Displaying all 14 publications

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  1. Mugilan SR, Joseph JP
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 12;73(6):433-435.
    PMID: 30647225
    The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can be challenging as findings are non-specific and there is low awareness of the disease. We present a case of an 83-yearold man with a two months history of rapidly progressive dementia. After a series of extensive diagnostic examinations, he was diagnosed with probable sporadic CJD with key findings of rapidly progressive dementia, myoclonus, pyramidal signs, abnormal hyperintensity signals on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and typical electroencephalograph (EEG). His symptoms progressively worsened and he died four months after the onset of symptoms.
  2. Sim BNH, Joseph JP
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2019 Dec;49(4):304-306.
    PMID: 31808458 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2019.411
    Miller Fischer syndrome (MFS) is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome first described in 1956 and is characterised by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. However, since its discovery, forme fruste and overlapping syndrome have been described. A forme fruste of MFS implies an attenuated form where not all of the clinical triad are present. In this report, a case of MFS is highlighted that was mistakenly treated as posterior circulation stroke, as well as the challenges faced in reaching the correct diagnosis and hence the appropriate treatment.
  3. Hamidon BB, Joseph JP, Raymond AA
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):114-6.
    PMID: 18705441
    Subclinical cerebral infarcts (SCI) have been increasingly shown to cause a significant clinical impact. However, there are limited data available on Asian patients. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of SCI in ischaemic stroke patients seen in the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) and to identify its associated risk factors. We evaluated the brain computed tomography (CT) evidence of subclinical infarcts in ischaemic stroke patients. The patients were selected from those who were on regular follow up in the neurology clinic following an ischaemic stroke. The risk factors associated with subclinical infarct were documented. The brain CTs were done during acute admission and reviewed for SCI. Sixty-one patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-two (36.1%) out of the 61 patients had SCI. The risk factors for SCI in our study were hypertension (OR 14.16 CI 2.04-97.89), diabetes mellitus (OR 12.48; CI 1.95-79.77) and leukoaraiosis (OR 28.39; CI 2.33-284.16). Subclinical cerebral infarcts were present in about one third of our ischaemic stroke patients. This finding is higher than in previous studies done on Caucasians. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and leukoaraiosis independently predict SCI.

    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
  4. Sim BNH, Hui LY, Krishnan D, Joseph JP
    Clin Med (Lond), 2019 03;19(2):133-134.
    PMID: 30872296 DOI: 10.7861/clinmedicine.19-2-133
    Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection commonly seen in HIV cases. We present a case of disseminated cryptococcosis with multiple non-continuous infective foci in a non-HIV, non-transplant case.
  5. Pillai P, Joseph JP, Fadzillah NHM, Mahmod M
    J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 2021 Jan;30(1):105427.
    PMID: 33137615 DOI: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105427
    COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been shown to cause multisystemic damage. We undertook a systematic literature review and comprehensive analysis of a total of 55 articles on arterial and venous thromboembolism in COVID-19 and articles on previous pandemics with respect to thromboembolism and compared the similarities and differences between them. The presence of thrombosis in multiple organ systems points to thromboembolism being an integral component in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thromboembolism is likely to be the main player in the morbidity and mortality of COVID -19 in which the pulmonary system is most severely affected. We also hypothesize that D-dimer values could be used as an early marker for prognostication of disease as it has been seen to be raised even in the pre-symptomatic stage. This further strengthens the notion that thromboembolism prevention is necessary. We also examined literature on the neurovascular and cardiovascular systems, as the manifestation of thromboembolic phenomenon in these two systems varied, suggesting different pathophysiology of damage. Further research into the role of thromboembolism in COVID-19 is important to advance the understanding of the virus, its effects and to tailor treatment accordingly to prevent further casualties from this pandemic.
  6. Krishnan D, Zaini SS, Latif KA, Joseph JP
    Clin Med (Lond), 2020 01;20(1):95-97.
    PMID: 31941739 DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.2019-0368
    Neurosyphilis is a broad term used to describe an infection caused by Treponema pallidum in the central nervous system. While this was a common cause of stroke in the 19th century, it saw a decline after the introduction of penicillin. However, in the recent past, there has been an increase in the incidence of syphilis, especially with HIV coinfection. Neurosyphilis results from an untreated primary syphilis. Neuropsychiatric disorder appears to be the commonest manifestation followed cerebrovascular accident, myelopathy, ocular disease and seizure. Known as the 'great imitator', this entity, however, may be easily missed if not for a high index of suspicion. This is especially so because of its similar presentation to other more common clinical conditions. We describe the case of a 39-year-old man displaying acute global aphasia and right-sided facial weakness in keeping with a left middle cerebral artery infarct. This was confirmed with computed tomography of the brain, and subsequently, further investigations revealed a diagnosis of neurosyphilis. The patient was treated with intravenous benzylpenicillin and recovered well with treatment.
  7. Subenthiran S, Abdullah NR, Muniandy PK, Joseph JP, Cheong KC, Ismail Z, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2013;12(4):5937-44.
    PMID: 24338387 DOI: 10.4238/2013.November.26.3
    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used as the first line of treatment of complex partial seizures (CPS) in Malaysia. While this drug is known to be effective for the treatment of CPS, more than 30% of patients remain drug resistant to CBZ mono-therapy. We examined a possible relationship between patients' response to CBZ mono-therapy and the G2677T SNP of the ABCB1 gene. Three hundred and fourteen patients with CPS were recruited from the Neurology Department of the Kuala Lumpur Hospital, of whom 152 were responders and the other 162 were non-responders to CBZ mono-therapy. DNA was extracted from blood samples and real-time PCR was performed to detect the G2677T SNP of the ABCB1 gene. Results were described as genotype frequencies and compared by logistic regression analysis. Among the 152 responders, 74% had the GG genotype. However, among the 162 non-responders, 26.5% had the GT genotype and 39% had the TT genotype. There was a significant difference in genotype frequency (TT vs GG; odds ratio 4.70; 95% confidence interval, 2.70-8.20) between responders and non-responders. The presence of the T allele of the G2677T SNP appears to be a useful screening marker to determine if a patient is going to be resistant to CBZ as a single drug therapy in the treatment of CPS.
  8. Appalasamy JR, Tha KK, Quek KF, Ramaiah SS, Joseph JP, Md Zain AZ
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Jun;97(22):e10876.
    PMID: 29851804 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000010876
    INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of the world's population appears to end with moderate to severe long-term disability after stroke. Persistent uncontrolled stroke risk factor leads to unpredicted recurrent stroke event. The increasing prevalence of stroke across ages in Malaysia has led to the adaptation of medication therapy adherence clinic (MTAC) framework. The stroke care unit has limited patient education resources especially for patients with medication understanding and use self-efficacy. Nevertheless, only a handful of studies have probed into the effectiveness of video narrative at stroke care centers.

    METHOD: This is a behavioral randomized controlled trial of patient education intervention with video narratives for patients with stroke lacking medication understanding and use self-efficacy. The study will recruit up to 200 eligible stroke patients at the neurology tertiary outpatient clinic, whereby they will be requested to return for follow-up approximately 3 months once for up to 12 months. Consenting patients will be randomized to either standard patient education care or intervention with video narratives. The researchers will ensure control of potential confounding factors, as well as unbiased treatment review with prescribed medications only obtained onsite.

    RESULTS: The primary analysis outcomes will reflect the variances in medication understanding and use self-efficacy scores, as well as the associated factors, such as retention of knowledge, belief and perception changes, whereas stroke risk factor control, for example, self-monitoring and quality of life, will be the secondary outcomes.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The study should be able to determine if video narrative can induce a positive behavioral change towards stroke risk factor control via enhanced medication understanding and use self-efficacy. This intervention is innovative as it combines health belief, motivation, and role model concept to trigger self-efficacy in maintaining healthy behaviors and better disease management.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN (12618000174280).

  9. Appalasamy JR, Quek KF, Md Zain AZ, Joseph JP, Seeta Ramaiah S, Tha KK
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2020;14:1979-1990.
    PMID: 33116441 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S253918
    Introduction: Self-efficacy is positively associated with medication understanding and use self-efficacy (MUSE) among post-stroke patients. It is also closely related to knowledge, belief, and perception, which vary among people from different socioeconomic backgrounds and cultures. As interventions using video and peer stories have emerged to be successful on behavior modification, this study aimed to explore the effectiveness of video narratives incorporated with Health Belief constructs on MUSE and its associated factors among patients with stroke at a local setting.

    Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) for 12 months was carried out on patients diagnosed with stroke at Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The RCT recruited up to 216 eligible patients who were requested to return for two more follow-ups within six months. Consented patients were randomized to either standard care or intervention with video narratives. The control of potential confounding factors was ensured, as well as unbiased treatment review with prescribed medications, only obtained onsite.

    Results and Discussion: A repeated measure of MUSE mean score differences at T0 (baseline), T2 (6th month) and T4 (12th month) for antithrombotic, antihypertensive, and all medication categories indicated significant within and between groups differences in the intervention group (p<0.05). Moreover, this impact was reflected upon continuous blood pressure (BP) monitoring compared to the control group (F (1214) =5.23, p=0.023, ƞ2=0.024). Though BP measure differences were non-significant between the groups (p=0.552), repeated measure analysis displayed significant mean differences between intervention and control group on BP control over time (F (1.344, 287.55) =8.54, P<0.001, ƞ2=0.038). Similarly, the intervention's positive impact was also present with similar trends for knowledge, illness perception, and the belief about medicine. Though significant differences (p<0.05) of all outcome measures gradually decreased between T2 and T4 in the intervention group; nevertheless, these positive findings confirmed that personalized video narratives were able to motivate and influence MUSE and its associated factors among post-stroke patients. The significant improvement in medication-taking self-efficacy and the sustenance of BP monitoring habits among patients in the intervention group strengthened our conceptual framework's practicality.

  10. Appalasamy JR, Joseph JP, Seeta Ramaiah S, Quek KF, Md Zain AZ, Tha KK
    JMIR Aging, 2019 Mar 21;2(1):e11539.
    PMID: 31518260 DOI: 10.2196/11539
    BACKGROUND: The debilitating effects of recurrent stroke among aging patients have urged researchers to explore medication adherence among these patients. Video narratives built upon Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs have displayed potential impact on medication adherence, adding an advantage to patient education efforts. However, its effect on medication understanding and use self-efficacy have not been tested.

    OBJECTIVE: The researchers believed that culturally sensitive video narratives, which catered to a specific niche, would reveal a personalized impact on medication adherence. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate video narratives for this purpose.

    METHODS: This study adapted the Delphi method to develop a consensus on the video scripts' contents based on learning outcomes and HBM constructs. The panel of experts comprised 8 members representing professional stroke disease experts and experienced poststroke patients in Malaysia. The Delphi method involved 3 rounds of discussions. Once the consensus among members was achieved, the researchers drafted the initial scripts in English, which were then back translated to the Malay language. A total of 10 bilingual patients, within the study's inclusion criteria, screened the scripts for comprehension. Subsequently, a neurologist and poststroke patient narrated the scripts in both languages as they were filmed, to add to the realism of the narratives. Then, the video narratives underwent a few cycles of editing after some feedback on video engagement by the bilingual patients. Few statistical analyses were applied to confirm the validity and reliability of the video narratives.

    RESULTS: Initially, the researchers proposed 8 learning outcomes and 9 questions based on HBM constructs for the video scripts' content. However, following Delphi rounds 1 to 3, a few statements were omitted and rephrased. The Kendall coefficient of concordance, W, was about 0.7 (P

  11. Appalasamy JR, Joseph JP, Seeta Ramaiah S, Quek KF, Md Zain AZ, Tha KK
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2019;13:1463-1475.
    PMID: 31695338 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S215271
    Background and aim: Evidence-based prescribing practices for stroke-preventive medication have benefited stroke survivors; however, medication-nonadherence rates remain high. Medication understanding and use self-efficacy (MUSE) has shown great importance in medication-taking behavior, but its relationship with medication nonadherence in stroke-preventive regimens lacks exploration. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MUSE and its association with nonadherence causes and other potential factors among stroke survivors in Malaysia.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 282 stroke patients who provided informed consent and were in follow-up at the Neurology Outpatient Department of Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The study employed a data-collection form that gathered information on sociodemographics, clinical treatment, outcome measures on MUSE, and medication-nonadherence reasons.

    Results: The prevalence of poor medication understanding and use self-efficacy among stroke patients was 46.5%, of which 29.1% had poor "learning about medication" self-efficacy, while 36.2% lacked self-efficacy in taking medication. Beliefs about medicine (74.02%) was the commonest reason for medication nonadherence, followed by medication-management issues (44.8%). In the multivariate model, independent variables significantly associated with MUSE were health literacy (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.069-0.581; P=0.003), medication-management issues (AOR 0.073, 95% CI 0.020-0.266; P<0.001), multiple-medication issues (AOR 0.28, 95% CI 0.085-0.925; P=0.037), beliefs about medicine (AOR 0.131, 95% CI 0.032-0.542; P=0.005), and forgetfulness/convenience issues (AOR 0.173, 95% CI 0.050-0.600; P=0.006).

    Conclusion: The relatively poor learning about medication and medication-taking self-efficacy in this study was highly associated with health literacy and modifiable behavioral issues related to nonadherence, such as medication management, beliefs about medicine, and forgetfulness/convenience. Further research ought to explore these underlying reasons using vigorous techniques to enhance medication understanding and use self-efficacy among stroke survivors to determine cause-effect relationships.

  12. Appalasamy JR, Joseph JP, Seeta Ramaiah S, Md Zain AZ, Quek KF, Tha KK
    JMIR Aging, 2020 Jul 10;3(2):e17182.
    PMID: 32469839 DOI: 10.2196/17182
    BACKGROUND: A large number of stroke survivors worldwide suffer from moderate to severe disability. In Malaysia, long-term uncontrolled stroke risk factors lead to unforeseen rates of recurrent stroke and a growing incidence of stroke occurrence across ages, predominantly among the elderly population. This situation has motivated research efforts focused on tapping into patient education, especially related to patient self-efficacy of understanding and taking medication appropriately. Video narratives integrated with health belief model constructs have demonstrated potential impacts as an aide to patient education efforts.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of study procedures based on a randomized controlled trial protocol of a video narratives intervention among poststroke patients. We also aimed to obtain preliminary findings of video narratives related to medication understanding and use self-efficacy (MUSE) and blood pressure control.

    METHODS: A parallel group randomized controlled trial including a control group (without video viewing) and an intervention group (with video viewing) was conducted by researchers at a neurology outpatient clinic on poststroke patients (N=54). Baseline data included patients' sociodemographic characteristics, medical information, and all outcome measures. Measurements of MUSE and blood pressure following the trial were taken during a 3-month follow-up period. Feasibility of the trial was assessed based on recruitment and study completion rates along with patients' feedback on the burden of the study procedures and outcome measures. Acceptability of the trial was analyzed qualitatively. Statistical analysis was applied to ascertain the preliminary results of video narratives.

    RESULTS: The recruitment rate was 60 out of 117 patients (51.3%). Nevertheless, the dropout rate of 10% was within the acceptable range. Patients were aged between 21 and 74 years. Nearly 50 of the patients (>85%) had adequate health literacy and exposure to stroke education. Most of the patients (>80%) were diagnosed with ischemic stroke, whereby the majority had primary hypertension. The technicalities of randomization and patient approach were carried out with minimal challenge and adequate patient satisfaction. The video contents received good responses with respect to comprehension and simplicity. Moreover, an in-depth phone interview with 8 patients indicated that the video narratives were considered to be useful and inspiring. These findings paralleled the preliminary findings of significant improvement within groups in MUSE (P=.001) and systolic blood pressure control (P=.04).

    CONCLUSIONS: The queries and feedback from each phase in this study have been acknowledged and will be taken forward in the full trial.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12618000174280; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=373554.

  13. Appalasamy JR, Subramanian P, Tan KM, Seeta Ramaiah S, Joseph JP, Chua SS
    JMIR Nurs, 2019 07 22;2(1):e14399.
    PMID: 34345772 DOI: 10.2196/14399
    Background: Stroke is one of the top 10 leading diseases worldwide, with high mortality and morbidity rates. There is an incomplete understanding of the various types of self-efficacy involved in the prevention of recurrent stroke, and one of them is medication-taking self-efficacy.

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the fundamental needs and barriers of medication-taking self-efficacy in poststroke patients in Malaysia.

    Methods: We performed in-depth individual interviews with poststroke patients (N=10) from the Outpatient Neurology Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, and an inductive thematic analysis was performed on the data collected from the interviews.

    Results: Two key themes were identified: (1) self-efficacy in taking the effort to understand stroke and its preventative treatment for recurrent stroke and (2) self-efficacy in taking prescribed medication to prevent stroke. Patients needed to be proactive in seeking reliable information about stroke and the perceived benefits of preventative treatment for stroke. The discussion was focused on eliciting the needs and barriers related to medication-taking self-efficacy. Patients needed to develop independence and self-reliance to overcome barriers such as dependency and low motivation. External factors such as limited information resources, low perceived severity, poor social environment, and poor communication add to the challenges of poststroke patients to improve their self-efficacy of managing their medications.

    Conclusions: The study identified potential key findings related to the needs of patients in a localized setting, which are also related to several health behavioral concepts and constructs, indicating the importance of overcoming barriers to improve the quality of life in poststroke patients. We anticipate that the results will be taken into consideration for future personalized patient education interventions.

  14. Subenthiran S, Abdullah NR, Joseph JP, Muniandy PK, Mok BT, Kee CC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e64827.
    PMID: 23717663 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064827
    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used as the first line of treatment of Complex Partial Seizures (CPS) in the Epilepsy Clinic, Neurology Department of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (KLH). More than 30% of the patients remain drug resistant to CBZ mono-therapy. CBZ is transported by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The P-gp encoded by the ABCB1 and ABCC2 genes are expressed in drug resistant patients with epilepsy. A few studies have shown significant association between CBZ resistant epilepsy and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) with adjacent polymorphisms of these genes. Our study is aimed at determining the correlation between patients' response to CBZ mono-therapy to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms G2677T and C3435T of the ABCB1 gene as well as G1249A and -24C>T of the ABCC2 gene.
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