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  1. Sutou M, Kato T, Ito M
    Mol Ecol Resour, 2011 Nov;11(6):992-1001.
    PMID: 21693000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03040.x
    Long columns of migrating larval sciarid armyworms were discovered in central and northern Japan, specifically Kanagawa, Gunma, Miyagi and Akita prefectures, as well as Hokkaido. This is the first examination of armyworms in East Asia. In Europe, armyworms have been identified as Sciara militaris, belonging to the family Sciaridae (sciarid flies or black fungus gnats), by rearing them to adulthood. In Japan, we were unable to obtain live samples for rearing; therefore, DNA barcodes were obtained from the samples of armyworms collected in the Gunma and Miyagi prefectures. The DNA barcodes were compared with those obtained from the following samples: pupae of S. militaris from UK, adults of Sciara kitakamiensis, Sciara humeralis, Sciara hemerobioides, Sciara thoracica, Sciara helvola and Sciara melanostyla from Japan, and adults of one undescribed Sciara species from Malaysia. Neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood analyses revealed that the armyworms discovered in Japan are S. kitakamiensis. Although adults of this species have been recorded in several locations in Japan, this is the first report of migrating larval armyworms. DNA barcodes were effectively used to link different life stages of this species. The average intraspecific and interspecific pairwise genetic distances of the genus Sciara were 0.3% and 12.6%, respectively. The present study illustrates that DNA barcodes are an effective means of identifying sciarid flies in Japan.
  2. Kato T, Chinzei N, Katayama N, Hirota S, Takahashi M
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Mar;14(1):92-95.
    PMID: 32296490 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2003.016
    A traumatic iliacus hematoma is rare and usually occurs in patients after a fall involving a lower back injury. Although the hematoma may compress the femoral nerve causing femoral nerve palsy, the gold standard treatment for this condition has not been established. Here we report transcatheter arterial embolisation as a useful treatment strategy for a traumatic iliacus hematoma.
  3. Hoque MA, Islam MS, Islam MN, Kato T, Nishino N, Ito A, et al.
    Amino Acids, 2014 Oct;46(10):2435-44.
    PMID: 25048030 DOI: 10.1007/s00726-014-1800-5
    Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a promising class of anticancer agents that have an effect on gene regulation. The naturally occurring cyclic depsipeptide FK228 containing disulfide and Largazole possessing thioester functionalities act as pro-drugs and share the same HDAC inhibition mechanism in cell. Inspired from these facts, we have reported bicyclic tetrapeptide disulfide HDAC inhibitors resembling FK228 with potent activity and enhanced selectivity. In the present study, we report the design and synthesis of several mono and bicyclic tetrapeptide thioester HDAC inhibitors that share the inhibition mechanism similar to Largazole. Most of the compounds showed HDAC1 and HDAC4 inhibition and p21 promoting activity in nanomolar ranges. Among these the monocyclic peptides 1, 2 and bicyclic peptide, 4 are notable demanding more advanced research to be promising anticancer drug candidates.
  4. Consortium on Lithium Genetics, Hou L, Heilbronner U, Rietschel M, Kato T, Kuo PH, et al.
    N Engl J Med, 2014 05 08;370(19):1857-9.
    PMID: 24806176 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1401817
  5. Yanagisawa D, Ibrahim NF, Taguchi H, Morikawa S, Kato T, Hirao K, et al.
    J Neurosci Res, 2018 05;96(5):841-851.
    PMID: 29063641 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.24188
    Aggregation of tau into neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is characteristic of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Recent advances in tau imaging have attracted much attention because of its potential contributions to early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progress. Fluorine-19 magnetic resonance imaging (19 F-MRI) may be extremely useful for tau imaging once a high-quality probe has been formulated. In this investigation, a novel fluorine-19-labeling compound has been developed as a probe for tau imaging using 19 F-MRI. This compound is a buta-1,3-diene derivative with a polyethylene glycol side chain bearing a CF3 group and is known as Shiga-X35. Female rTg4510 mice (a mouse model of tauopathy) and wild-type mice were intravenously injected with Shiga-X35, and magnetic resonance imaging of each mouse's head was conducted in a 7.0-T horizontal-bore magnetic resonance scanner. The 19 F-MRI in rTg4510 mice showed an intense signal in the forebrain region. Analysis of the signal intensity in the forebrain region revealed a significant accumulation of fluorine-19 magnetic resonance signal in the rTg4510 mice compared with the wild-type mice. Histological analysis showed fluorescent signals of Shiga-X35 binding to the NFTs in the brain sections of rTg4510 mice. Data collected as part of this investigation indicate that 19 F-MRI using Shiga-X35 could be a promising tool to evaluate tau pathology in the brain.
  6. Kato T, Ishigooka J, Miyajima M, Watabe K, Fujimori T, Masuda T, et al.
    Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 2020 Dec;74(12):635-644.
    PMID: 32827348 DOI: 10.1111/pcn.13137
    AIM: Previous studies conducted primarily in the USA and Europe have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of lurasidone 20-120 mg/day for the treatment of bipolar I depression. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lurasidone monotherapy for the treatment of bipolar I depression among patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds, including those from Japan.

    METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment for 6 weeks with lurasidone, 20-60 mg/day (n = 184) or 80-120 mg/day (n = 169), or placebo (n = 172). The primary end-point was change from baseline to Week 6 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).

    RESULTS: Lurasidone treatment significantly reduced mean MADRS total scores from baseline to Week 6 for the 20-60-mg/day group (-13.6; adjusted P = 0.007; effect size = 0.33), but not for the 80-120-mg/day group (-12.6; adjusted P = 0.057; effect size = 0.22) compared with placebo (-10.6). Treatment with lurasidone 20-60 mg/day also improved MADRS response rates, functional impairment, and anxiety symptoms. The most common adverse events associated with lurasidone were akathisia and nausea. Lurasidone treatments were associated with minimal changes in weight, lipids, and measures of glycemic control.

    CONCLUSION: Monotherapy with once daily doses of lurasidone 20-60 mg, but not 80-120 mg, significantly reduced depressive symptoms and improved functioning in patients with bipolar I depression. Results overall were consistent with previous studies, suggesting that lurasidone 20-60 mg/day is effective and safe in diverse ethnic populations, including Japanese.

  7. Kato T, Azegami J, Kano M, El Enshasy HA, Park EY
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021 Oct;105(20):7813-7823.
    PMID: 34559286 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-021-11595-2
    This study focuses on sirtuins, which catalyze the reaction of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, for riboflavin production in A. gossypii. Nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of sirtuin, made the color of A. gossypii colonies appear a deeper yellow at 5 mM. A. gossypii has 4 sirtuin genes (AgHST1, AgHST2, AgHST3, AgHST4) and these were disrupted to investigate the role of sirtuins in riboflavin production in A. gossypii. AgHST1∆, AgHST3∆, and AgHST4∆ strains were obtained, but AgHST2∆ was not. The AgHST1∆ and AgHST3∆ strains produced approximately 4.3- and 2.9-fold higher amounts of riboflavin than the WT strain. The AgHST3∆ strain showed a lower human sirtuin 6 (SIRT6)-like activity than the WT strain and only in the AgHST3∆ strain was a higher amount of acetylation of histone H3 K9 and K56 (H3K9ac and H3K56ac) observed compared to the WT strain. These results indicate that AgHst3 is SIRT6-like sirtuin in A. gossypii and the activity has an influence on the riboflavin production in A. gossypii. In the presence of 5 mM hydroxyurea and 50 µM camptothecin, which causes DNA damage, especially double-strand DNA breaks, the color of the WT strain colonies turned a deeper yellow. Additionally, hydroxyurea significantly led to the production of approximately 1.5 higher amounts of riboflavin and camptothecin also enhanced the riboflavin production even through the significant difference was not detected. Camptothecin tended to increase the amount of H3K56ac, but the amount of H3K56ac was not increased by hydroxyurea treatment. This study revealed that AgHst1 and AgHst3 are involved in the riboflavin production in A. gossypii through NAD metabolism and the acetylation of H3, respectively. This new finding is a step toward clarifying the role of sirtuins in riboflavin over-production by A. gossypii.Key points• Nicotinamide enhanced the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.• Disruption of AgHST1 or AgHST3 gene also enhanced the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.• Acetylation of H3K56 led to the enhancement of the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii.
  8. Kato T, Yokomori A, Suzuki R, Azegami J, El Enshasy HA, Park EY
    J Appl Microbiol, 2022 Feb;132(2):1176-1184.
    PMID: 34496097 DOI: 10.1111/jam.15296
    AIMS: Effects of a proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, on the riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii were investigated to elucidate the relationship of the riboflavin production with flavoprotein homeostasis.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: The addition of MG-132 to the liquid medium reduced the specific riboflavin production by 79% in A. gossypii at 25 μM after 24 h. The addition of the inhibitor also caused the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and ubiquitinated proteins. These results indicated that MG-132 works in A. gossypii without any genetic engineering and reduces riboflavin production. In the presence of 25 μM MG-132, specific NADH dehydrogenase activity was increased by 1.4-fold compared to DMSO, but specific succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was decreased to 52% compared to DMSO. Additionally, the amount of AgSdh1p (ACR052Wp) was also reduced. Specific riboflavin production was reduced to 22% when 20 mM malonate, a SDH inhibitor, was added to the culture medium. The riboflavin production in heterozygous AgSDH1 gene-disrupted mutant (AgSDH1-/+ ) was reduced to 63% compared to that in wild type.

    CONCLUSIONS: MG-132 suppresses the riboflavin production and SDH activity in A. gossypii. SDH is one of the flavoproteins involved in the riboflavin production in A. gossypii.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study shows that MG-132 has a negative influence on the riboflavin production and SDH activity in A. gossypii and leads to the elucidation of the connection of the riboflavin production with flavoproteins.

  9. Kato T, Kano M, Yokomori A, Azegami J, El Enshasy HA, Park EY
    Microb Cell Fact, 2023 May 22;22(1):105.
    PMID: 37217979 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-023-02114-1
    BACKGROUND: Previously, we isolated a riboflavin-overproducing Ashbya gossypii mutant (MT strain) and discovered some mutations in genes encoding flavoproteins. Here, we analyzed the riboflavin production in the MT strain, in view of flavoproteins, which are localized in the mitochondria.

    RESULTS: In the MT strain, mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased compared with that in the wild type (WT) strain, resulting in increased reactive oxygen species. Additionally, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a universal flavoprotein inhibitor, inhibited riboflavin production in the WT and MT strains at 50 µM, indicating that some flavoproteins may be involved in riboflavin production. The specific activities of NADH and succinate dehydrogenases were significantly reduced in the MT strain, but those of glutathione reductase and acetohydroxyacid synthase were increased by 4.9- and 25-fold, respectively. By contrast, the expression of AgGLR1 gene encoding glutathione reductase was increased by 32-fold in the MT strain. However, that of AgILV2 gene encoding the catalytic subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase was increased by only 2.1-fold. These results suggest that in the MT strain, acetohydroxyacid synthase, which catalyzes the first reaction of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, is vital for riboflavin production. The addition of valine, which is a feedback inhibitor of acetohydroxyacid synthase, to a minimal medium inhibited the growth of the MT strain and its riboflavin production. In addition, the addition of branched-chain amino acids enhanced the growth and riboflavin production in the MT strain.

    CONCLUSION: The significance of branched-chain amino acids for riboflavin production in A. gossypii is reported and this study opens a novel approach for the effective production of riboflavin in A. gossypii.

  10. Kato T, Azegami J, Yokomori A, Dohra H, El Enshasy HA, Park EY
    BMC Genomics, 2020 Apr 23;21(1):319.
    PMID: 32326906 DOI: 10.1186/s12864-020-6709-7
    BACKGROUND: Ashbya gossypii naturally overproduces riboflavin and has been utilized for industrial riboflavin production. To improve riboflavin production, various approaches have been developed. In this study, to investigate the change in metabolism of a riboflavin-overproducing mutant, namely, the W122032 strain (MT strain) that was isolated by disparity mutagenesis, genomic analysis was carried out.

    RESULTS: In the genomic analysis, 33 homozygous and 1377 heterozygous mutations in the coding sequences of the genome of MT strain were detected. Among these heterozygous mutations, the proportion of mutated reads in each gene was different, ranging from 21 to 75%. These results suggest that the MT strain may contain multiple nuclei containing different mutations. We tried to isolate haploid spores from the MT strain to prove its ploidy, but this strain did not sporulate under the conditions tested. Heterozygous mutations detected in genes which are important for sporulation likely contribute to the sporulation deficiency of the MT strain. Homozygous and heterozygous mutations were found in genes encoding enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, purine and pyrimidine nucleotide metabolism and the DNA mismatch repair system. One homozygous mutation in AgILV2 gene encoding acetohydroxyacid synthase, which is also a flavoprotein in mitochondria, was found. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed heterozygous mutations in all 22 DNA helicase genes and genes involved in oxidation-reduction process.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that oxidative stress and the aging of cells were involved in the riboflavin over-production in A. gossypii riboflavin over-producing mutant and provides new insights into riboflavin production in A. gossypii and the usefulness of disparity mutagenesis for the creation of new types of mutants for metabolic engineering.

  11. Tooyama I, Yanagisawa D, Taguchi H, Kato T, Hirao K, Shirai N, et al.
    Ageing Res Rev, 2016 09;30:85-94.
    PMID: 26772439 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.12.008
    The formation of senile plaques followed by the deposition of amyloid-β is the earliest pathological change in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the detection of senile plaques remains the most important early diagnostic indicator of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid imaging is a noninvasive technique for visualizing senile plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's patients using positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because fluorine-19 ((19)F) displays an intense nuclear magnetic resonance signal and is almost non-existent in the body, targets are detected with a higher signal-to-noise ratio using appropriate fluorinated contrast agents. The recent introduction of high-field MRI allows us to detect amyloid depositions in the brain of living mouse using (19)F-MRI. So far, at least three probes have been reported to detect amyloid deposition in the brain of transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease; (E,E)-1-fluoro-2,5-bis-(3-hydroxycarbonyl-4-hydroxy)styrylbenzene (FSB), 1,7-bis(4'-hydroxy-3'-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-4-methoxycarbonylethyl-1,6-heptadiene3,5-dione (FMeC1, Shiga-Y5) and 6-(3',6',9',15',18',21'-heptaoxa-23',23',23'-trifluorotricosanyloxy)-2-(4'-dimethylaminostyryl)benzoxazole (XP7, Shiga-X22). This review presents the recent advances in amyloid imaging using (19)F-MRI, including our own studies.
  12. Lye HS, Kato T, Low WY, Taylor TD, Prakash T, Lew LC, et al.
    J Biotechnol, 2017 Sep 19.
    PMID: 28935567 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2017.09.007
    In this study, hypercholesterolemic mice fed with Lactobacillus fermentum FTDC 8312 after a seven-week feeding trial showed a reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, accompanied by a decrease in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and a decreased ratio of apoB100:apoA1 when compared to those fed with control or a type strain, L. fermentum JCM 1173. These have contributed to a decrease in atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-C) of mice on the FTDC 8312 diet. Serum triglyceride (TG) levels of mice fed with FTDC 8312 and JCM 1173 were comparable to those of the controls. A decreased ratio of cholesterol and phospholipids (C/P) was also observed for mice fed with FTDC 8312, leading to a decreased number of spur red blood cells (RBC) formation in mice. Additionally, there was an increase in fecal TC, TG, and total bile acid levels in mice on FTDC 8312 diet compared to those with JCM 1173 and controls. The administration of FTDC 8312 also altered the gut microbiota population such as an increase in the members of genera Akkermansia and Oscillospira, affecting lipid metabolism and fecal bile excretion in the mice. Overall, we demonstrated that FTDC 8312 exerted a cholesterol lowering effect that may be attributed to gut microbiota modulation.
  13. Hamezah HS, Durani LW, Ibrahim NF, Yanagisawa D, Kato T, Shiino A, et al.
    Exp Gerontol, 2017 12 01;99:69-79.
    PMID: 28918364 DOI: 10.1016/j.exger.2017.09.008
    Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured. Open field, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests were conducted to assess cognitive and locomotor functions. Blood was taken for measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The lateral ventricle volumes were larger, whereas the mPFC, hippocampus, and striatum volumes were smaller in 27-month-old rats than in 14-month-old rats. In behavioral tasks, the 27-month-old rats showed less exploratory activity and poorer spatial learning and memory than did the 14-month-old rats. Biochemical measurements likewise showed increased MDA and lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the 27-month-old rats. In conclusion, age-related increases in oxidative stress, impairment in cognitive and locomotor functions, and changes in brain volume were observed, with the most marked impairments observed in later age.
  14. Hor YY, Lew LC, Jaafar MH, Lau AS, Ong JS, Kato T, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2019 08;146:104312.
    PMID: 31207344 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104312
    Aging is closely associated with altered gut function and composition, in which elderly were reported with reduced gut microbiota diversity and increased incidence of age-related diseases. Probiotics have been shown to exert beneficial health-promoting effects through modulation of intestinal microflora biodiversity, thus the effects of probiotics administration on D-galactose (D-gal) senescence-induced rat were evaluated based on the changes in gut microbiota and metabolomic profiles. Upon senescence induction, the ratio of Firmicutes/ Bacteroidetes was significantly lowered, while treatment with Lactobacillus helveticus OFS 1515 and L. fermentum DR9 increased the ratio at the phylum level (P 
  15. Lew LC, Hor YY, Jaafar MH, Lau AS, Khoo BY, Sasidharan S, et al.
    Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2020 06;12(2):545-562.
    PMID: 31301059 DOI: 10.1007/s12602-019-09545-6
    Both aging and diet play an important role in influencing the gut ecosystem. Using premature senescent rats induced by D-galactose and fed with high-fat diet, this study aims to investigate the effects of different potential probiotic strains on the dynamic changes of fecal microbiome and metabolites. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high-fat diet and injected with D-galactose for 12 weeks to induce aging. The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum DR7, L. fermentum DR9, and L. reuteri 8513d administration on the fecal microbiota profile, short-chain fatty acids, and water-soluble compounds were analyzed. It was found that the administration of the selected strains altered the gut microbiota diversity and composition, even at the phylum level. The fecal short-chain fatty acid content was also higher in groups that were administered with the potential probiotic strains. Analysis of the fecal water-soluble metabolites revealed that administration of L. plantarum DR7 and L. reuteri 8513d led to higher fecal content of compounds related to amino acid metabolism such as tryptophan, leucine, tyrosine, cysteine, methionine, valine, and lysine; while administration of L. fermentum DR9 led to higher prevalence of compounds related to carbohydrate metabolism such as erythritol, xylitol, and arabitol. In conclusion, it was observed that different strains of lactobacilli can cause difference alteration in the gut microbiota and the metabolites, suggesting the urgency to explore the specific metabolic impact of specific strains on the host.
  16. Ogura A, Kawabata K, Watanabe H, Choy SW, Bagarinao E, Kato T, et al.
    Eur J Neurol, 2022 Feb;29(2):432-440.
    PMID: 34632672 DOI: 10.1111/ene.15136
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To clarify the relationship between fiber-specific white matter changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and clinical signs of upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement, we performed a fixel-based analysis (FBA), a novel framework for diffusion-weighted imaging analysis.

    METHODS: We enrolled 96 participants, including 48 nonfamilial ALS patients and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs), in this study and conducted whole-brain FBA and voxel-based morphometry analysis. We compared the fiber density (FD), fiber morphology (fiber cross-section [FC]), and a combined index of FD and FC (FDC) between the ALS and HC groups. We performed a tract-of-interest analysis to extract FD values across the significant regions in the whole-brain analysis. Then, we evaluated the associations between FD values and clinical variables.

    RESULTS: The bilateral corticospinal tracts (CSTs) and the corpus callosum (CC) showed reduced FD and FDC in ALS patients compared with HCs (p 

  17. Kawarada O, Hozawa K, Zen K, Huang HL, Kim SH, Choi D, et al.
    Cardiovasc Interv Ther, 2020 Jan;35(1):52-61.
    PMID: 31292931 DOI: 10.1007/s12928-019-00602-z
    With technological improvements in the endovascular armamentarium, there have been tremendous advances in catheter-based femoropopliteal artery intervention during the last decade. However, standardization of the methodology for assessing outcomes has been underappreciated, and unvalidated peak systolic velocity ratios (PSVRs) of 2.0, 2.4, and 2.5 on duplex ultrasonography have been arbitrarily but routinely used for assessing restenosis. Quantitative vessel analysis (QVA) is a widely accepted method to identify restenosis in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular interventions, and PSVR needs to be validated by QVA. This multidisciplinary review is intended to disseminate the importance of QVA and a validated PSVR based on QVA for binary restenosis in contemporary femoropopliteal intervention.
  18. Kawarada O, Zen K, Hozawa K, Ayabe S, Huang HL, Choi D, et al.
    Cardiovasc Interv Ther, 2018 Oct;33(4):297-312.
    PMID: 29654408 DOI: 10.1007/s12928-018-0523-z
    The burden of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetes in Asia is projected to increase. Asia also has the highest incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. Therefore, most Asian patients with PAD might have diabetic PAD or ESRD-related PAD. Given these pandemic conditions, critical limb ischemia (CLI) with diabetes or ESRD, the most advanced and challenging subset of PAD, is an emerging public health issue in Asian countries. Given that diabetic and ESRD-related CLI have complex pathophysiology that involve arterial insufficiency, bacterial infection, neuropathy, and foot deformity, a coordinated approach that involves endovascular therapy and wound care is vital. Recently, there is increasing interaction among cardiologists, vascular surgeons, radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, and plastic surgeons beyond specialty and country boundaries in Asia. This article is intended to share practical Asian multidisciplinary consensus statement on the collaboration between endovascular therapy and wound care for CLI.
  19. Ahn MJ, Mendoza MJL, Pavlakis N, Kato T, Soo RA, Kim DW, et al.
    Clin Lung Cancer, 2022 Dec;23(8):670-685.
    PMID: 36151006 DOI: 10.1016/j.cllc.2022.07.012
    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with many oncogenic driver mutations, including de novo mutations in the Mesenchymal Epithelial Transition (MET) gene (specifically in Exon 14 [ex14]), that lead to tumourigenesis. Acquired alterations in the MET gene, specifically MET amplification is also associated with the development of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Although MET has become an actionable biomarker with the availability of MET-specific inhibitors in selected countries, there is differential accessibility to diagnostic platforms and targeted therapies across countries in Asia-Pacific (APAC). The Asian Thoracic Oncology Research Group (ATORG), an interdisciplinary group of experts from Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Mainland China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam, discussed testing for MET alterations and considerations for using MET-specific inhibitors at a consensus meeting in January 2022, and in subsequent offline consultation. Consensus recommendations are provided by the ATORG group to address the unmet need for standardised approaches to diagnosing MET alterations in NSCLC and for using these therapies. MET inhibitors may be considered for first-line or second or subsequent lines of treatment for patients with advanced and metastatic NSCLC harbouring MET ex14 skipping mutations; MET ex14 testing is preferred within multi-gene panels for detecting targetable driver mutations in NSCLC. For patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and MET amplification leading to EGFR TKI resistance, enrolment in combination trials of EGFR TKIs and MET inhibitors is encouraged.
  20. Kalman JL, Yoshida T, Andlauer TFM, Schulte EC, Adorjan K, Alda M, et al.
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 2022 Dec;272(8):1611-1620.
    PMID: 35146571 DOI: 10.1007/s00406-021-01366-5
    Personality traits influence risk for suicidal behavior. We examined phenotype- and genotype-level associations between the Big Five personality traits and suicidal ideation and attempt in major depressive, bipolar and schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia patients (N = 3012) using fixed- and random-effects inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses. Suicidal ideations were more likely to be reported by patients with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion phenotypic scores, but showed no significant association with polygenic load for these personality traits. Our findings provide new insights into the association between personality and suicidal behavior across mental illnesses and suggest that the genetic component of personality traits is unlikely to have strong causal effects on suicidal behavior.
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