Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 46 in total

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  1. Jamilah J, Ahmad Najib A, Dzulkhairi MR, Ariff HO, Nasri Ismail NM
    MyJurnal
    Muslim doctors are those qualified doctors who practise their professional knowledge and skills in line with Islam and upholds the highest standards of ethical and professional behaviour. The medical curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) was designed with the integration of Islamic input which aims at producing doctors who are able to practise medicine that is integrated with Islamic, moral and ethical values. Halaqah Studies and Fundamental Islamic Knowledge (FIK) courses such as History of Medicine in Islam, Science and Medicine in Quran and Sunnah, Akhlak and Tasawuf, Islamic Jurisprudence and Medical Ethics and Fiqh Issues are taught to students during the pre-clinical and clinical phases. Memorization of selected Quranic verses throughout the programme aim to get the students to apply the verses of the al-Quran into practice in everyday life and especially in their clinical practice. Islamic values are emphasised during doctor-patient interactions in all clinical postings. Islamic knowledge and values integrated in the curriculum are assessed in written and clinical examinations. The outcome of the integration of the Naqli component in the medical curriculum has been demonstrated positively by the students in the patient management problems and clinical consultations. Studies on the outcome of the integrated Islamic input in the medical curriculum among the clinical students and graduates are being carried out.
  2. Ismail NM, Mustapha MS, Megat R
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1997 Nov;26(6):754-7.
    PMID: 9522974
    The aim of this study was to investigate if colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) can penetrate the gastric mucus barrier to reach the different sites of the antral mucosa and to estimate the time course for CBS to reach and remain in the mucosa. A single dose of CBS was administered orally to rats that were sacrificed at different time intervals post treatment. The control group received gum acacia without CBS. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate, visualised as electron dense precipitate (EDP), was seen in the gastric mucus layer, intercellular spaces and intracellularly after 30 minutes and disappeared after 6 hours. Scant amounts of EDP were observed in the gastric crypts, confined only to the upper parts of these structures. We concluded that CBS can penetrate the mucus and has a wide but uneven distribution in the gastric mucosa. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate, in the concentration given only penetrated the upper two-thirds of gastric pits and not the lower one-third. We also concluded that CBS has to be given 6 hourly to ensure its continuous presence in the gastric mucosa.
  3. Ismail NM, Jaarin K, Vasudevan SK, Hashim S
    Pharmacol. Toxicol., 1995 Jul;77(1):10-5.
    PMID: 8532606
    Nicardipine has been shown to have an anti-atherogenic effect in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Current evidence suggests that lipid peroxidation plays an important role in atherogenesis. This study examines the effect of nicardipine on lipid peroxidation in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet, 8 of these rabbits given nicardipine 0.5 mg/kg twice daily intramuscularly for ten weeks while the remaining untreated 6 were controls. After ten weeks, serum malondialdehyde in the control group was significantly higher compared to their baseline levels (P < 0.05). However, there was no increase in serum malondialdehyde in the nicardipine group after 10 weeks. The area of Sudan IV positive intimal lesions (atherosclerotic plaques) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the treated group compared to the control group. The aortic tissue content of cholesterol and diene conjugates were also decreased in the nicardipine group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest a possible link between nicardipine and lipid peroxidation in mediating its antiatherogenic effects.
  4. Barman A, Jaafar R, Ismail NM
    Malays J Med Sci, 2006 Jan;13(1):63-7.
    PMID: 22589593
    The implementation of problem-based learning started in 1969 and has spread since then throughout different parts of the world with variations in its implementation. In spite of its growth and advantages, there is continuing debate about its effectiveness over the conventional teaching learning methods. In the School of Dental Sciences (SDS), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), the Doctor of Dental Sciences (DDS) program follows a 5-year integrated curriculum. Basically the curriculum is problem-based and community oriented. This study was to explore the perception of DDS students about PBL sessions. This questionnaires-based cross sectional descriptive study were carried out on all the 110 students of the SDS who completed their second year of the course and participated in PBL sessions. Ninety five (86%) students responded to the questionnaires. Dental students found PBL session interesting and wanted to maintain PBL from the beginning of year 2 up to the end of year 3. Most students reported their participation in discussion during PBL sessions but the level of participation varied. Some of them worked hard to prepare themselves for discussion while others were relatively passive. PBL helped them with in-depth understanding of certain topics and link their basic science knowledge to clinical classes. They felt that guidance from subject specialists and well-prepared facilitators of the sessions were beneficial. The students believed that repetition of triggers from year to year discouraged their active search for learning issues. Majority of the students were undecided or disagreed about the availability of adequate learning resources Most of the students were undecided or disagreed about the availability of adequate learning resources for their self-study. Reviewing and renewing the PBL triggers, providing guidelines for searching for resource materials and briefing the students and facilitators about the philosophy and principles of PBL may make the PBL sessions more beneficial.
  5. Ismail NM, Ibrahim IA, Hashim NB, Jaarin K
    Arch Med Sci, 2013 Dec 30;9(6):1132-7.
    PMID: 24482662 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.31252
    INTRODUCTION: Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, which is used as an antihypertensive agent and has shown antioxidant properties. This study aims at determining the effects of captopril on factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity in aspirin-induced gastric lesions.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley (200-250 g) rats that were given aspirin (40 mg/100 g body weight) were divided into three groups: the control, captopril (1 mg/100 g body weight daily) and ranitidine (2.5 mg/100 g body weight twice daily) groups. Ranitidine and captopril were given orally for 28 days. Rats in all groups were sacrificed and the parameters measured.
    RESULTS: Captopril reduced gastric acidity, and increased gastric glutathione (GSH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) significantly in comparison to the control group. Captopril also reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and gastric lesions insignificantly compared to the control group. Ranitidine healed the lesions significantly compared to the control group. There was no difference between ranitidine and captopril on the severity of lesions, gastric acidity, MDA and GSH. Captopril increased PGE2 compared to ranitidine (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Captopril has desirable effects on the factors affecting gastric mucosal integrity (acidity, PGE2 and GSH) and is comparable to ranitidine in ulcer healing.
    KEYWORDS: aspirin; captopril; gastric lesions; ranitidine
  6. Zreaqat M, Hassan R, Ismail AR, Ismail NM, Aziz FA
    Oral Health Dent Manag, 2013 Dec;12(4):217-21.
    PMID: 24390019
    Assessment of orthodontic treatment need and demand helps in planning orthodontic services and estimating the required resources and man power. The aim of this study was to assess the orthodontic treatment need and demand and to assess the association between the orthodontic treatment demand and factors such as ITON, gender, and age.
  7. Yasin Y, Ismail NM, Hussein MZ, Aminudin N
    J Biomed Nanotechnol, 2011 Jun;7(3):486-8.
    PMID: 21830495
    A drug-inorganic nanostructured material involving pharmaceutically active compound lawsone intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Law-LDHs) with Zn/AI = 4 has been assembled by co-precipitation and ion exchange methods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis indicate a successful intercalation of lawsone between the layers of layered double hydroxides. It suggests that layered double hydroxides may have application as the basis of a drug delivery system.
  8. Mani SA, Aziz AA, John J, Ismail NM
    J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent, 2010 Apr-Jun;28(2):78-83.
    PMID: 20660972 DOI: 10.4103/0970-4388.66741
    The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers.
  9. Gopinath VK, Ling KT, Haziani KN, Ismail NM
    J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2008;33(1):39-42.
    PMID: 19093650
    This study reports on the predisposing factors and prevalence of fractured anterior teeth among 12 and 16 years-old school children in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, West Malaysia.
  10. Ibrahim IA, Yusof K, Ismail NM, Fahami NA
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2008 Mar;40(2):73-7.
    PMID: 21279170 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.41042
    Stress can lead to various changes in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. The present study was designed to compare the effect of palm vitamin E (PVE) and α-tocopherol (α-TF) supplementations on the gastric parameters important in maintaining gastric mucosal integrity in rats exposed to water immersion restraint stress (WRS). These parameters include gastric acidity, plasma gastrin level, gastric prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and gastric lesions.
  11. Ismail NM, Abdul Ghafar N, Jaarin K, Khine JH, Top GM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S79-94.
    PMID: 11271860
    The present study aims to examine the effects of a palm-oil-derived vitamin E mixture containing tocotrienol (approximately 70%) and tocopherol (approximately 30%) on plasma lipids and on the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits (2.2-2.8 kg) were divided into three groups; group 1 (control) was fed a normal diet, group 2 (AT) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet and group 3 (PV) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet with oral palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg body weight) given daily for 10 weeks. There were no differences in the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels between the AT and PV groups. The PV group had a significantly higher concentrations of HDL-c and a lower TC/HDL-c ratio compared to the AT group (P < 0.003). The aortic tissue content of cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesions were comparable in both the AT and PV groups. However, the PV group had a lower content of plasma and aortic tissue malondialdehyde (P < 0.005). Our findings suggest that despite a highly atherogenic diet, palm vitamin E improved some important plasma lipid parameters, reduced lipid peroxidation but did not have an effect on the atherosclerotic plaque formation.
  12. Ismail NM, Jaarin K, Ahmad A, Marzuki A, Ng WK, Gapor MT
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 1999 Dec;8(4):258-62.
    PMID: 24394225
    The main focus of the study was to examine the effect of palm vitamin E (a tocotrienol-enriched fraction of palm oil) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. The study was divided into three sections.Study 1 determined the gastric content of vitamin E after dietary supplementation with palm vitamin E for 3 weeks. Seven rats were fed a normal diet and another 7 were fed a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (150 mg/kg food). The gastric content of vitamin E levels were higher in rats fed with a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (p<0.01). Study 2 determined the time-dependent effects of palm vitamin E on gastric lesions and gastric acidity postethanol administration. Two groups of rats were fed either a normal rat diet or a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (150 mg/kg food). After 3 weeks, the control and a treated group received a single intragastric dose of 100% ethanol. Assessment of gastric lesions after 1 week showed a lower gastric lesion index in the palm vitamin E group compared with the controls (p<0.05) but there was no difference in the gastric acid content after 1 week between the two groups. Study 3 determined the effects of palm vitamin E on the gastric tissue content of malondialdehyde (MDA), PGE2 and gastric acidity without ethanol administration. The MDA content was lower in the palm vitamin E-treated group (p<0.05). However, the gastric acid and PGE2 content in both groups did not differ. The findings suggest that feeding with a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (150 mg/kg food) for 3 weeks resulted in a significant concentration of vitamin E in the gastric tissue. It was concluded that palm vitamin E may promote the healing of ethanol-induced gastric lesions through minimizing the lipid preoccupation process in the gastric mucous.
  13. Arora A, Khattri S, Ismail NM, Kumbargere Nagraj S, Prashanti E
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 12 21;12:CD012595.
    PMID: 29267989 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012595.pub2
    BACKGROUND: School dental screening refers to visual inspection of children's oral cavity in a school setting followed by making parents aware of their child's current oral health status and treatment needs. Screening at school intends to identify children at an earlier stage than symptomatic disease presentation, hence prompting preventive and therapeutic oral health care for the children. This review evaluates the effectiveness of school dental screening in improving oral health status.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of school dental screening programmes on overall oral health status and use of dental services.

    SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 15 March 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Register of Studies, to 15 March 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 March 2017), and Embase Ovid (15 September 2016 to 15 March 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases; however, the search of Embase was restricted to the last six months due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (cluster or parallel) that evaluated school dental screening compared with no intervention or with one type of screening compared with another.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included six trials (four were cluster-RCTs) with 19,498 children who were 4 to 15 years of age. Four trials were conducted in the UK and two were based in India. We assessed two trials to be at low risk of bias, one trial to be at high risk of bias and three trials to be at unclear risk of bias.None of the six trials reported the proportion of children with untreated caries or other oral diseases.Four trials evaluated traditional screening versus no screening. We performed a meta-analysis for the outcome 'dental attendance' and found an inconclusive result with high heterogeneity. The heterogeneity was found it to be, in part, due to study design (three cluster-RCTs and one individual-level RCT). Due to the inconsistency, we downgraded the evidence to 'very low certainty' and are unable to draw conclusions about this comparison.Two cluster-RCTs (both four-arm trials) evaluated criteria-based screening versus no screening and showed a pooled effect estimate of RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16), suggesting a possible benefit for screening (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference when criteria-based screening was compared to traditional screening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08) (very low-certainty evidence).In one trial, a specific (personalised) referral letter was compared to a non-specific one. Results favoured the specific referral letter with an effect estimate of RR 1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.77) for attendance at general dentist services and effect estimate of RR 1.90 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.06) for attendance at specialist orthodontist services (low-certainty evidence).One trial compared screening supplemented with motivation to screening alone. Dental attendance was more likely after screening supplemented with motivation, with an effect estimate of RR 3.08 (95% CI 2.57 to 3.71) (low-certainty evidence).None of the trials had long-term follow-up to ascertain the lasting effects of school dental screening.None of the trials reported cost-effectiveness and adverse events.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The trials included in this review evaluated short-term effects of screening, assessing follow-up periods of three to eight months. We found very low certainty evidence that was insufficient to allow us to draw conclusions about whether there is a role for traditional school dental screening in improving dental attendance. For criteria-based screening, we found low-certainty evidence that it may improve dental attendance when compared to no screening. However, when compared to traditional screening there was no evidence of a difference in dental attendance (very low-certainty evidence).We found low-certainty evidence to conclude that personalised or specific referral letters improve dental attendance when compared to non-specific counterparts. We also found low-certainty evidence that screening supplemented with motivation (oral health education and offer of free treatment) improves dental attendance in comparison to screening alone.We did not find any trials addressing cost-effectiveness and adverse effects of school dental screening.

  14. Arora A, Khattri S, Ismail NM, Kumbargere Nagraj S, Eachempati P
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 08 08;8:CD012595.
    PMID: 31425627 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012595.pub3
    BACKGROUND: School dental screening refers to visual inspection of children's oral cavity in a school setting followed by making parents aware of their child's current oral health status and treatment needs. Screening at school intends to identify children at an earlier stage than symptomatic disease presentation, hence prompting preventive and therapeutic oral health care for the children. This review evaluates the effectiveness of school dental screening in improving oral health status. It is an update of the original review, which was first published in December 2017.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of school dental screening programmes on overall oral health status and use of dental services.

    SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 4 March 2019), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Register of Studies, to 4 March 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 4 March 2019), and Embase Ovid (15 September 2016 to 4 March 2019). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases; however, the search of Embase was restricted to the last six months due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (cluster or parallel) that evaluated school dental screening compared with no intervention or with one type of screening compared with another.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (five were cluster-RCTs) with 20,192 children who were 4 to 15 years of age. Trials assessed follow-up periods of three to eight months. Four trials were conducted in the UK, two were based in India and one in the USA. We assessed two trials to be at low risk of bias, two trials to be at high risk of bias and three trials to be at unclear risk of bias.None of the trials had long-term follow-up to ascertain the lasting effects of school dental screening.None of the trials reported the proportion of children with untreated caries or other oral diseases, cost effectiveness or adverse events.Four trials evaluated traditional screening versus no screening. We performed a meta-analysis for the outcome 'dental attendance' and found an inconclusive result with high heterogeneity. The heterogeneity was found to be, in part, due to study design (three cluster-RCTs and one individual-level RCT). Due to the inconsistency, we downgraded the evidence to 'very low certainty' and are unable to draw conclusions about this comparison.Two cluster-RCTs (both four-arm trials) evaluated criteria-based screening versus no screening and showed a pooled effect estimate of RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16), suggesting a possible benefit for screening (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference when criteria-based screening was compared to traditional screening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08) (very low-certainty evidence).In one trial, a specific (personalised) referral letter was compared to a non-specific one. Results favoured the specific referral letter with an effect estimate of RR 1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.77) for attendance at general dentist services and effect estimate of RR 1.90 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.06) for attendance at specialist orthodontist services (low-certainty evidence).One trial compared screening supplemented with motivation to screening alone. Dental attendance was more likely after screening supplemented with motivation, with an effect estimate of RR 3.08 (95% CI 2.57 to 3.71) (low-certainty evidence).Only one trial reported the proportion of children with treated dental caries. This trial evaluated a post screening referral letter based on the common-sense model of self-regulation (a theoretical framework that explains how people understand and respond to threats to their health), with or without a dental information guide, compared to a standard referral letter. The findings were inconclusive. Due to high risk of bias, indirectness and imprecision, we assessed the evidence as very low certainty.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The trials included in this review evaluated short-term effects of screening. We found very low-certainty evidence that is insufficient to allow us to draw conclusions about whether there is a role for traditional school dental screening in improving dental attendance. For criteria-based screening, we found low-certainty evidence that it may improve dental attendance when compared to no screening. However, when compared to traditional screening, there is no evidence of a difference in dental attendance (very low-certainty evidence).We found low-certainty evidence to conclude that personalised or specific referral letters may improve dental attendance when compared to non-specific counterparts. We also found low-certainty evidence that screening supplemented with motivation (oral health education and offer of free treatment) may improve dental attendance in comparison to screening alone. For children requiring treatment, we found very-low certainty evidence that was inconclusive regarding whether or not a referral letter based on the 'common-sense model of self-regulation' was better than a standard referral letter.We did not find any trials addressing possible adverse effects of school dental screening or evaluating its effectiveness for improving oral health.

  15. Jafri AJA, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Ismail NM
    Amino Acids, 2019 Apr;51(4):641-646.
    PMID: 30656415 DOI: 10.1007/s00726-019-02696-4
    This study aimed to evaluate effect of TAU on NMDA-induced changes in retinal redox status, retinal cell apoptosis and retinal morphology in Sprague-Dawley rats. Taurine was injected intravitreally as pre-, co- or post-treatment with NMDA and 7 days post-treatment retinae were processed for estimation of oxidative stress, retinal morphology using H&E staining and retinal cell apoptosis using TUNEL staining. Treatment with TAU, particularly pre-treatment, significantly increased retinal glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels compared to NMDA-treated rats; whereas, the levels of malondialdehyde reduced significantly. Reduction in retinal oxidative stress in TAU pre-treated group was associated with significantly greater fractional thickness of ganglion cell layer within inner retina and retinal cell density in inner retina. TUNEL staining showed significantly reduced apoptotic cell count in TAU pre-treated group compared to NMDA group. It could be concluded that TAU protects against NMDA-induced retinal injury in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress.
  16. Sadikan MZ, Nasir NAA, Agarwal R, Ismail NM
    Biomolecules, 2020 04 05;10(4).
    PMID: 32260544 DOI: 10.3390/biom10040556
    : Oxidative stress plays an important role in retinal neurodegeneration and angiogenesis associated with diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF), a potent antioxidant, against diabetes-induced changes in retinal layer thickness (RLT), retinal cell count (RCC), retinal cell apoptosis, and retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rats. Additionally, the efficacy of TRF after administration by two different routes was compared. The diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Subsequently, diabetic rats received either oral or topical treatment with vehicle or TRF. Additionally, a group of non-diabetic rats was included with either oral or topical treatment with a vehicle. After 12 weeks of the treatment period, rats were euthanized, and retinas were collected for measurement of RLT, RCC, retinal cell apoptosis, and VEGF expression. RLT and RCC in the ganglion cell layer were reduced in all diabetic groups compared to control groups (p < 0.01). However, at the end of the experimental period, oral TRF-treated rats showed a significantly greater RLT compared to topical TRF-treated rats. A similar observation was made for retinal cell apoptosis and VEGF expression. In conclusion, oral TRF supplementation protects against retinal degenerative changes and an increase in VEGF expression in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy. Similar effects were not observed after topical administration of TRF.
  17. Kamarudin SN, Iezhitsa I, Tripathy M, Alyautdin R, Ismail NM
    Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars), 2020;80(1):1-18.
    PMID: 32214270
    Poly (lactide‑co‑glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are biodegradable carriers that participate in the transport of neuroprotective drugs across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Targeted brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) delivery across the BBB could provide neuroprotection in brain injury. We tested the neuroprotective effect of PLGA nanoparticle‑bound BDNF in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) model of ischemia in rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were subjected to pMCAO. Four hours after pMCAO, two groups were intravenously treated with BDNF and NP‑BDNF, respectively. Functional outcome was assessed at 2 and 24 h after pMCAO, using the modified neurologic severity score (mNSS) and rotarod performance tests. Following functional assessments, rats were euthanized blood was taken to assess levels of the neurobiomarkers neuron‑specific enolase and S100 calcium‑binding protein β (S100β), and the brain was evaluated to measure the infarct volume. The NP‑BDNF‑treated group showed significant improvement in mNSS compared with pMCAO and BDNF‑treated groups and showed improved rotarod performance. The infarct volume in rats treated with NP‑BDNFs was also significantly smaller. These results were further corroborated by correlating differences in estimated NSE and S100β. NP‑BDNFs exhibit a significant neuroprotective effect in the pMCAO model of ischemia in rats.
  18. Razali N, Agarwal R, Agarwal P, Kapitonova MY, Kannan Kutty M, Smirnov A, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2015 Feb 15;749:73-80.
    PMID: 25481859 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.029
    Steroid-induced ocular hypertension (SIOH) is associated with topical and systemic use of steroids. However, SIOH-associated anterior and posterior segment morphological changes in rats have not been described widely. Here we describe the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP) changes, quantitative assessment of trabecular meshwork (TM) and retinal morphological changes and changes in retinal redox status in response to chronic dexamethasone treatment in rats. We also evaluated the responsiveness of steroid-pretreated rat eyes to 5 different classes of antiglaucoma drugs that act by different mechanisms. Up to 80% of dexamethasone treated animals achieved significant and sustained IOP elevation. TM thickness was significantly increased and number of TM cells was significantly reduced in SIOH rats compared to the vehicle-treated rats. Quantitative assessment of retinal morphology showed significantly reduced thickness of ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner retina (IR) in SIOH rats compared to vehicle-treated rats. Estimation of retinal antioxidants including catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione showed significantly increased retinal oxidative stress in SIOH animals. Furthermore, steroid-treated eyes showed significant IOP lowering in response to treatment with 5 different drug classes. This indicated the ability of SIOH eyes to respond to drugs acting by different mechanisms. In conclusion, SIOH was associated with significant morphological changes in TM and retina and retinal redox status. Additionally, SIOH eyes also showed IOP lowering in response to drugs that act by different mechanisms of action. Hence, SIOH rats appear to be an inexpensive and noninvasive model for studying the experimental antiglaucoma drugs for IOP lowering and neuroprotective effects.
  19. Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Abdul Nasir NA, Razali N, Alyautdin R, et al.
    Drug Deliv, 2016 May;23(4):1075-91.
    PMID: 25116511 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2014.943336
    Topical route of administration is the most commonly used method for the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, presence of several layers of permeation barriers starting from the tear film till the inner layers of cornea make it difficult to achieve the therapeutic concentrations in the target tissue within the eye. In order to circumvent these barriers and to provide sustained and targeted drug delivery, tremendous advances have been made in developing efficient and safe drug delivery systems. Liposomes due to their unique structure prove to be extremely beneficial drug carriers as they can entrap both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. The conventional liposomes had several drawbacks particularly their tendency to aggregate, the instability and leakage of entrapped drug and susceptibility to phagocytosis. Due to this reason, for a long time, liposomes as drug delivery systems did not attract much attention of researchers and clinicians. However, over recent years development of new generation liposomes has opened up new approaches for targeted and sustained drug delivery using liposomes and has rejuvenated the interest of researchers in this field. In this review we present a summary of current literature to understand the anatomical and physiological limitation in achieving adequate ocular bioavailability of topically applied drugs and utility of liposomes in overcoming these limitations. The recent developments related to new generation liposomes are discussed.
  20. Abdul Nasir NA, Agarwal R, Vasudevan S, Tripathy M, Alyautdin R, Ismail NM
    Mol. Vis., 2014;20:822-35.
    PMID: 24940038
    Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlies cataractogenesis, and therefore, various antioxidants have been investigated for anticataract properties. Several vitamin E analogs have also been studied for anticataract effects due to their antioxidant properties; however, the anticataract properties of tocotrienols have not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of topically applied tocotrienol on the onset and progression of cataract and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactosemic rats.
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