3+ions respectively. The CIE chromaticity coordinates of the zinc borotellurite glass systems are found to be located in the white light region.
  10. Maznah Z, Halimah M, Ismail S, Idris AS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Dec;22(24):19648-57.
    PMID: 26276276 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5178-z
    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.
  11. Krishnan K, Saion E, Halimah MK, Yap CK
    MethodsX, 2023 Dec;11:102281.
    PMID: 37519950 DOI: 10.1016/j.mex.2023.102281
    The primary objective of the study was to examine the distribution of various elements, namely Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb), in the soft tissues, shells, and associated surface sediments of Cerithidea obtusa (C. obtusa) mangrove snails collected from Sungai Besar Sepang. To conduct the analysis, the preferred and most convenient methods employed were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results showed that the mean concentration of elements in the sediments and soft tissues followed the order Fe > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd, while for the shell of C. obtusa, it was Fe > Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd.•Iron (Fe) showed the highest concentration among all elements monitored in sediments, soft tissues, and shells of C. obtusa.•The PF results indicated higher incorporation of Pb and Ni into shells.•BSAF results showed that C. obtusa shells accumulated more Cu and Cd from sediments, making them effective biomonitors.
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