MATERIALS/METHODS: Twelve- to fourteen-week-old CAV-1 knockout (KO) and genetically matched wild-type (WT) male mice were randomized by genotype to one of two dietary regimens: ad libitum (ad lib) food intake or 40% CR for 4 weeks. Three weeks following the onset of dietary restriction, all groups were assessed for insulin sensitivity. At the end of the study, all groups were assessed for fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, lipids, corticosterone levels and blood pressure (BP). Aldosterone secretion was determined from acutely isolated Zona Glomerulosa cells.
RESULTS: We confirmed that the CAV-1 KO mice on the ad lib diet display a phenotype consistent with the cardiometabolic syndrome, as shown by higher systolic BP (SBP), plasma glucose, HOMA-IR and aldosterone levels despite lower body weight compared with WT mice on the ad lib diet. CAV-1 KO mice maintained their body weight on the ad lib diet, but had substantially greater weight loss with CR, as compared to caloric restricted WT mice. CR-mediated changes in weight were associated with dramatic improvements in glucose and insulin tolerance in both genotypes. These responses to CR, however, were more robust in CAV-1KO vs. WT mice and were accompanied by reductions in plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR in CAV-1KO but not WT mice. Surprisingly, in the CAV-1 KO, but not in WT mice, CR was associated with increased SBP and aldosterone levels, suggesting that in CAV-1 KO mice CR induced an increase in some CV risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: CR improved the metabolic phenotype in CAV-1 KO mice by increasing insulin sensitivity; nevertheless, this intervention also increased CV risk by inappropriate adaptive responses in the RAAS and BP.
METHODS: We assessed the relationship between STRN status in humans (HyperPATH cohort) and SSBP and on volume regulated systems in humans and a striatin knockout mouse (STRN+/-).
RESULTS: The previously identified association between a striatin risk allele and systolic SSBP was demonstrated in a new cohort (P = 0.01). The STRN-SSBP association was significant for the combined cohort (P = 0.003; β = +5.35 mm Hg systolic BP/risk allele) and in the following subgroups: normotensives, hypertensives, men, and older subjects. Additionally, we observed a lower epinephrine level in risk allele carriers (P = 0.014) and decreased adrenal medulla phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) in STRN+/- mice. No significant associations were observed with other volume regulated systems.
CONCLUSIONS: These results support the association between a variant of striatin and SSBP and extend the findings to normotensive individuals and other subsets. In contrast to most salt-sensitive hypertensives, striatin-associated SSBP is associated with normal plasma renin activity and reduced epinephrine levels. These data provide clues to the underlying cause and a potential pathway to achieve, specific, personalized treatment, and prevention.