Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

  1. Lau HY, Botella JR
    Front Plant Sci, 2017;8:2016.
    PMID: 29375588 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2017.02016
    Diagnostic technologies for the detection of plant pathogens with point-of-care capability and high multiplexing ability are an essential tool in the fight to reduce the large agricultural production losses caused by plant diseases. The main desirable characteristics for such diagnostic assays are high specificity, sensitivity, reproducibility, quickness, cost efficiency and high-throughput multiplex detection capability. This article describes and discusses various DNA-based point-of care diagnostic methods for applications in plant disease detection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most common DNA amplification technology used for detecting various plant and animal pathogens. However, subsequent to PCR based assays, several types of nucleic acid amplification technologies have been developed to achieve higher sensitivity, rapid detection as well as suitable for field applications such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification, helicase-dependent amplification, rolling circle amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification, and molecular inversion probe. The principle behind these technologies has been thoroughly discussed in several review papers; herein we emphasize the application of these technologies to detect plant pathogens by outlining the advantages and disadvantages of each technology in detail.
  2. Esfahani H, Jose R, Ramakrishna S
    Materials (Basel), 2017 Oct 27;10(11).
    PMID: 29077074 DOI: 10.3390/ma10111238
    Ceramic nanofibers (NFs) have recently been developed for advanced applications due to their unique properties. In this article, we review developments in electrospun ceramic NFs with regard to their fabrication process, properties, and applications. We find that surface activity of electrospun ceramic NFs is improved by post pyrolysis, hydrothermal, and carbothermal processes. Also, when combined with another surface modification methods, electrospun ceramic NFs result in the advancement of properties and widening of the application domains. With the decrease in diameter and length of a fiber, many properties of fibrous materials are modified; characteristics of such ceramic NFs are different from their wide and long (bulk) counterparts. In this article, electrospun ceramic NFs are reviewed with an emphasis on their applications as catalysts, membranes, sensors, biomaterials, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, energy harvesting systems, electric and magnetic parts, conductive wires, and wearable electronic textiles. Furthermore, properties of ceramic nanofibers, which enable the above applications, and techniques to characterize them are briefly outlined.
  3. Kafi AKM, Bin Kasri A, Jose R
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2021 05 01;21(5):3059-3064.
    PMID: 33653480 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2021.19283
    The fabrication of a network of glucose oxidase-horseradish peroxidase/tin oxide (GOx-HRP/SnO₂), immobilized onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and its utilization as a biosensor for glucose detection is reported. The network established with GOx-HRP/SnO₂ possess high sensitivity and stability by performing the electrocatalytic features in the sensing of glucose. The turbidity of fabrication had been scanned and analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphology and composition of the fabricated GOx-HRP/SnO₂ networks were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were employed to study the electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensor. The effect of applied electrode potential and pH were systemically investigated. The biosensor responds to glucose at work potential values between -400 mV, and exhibited a lower detection limit (0.025 mM) and long linear range (0.25 to 7.0 mM), and was resistant to common interferences.
  4. Muzakir SK, Alias N, Yusoff MM, Jose R
    Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2013 Oct 14;15(38):16275-85.
    PMID: 24000052 DOI: 10.1039/c3cp52858h
    The possibility of achieving many electrons per absorbed photon of sufficient energy by quantum dots (QDs) drives the motivation to build high performance quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs). Although performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), with similar device configuration as that of QDSCs, has significantly improved in the last two decades QDSCs are yet to demonstrate impressive device performances despite the remarkable features of QDs as light harvesters. We investigated the fundamental differences in the optical properties of QDs and dyes using DFT calculations to get insights on the inferior performance of QDSCs. The CdSe QDs and the ruthenium bipyridyl dicarboxylic acid dye (N3) were used as typical examples in this study. Based on a generalized equation of state correlating material properties and photoconversion efficiency, we calculated ground and excited state properties of these absorbers at the B3LYP/lanl2dz level of DFT and analyzed them on the basis of the device performance. Five missing links have been identified in the study which provides numerous insights into building high efficiency QDSCs. They are (i) fundamental differences in the emitting states of the QDs in the strong and weak confinement regimes were observed, which explained successfully the performance differences; (ii) the crucial role of bifunctional ligands that bind the QDs and the photo-electrode was identified; in most cases use of bifunctional ligands does not lead to a QD enabled widening of the absorption of the photo-electrode; (iii) wide QDs size distribution further hinders efficient electron injections; (iv) wide absorption cross-section of QDs favours photon harvesting; and (v) the role of redox potential of the electrolyte in the QD reduction process.
  5. Kafi AKM, Alim S, Jose R, Yusoff MM
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2019 04 01;19(4):2027-2033.
    PMID: 30486943 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2019.15465
    A multiporous nanofiber (MPNFs) of SnO₂ and chitosan has been used for the immobilization of a redox protein, hemoglobin (Hb), onto the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The multiporous nanofiber of SnO₂ that has very high surface area is synthesized by using electrospinning technique through controlling the tin precursor concentration. Since the constructed MPNFs of SnO₂ exposes very high surface area, it increases the efficiency for biomolecule-loading. The morphology of fabricated electrodes is examined by SEM observation and the absorbance spectra of Hb/(MPNFs) of SnO₂ are studied by UV-Vis analysis. Cyclic Voltammetry and amperometry are employed to study and optimize the performance of the resulting fabricated electrode. After fabrication of the electrode with the Hb and MPNFs of SnO₂, a direct electron transfer between the protein's redox centre and the glassy carbon electrode was established. The modified electrode has showed a couple of redox peak located at -0.29 V and -0.18 V and found to be sensitive to H₂O₂. The fabricated electrode also exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H₂O₂. The catalysis currents increased linearly to the H₂O₂ concentration in a wide range of 5.0×10-6-1.5×10-4 M. Overall experimental results show that MPNFs of SnO₂ has a role towards the enhancement of the electroactivity of Hb at the electrode surface. Thus the MPNFs of SnO₂ is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.
  6. Tan JW, Gupta T, Manosroi W, Yao TM, Hopkins PN, Williams JS, et al.
    JCI Insight, 2017 12 07;2(23).
    PMID: 29212952 DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.95992
    Compared with persons of European descent (ED), persons of African descent (AD) have lower aldosterone (ALDO) levels, with the assumption being that the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with AD is not related to ALDO. However, the appropriateness of the ALDO levels for the volume status in AD is unclear. We hypothesized that, even though ALDO levels are lower in AD, they are inappropriately increased, and therefore, ALDO could mediate the increased CVD in AD. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from HyperPATH - 1,788 individuals from the total cohort and 765 restricted to ED-to-AD in a 2:1 match and genotyped for the endothelin-1 gene (EDN1). Linear regression analyses with adjustments were performed. In the total and restricted cohorts, PRA, ALDO, and urinary potassium levels were significantly lower in AD. However, in the AD group, greater ALDO dysregulation was present as evidenced by higher ALDO/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratios (ARR) and sodium-modulated ALDO suppression-to-stimulation indices. Furthermore, EDN1 minor allele carriers had significantly greater ARRs than noncarriers but only in the AD group. ARR levels were modulated by a significant interaction between EDN1 and AD. Thus, EDN1 variants may identify particularly susceptible ADs who will be responsive to treatment targeting ALDO-dependent pathways (e.g., mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists).
  7. Mayurasakorn K, Hasanah N, Homma T, Homma M, Rangel IK, Garza AE, et al.
    Metabolism, 2018 06;83:92-101.
    PMID: 29410348 DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.01.012
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been shown to be involved in modulating glucose homeostasis and the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Caloric restriction (CR) is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic approach to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the severity of diabetes. Recent data indicate that polymorphisms of the CAV-1 gene are strongly associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in non-obese individuals. Therefore, we sought to determine whether CR improves the metabolic and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in the lean CAV-1 KO mice.

    MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve- to fourteen-week-old CAV-1 knockout (KO) and genetically matched wild-type (WT) male mice were randomized by genotype to one of two dietary regimens: ad libitum (ad lib) food intake or 40% CR for 4 weeks. Three weeks following the onset of dietary restriction, all groups were assessed for insulin sensitivity. At the end of the study, all groups were assessed for fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipids, corticosterone levels and blood pressure (BP). Aldosterone secretion was determined from acutely isolated Zona Glomerulosa cells.

    RESULTS: We confirmed that the CAV-1 KO mice on the ad lib diet display a phenotype consistent with the cardiometabolic syndrome, as shown by higher systolic BP (SBP), plasma glucose, HOMA-IR and aldosterone levels despite lower body weight compared with WT mice on the ad lib diet. CAV-1 KO mice maintained their body weight on the ad lib diet, but had substantially greater weight loss with CR, as compared to caloric restricted WT mice. CR-mediated changes in weight were associated with dramatic improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance in both genotypes. These responses to CR, however, were more robust in CAV-1KO vs. WT mice and were accompanied by reductions in plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR in CAV-1KO but not WT mice. Surprisingly, in the CAV-1 KO, but not in WT mice, CR was associated with increased SBP and aldosterone levels, suggesting that in CAV-1 KO mice CR induced an increase in some CV risk factors.

    CONCLUSIONS: CR improved the metabolic phenotype in CAV-1 KO mice by increasing insulin sensitivity; nevertheless, this intervention also increased CV risk by inappropriate adaptive responses in the RAAS and BP.

  8. Huang Y, Ting PY, Yao TM, Homma T, Brooks D, Katayama Rangel IA, et al.
    J. Endocrinol., 2018 Nov 01.
    PMID: 30400034 DOI: 10.1530/JOE-18-0247
    Human risk allele carriers of Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) and LSD1 deficient mice have salt sensitive hypertension for unclear reasons. We hypothesized that LSD1 deficiency causes dysregulation of aldosterone's response to salt intake resulting in increased cardiovascular risk factors [blood pressure and microalbumin]. Furthermore, we determined the effect of biological sex on these potential abnormalities. To test our hypotheses, LSD1 male and female heterozygote knockout (LSD1+/-) and wild type (WT) mice were assigned to two age groups: 18 weeks and 36 weeks. Plasma aldosterone levels and aldosterone production from zona glomerulosa cells studied ex vivo were greater in both male and female LSD1+/- mice consuming a liberal salt diet as compared to WT mice consuming the same diet. However, salt sensitive blood pressure elevation and increased microalbuminuria were only observed in male LSD1+/- mice. These data suggest that LSD1 interacts with aldosterone's secretory response to salt intake. Lack of LSD1 causes inappropriate aldosterone production on a liberal salt diet; males appear to be more sensitive to this aldosterone increase as males, but not females, develop salt sensitivity of blood pressure and increased microalbuminuria. The mechanism responsible for the cardiovascular protective effect in females is uncertain but may be related to estrogen modulating the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor activation.
  9. Gupta T, Connors M, Tan JW, Manosroi W, Ahmed N, Ting PY, et al.
    Am J Hypertens, 2017 Dec 08;31(1):124-131.
    PMID: 28985281 DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpx146
    BACKGROUND: Understanding the interactions between genetics, sodium (Na+) intake, and blood pressure (BP) will help overcome the lack of individual specificity in our current treatment of hypertension. This study had 3 goals: expand on the relationship between striatin gene (STRN) status and salt-sensitivity of BP (SSBP); evaluate the status of Na+ and volume regulating systems by striatin risk allele status; evaluate potential SSBP mechanisms.

    METHODS: We assessed the relationship between STRN status in humans (HyperPATH cohort) and SSBP and on volume regulated systems in humans and a striatin knockout mouse (STRN+/-).

    RESULTS: The previously identified association between a striatin risk allele and systolic SSBP was demonstrated in a new cohort (P = 0.01). The STRN-SSBP association was significant for the combined cohort (P = 0.003; β = +5.35 mm Hg systolic BP/risk allele) and in the following subgroups: normotensives, hypertensives, men, and older subjects. Additionally, we observed a lower epinephrine level in risk allele carriers (P = 0.014) and decreased adrenal medulla phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in STRN+/- mice. No significant associations were observed with other volume regulated systems.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support the association between a variant of striatin and SSBP and extend the findings to normotensive individuals and other subsets. In contrast to most salt-sensitive hypertensives, striatin-associated SSBP is associated with normal plasma renin activity and reduced epinephrine levels. These data provide clues to the underlying cause and a potential pathway to achieve, specific, personalized treatment, and prevention.

  10. Ahmed I, Fakharuddin A, Wali Q, Bin Zainun AR, Ismail J, Jose R
    Nanotechnology, 2015 Mar 13;26(10):105401.
    PMID: 25687409 DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/10/105401
    Working electrode (WE) fabrication offers significant challenges in terms of achieving high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). We have combined the beneficial effects of vertical nanorods grown on conducting glass substrate for charge transport and mesoporous particles for dye loading and have achieved a high photoconversion efficiency of (η) > 11% with an internal quantum efficiency of ∼93% in electrode films of thickness ∼7 ± 0.5 μm. Controlling the interface between the vertical nanorods and the mesoporous film is a crucial step in attaining high η. We identify three parameters, viz., large surface area of nanoparticles, increased light scattering of the nanorod-nanoparticle layer, and superior charge transport of nanorods, that simultaneously contribute to the improved photovoltaic performance of the WE developed.
  11. Baranitharan E, Khan MR, Prasad DM, Teo WF, Tan GY, Jose R
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2015 Jan;38(1):15-24.
    PMID: 24981021 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-014-1239-9
    Anode biofilm is a crucial component in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electrogenesis. Better knowledge about the biofilm development process on electrode surface is believed to improve MFC performance. In this study, double-chamber microbial fuel cell was operated with diluted POME (initial COD = 1,000 mg L(-1)) and polyacrylonitrile carbon felt was used as electrode. The maximum power density, COD removal efficiency and Coulombic efficiency were found as 22 mW m(-2), 70 and 24 %, respectively. FTIR and TGA analysis confirmed the formation of biofilm on the electrode surface during MFC operation. The impact of anode biofilm on anodic polarization resistance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and microbial community changes during MFC operation using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The EIS-simulated results showed the reduction of charge transfer resistance (R ct) by 16.9 % after 14 days of operation of the cell, which confirms that the development of the microbial biofilm on the anode decreases the R ct and therefore improves power generation. DGGE analysis showed the variation in the biofilm composition during the biofilm growth until it forms an initial stable microbial community, thereafter the change in the diversity would be less. The power density showed was directly dependent on the biofilm development and increased significantly during the initial biofilm development period. Furthermore, DGGE patterns obtained from 7th and 14th day suggest the presence of less diversity and probable functional redundancy within the anodic communities possibly responsible for the stable MFC performance in changing environmental conditions.
  12. Manshor NA, Wali Q, Wong KK, Muzakir SK, Fakharuddin A, Schmidt-Mende L, et al.
    Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2016 Aug 21;18(31):21629-39.
    PMID: 27432518 DOI: 10.1039/c6cp03600g
    Despite the high efficiency of over 21% reported for emerging thin film perovskite solar cells, one of the key issues prior to their commercial deployment is to attain their long term stability under ambient and outdoor conditions. The instability in perovskite is widely conceived to be humidity induced due to the water solubility of its initial precursors, which leads to decomposition of the perovskite crystal structure; however, we note that humidity alone is not the major degradation factor and it is rather the photon dose in combination with humidity exposure that triggers the instability. In our experiment, which is designed to decouple the effect of humidity and light on perovskite degradation, we investigate the shelf-lifetime of CH3NH3PbI3 films in the dark and under illumination under high humidity conditions (Rel. H. > 70%). We note minor degradation in perovskite films stored in a humid dark environment whereas upon exposure to light, the films undergo drastic degradation, primarily owing to the reactive TiO2/perovskite interface and also the surface defects of TiO2. To enhance its air-stability, we incorporate CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in a polymer (poly-vinylpyrrolidone, PVP) matrix which retained its optical and structural characteristics in the dark for ∼2000 h and ∼800 h in room light soaking, significantly higher than a pristine perovskite film, which degraded completely in 600 h in the dark and in less than 100 h when exposed to light. We attribute the superior stability of PVP incorporated perovskite films to the improved structural stability of CH3NH3PbI3 and also to the improved TiO2/perovskite interface upon incorporating a polymer matrix. Charge injection from the polymer embedded perovskite films has also been confirmed by fabricating solar cells using them, thereby providing a promising future research pathway for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells.
  13. Alim S, Kafi AKM, Jose R, Yusoff MM, Vejayan J
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2018 Jul 15;114:1071-1076.
    PMID: 29625222 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.184
    A novel third generation H2O2 biosensor is fabricated using multiporous SnO2 nanofiber/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite as a matrix for the immobilization of redox protein onto glassy carbon electrode. The multiporous nanofiber (MPNFs) of SnO2 is synthesized by electrospinning technique from the tin precursor. This nanofiber shows high surface area and good electrical conductivity. The SnO2 nanofiber/CNT composite increases the efficiency of biomolecule loading due to its high surface area. The morphology of the nanofiber has been evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltammetry and amperometry technique are employed to study and optimize the performance of the fabricated electrode. A direct electron transfer between the protein's redox centre and the glassy carbon electrode is established after fabrication of the electrode. The fabricated electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic reduction to H2O2. The catalysis currents increases linearly to the H2O2 concentration in a wide range of 1.0 10-6-1.4×10-4M and the lowest detection limit was 30nM (S/N=3). Moreover, the biosensor showed a rapid response to H2O2, a good stability and reproducibility.
  14. Bakr ZH, Wali Q, Ismail J, Elumalai NK, Uddin A, Jose R
    Data Brief, 2018 Jun;18:860-863.
    PMID: 29900250 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.110
    In this data article, we provide energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectra of the electrospun composite (SnO2-TiO2) nanowires with the elemental values measured in atomic and weight%. The linear sweep voltammetry data of composite and its component nanofibers are provided. The data collected in this article is directly related to our research article "Synergistic combination of electronic and electrical properties of SnO2 and TiO2 in a single SnO2-TiO2 composite nanowire for dye-sensitized solar cells" [1].
  15. Harilal M, G Krishnan S, Pal B, Reddy MV, Ab Rahim MH, Yusoff MM, et al.
    Langmuir, 2018 02 06;34(5):1873-1882.
    PMID: 29345940 DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b03576
    This article reports the synthesis of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and cupric oxide (CuO) nanowires by controlling the calcination environment of electrospun polymeric nanowires and their charge storage properties. The Cu2O nanowires showed higher surface area (86 m2 g-1) and pore size than the CuO nanowires (36 m2 g-1). Electrochemical analysis was carried out in 6 M KOH, and both the electrodes showed battery-type charge storage mechanism. The electrospun Cu2O electrodes delivered high discharge capacity (126 mA h g-1) than CuO (72 mA h g-1) at a current density of 2.4 mA cm-2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements show almost similar charge-transfer resistance in Cu2O (1.2 Ω) and CuO (1.6 Ω); however, Cu2O showed an order of magnitude higher ion diffusion. The difference in charge storage between these electrodes is attributed to the difference in surface properties and charge kinetics at the electrode. The electrode also shows superior cyclic stability (98%) and Coulombic efficiency (98%) after 5000 cycles. Therefore, these materials could be acceptable choices as a battery-type or pseudocapacitive electrode in asymmetric supercapacitors.
  16. Roslee AE, Muzakir SK, Ismail J, Yusoff MM, Jose R
    Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2016 Dec 21;19(1):408-418.
    PMID: 27905607 DOI: 10.1039/c6cp07173b
    This article addresses the heat capacity of quantum dots (QDs) using density functional theory (DFT). By analyzing the evolution of phonon density of states and heat capacity as CdSe clusters grow from a molecular cluster into larger quantum confined solids, we have shown that their heat capacity does not fit very well with the Debye T3 model. We observed that the number of phonon modes, which is discrete, increases as the particles grow, and the dispersion relation shows a quadratic behavior in contrast to the bulk solids whose dispersion relation is linear and equal to the sound velocity. The phonon density of states showed a square root variation with respect to frequency whereas that of the bulk is a quadratic variation of frequency. From the observed variation in the phonon density of states and holding the fact that the atomic vibrations in solids are elastically coupled, we have re-derived the expression for total energy of the QDs and arrive at a T3/2 model of heat capacity, which fits very well to the observed heat capacity data. These results give promising directions in the understanding of the evolution of the thermophysical properties of solids.
  17. Harilal M, Vidyadharan B, Misnon II, Anilkumar GM, Lowe A, Ismail J, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017 Mar 29;9(12):10730-10742.
    PMID: 28266837 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b00676
    A one-dimensional morphology comprising nanograins of two metal oxides, one with higher electrical conductivity (CuO) and the other with higher charge storability (Co3O4), is developed by electrospinning technique. The CuO-Co3O4 nanocomposite nanowires thus formed show high specific capacitance, high rate capability, and high cycling stability compared to their single-component nanowire counterparts when used as a supercapacitor electrode. Practical symmetric (SSCs) and asymmetric (ASCs) supercapacitors are fabricated using commercial activated carbon, CuO, Co3O4, and CuO-Co3O4 composite nanowires, and their properties are compared. A high energy density of ∼44 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 14 kW kg-1 is achieved in CuO-Co3O4 ASCs employing aqueous alkaline electrolytes, enabling them to store high energy at a faster rate. The current methodology of hybrid nanowires of various functional materials could be applied to extend the performance limit of diverse electrical and electrochemical devices.
  18. Kohila Rani K, Karuppiah C, Wang SF, Alaswad SO, Sireesha P, Devasenathipathy R, et al.
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2020 Sep;66:105111.
    PMID: 32248043 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105111
    Bifunctional electrocatalysts to enable efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are essential for fabricating high performance metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, a defect rich nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene/iron carbide (NS-GR/Fe3C) nanocomposite as an electrocatalyst for ORR and OER is demonstrated. An ink of NS-GR/Fe3C is developed by homogeneously dispersing the catalyst in a Nafion containing solvent mixture using an ultrasonication bath (Model-DC150H; power - 150 W; frequency - 40 kHz). The ultrasonically prepared ink is used for preparing the electrode for electrochemical studies. In the case of ORR, the positive half-wave potential displayed by NS-GR/Fe3C is 0.859 V (vs. RHE) and for the OER, onset potential is 1.489 V (vs. RHE) with enhanced current density. The optimized NS-GR/Fe3C electrode exhibited excellent ORR/OER bifunctional activities, high methanol tolerance and excellent long-term cycling stability in an alkaline medium. The observed onset potential for NS-GR/Fe3C electrocatalyst is comparable with the commercial noble metal catalyst, thereby revealing one of the best low-cost alternative air-cathode catalysts for the energy conversion and storage application.
  19. Fakharuddin A, Palma AL, Di Giacomo F, Casaluci S, Matteocci F, Wali Q, et al.
    Nanotechnology, 2015 Dec 11;26(49):494002.
    PMID: 26574237 DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/26/49/494002
    The past few years have witnessed remarkable progress in solution-processed methylammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbX3, X = halide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with reported photoconversion efficiency (η) exceeding 20% in laboratory-scale devices and reaching up to 13% in their large area perovskite solar modules (PSMs). These devices mostly employ mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as an electron transport layer (ETL) which provides a scaffold on which the perovskite semiconductor can grow. However, limitations exist which are due to trap-limited electron transport and non-complete pore filling. Herein, we have employed TiO2 nanorods (NRs), a material offering a two-fold higher electronic mobility and higher pore-filing compared to their particle analogues, as an ETL. A crucial issue in NRs' patterning over substrates is resolved by using precise Nd:YVO4 laser ablation, and a champion device with η ∼ 8.1% is reported via a simple and low cost vacuum-vapor assisted sequential processing (V-VASP) of a CH3NH3PbI3 film. Our experiments showed a successful demonstration of NRs-based PSMs via the V-VASP technique which can be applied to fabricate large area modules with a pin-hole free, smooth and dense perovskite layer which is required to build high efficiency devices.
  20. Gnaneshwar PV, Sudakaran SV, Abisegapriyan S, Sherine J, Ramakrishna S, Rahim MHA, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Mar;96:337-346.
    PMID: 30606541 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.11.033
    Far-flung evolution in tissue engineering enabled the development of bioactive and biodegradable materials to generate biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for bone repair and replacement therapies. Polymeric bioactive nanofibers are to biomimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM), delivering tremendous regenerative potentials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. It's been known from few decades that Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are enhancing bone growth and providing proliferation of osteoblasts when incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HAp). We attempted to investigate the interaction between the human foetal osteoblasts (hFOB) with ZnO doped HAp incorporated biocomposite poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) and silk fibroin (PLACL/SF) nanofibrous scaffolds for osteoblasts mineralization in bone tissue regeneration. The present study, we doped ZnO with HAp (ZnO(HAp) using the sol-gel ethanol condensation technique. The properties of PLACL/SF/ZnO(HAp) biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds enhanced with doped and blended ZnO/HAp were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Contact angle and Tensile studies to determine the morphology, functionality, wettability and stability. The in vitro study results showed that the addition of ZnO and HAp enhances the secretion of bone mineral matrix (98%) with smaller fiber diameter (139.4 ± 27 nm) due to the presence of silk fibroin showing potential tensile properties (322.4%), and increased the proliferation of osteoblasts for bone tissue regeneration.
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