Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Cheah YK, Lim HK, Kee CC
    J Pediatr Nurs, 2019 07 29;48:92-97.
    PMID: 31369963 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2019.07.012
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between high-risk behaviours and personal and family factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A nationwide data set was examined for this secondary data analysis. The dependent variable was the degree of risk, which was measured based on the number of high-risk behaviours in which adolescents participated. Age, gender, ethnicity, self-rated academic performance, family size, parental marital status and parental academic attainment were included as independent variables. Analyses stratified by educational level were conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using ordered logit.

    RESULTS: The most common high-risk behaviour among Malaysian adolescents was physical inactivity (35.97%), followed by smoking (13.27%) and alcohol consumption (4.45%). The majority of adolescents had low risks (52.93%), while only a small proportion had high risks (6.08%). Older age was associated with increased odds of having high risks (OR: 1.26). Male adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category compared to female adolescents (OR: 1.28). Compared to Malays, Chinese adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category (OR: 1.71), whereas Indian adolescents had lower odds (OR: 0.65). Excellent academic performance was associated with reduced odds of participating in high-risk behaviours (OR: 0.41).

    CONCLUSION: Personal factors are important determinants of high-risk behaviours. This study provides a better understanding of those adolescent groups that are at greater risk.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: An intervention directed towards reducing participation in high-risk behaviours among adolescents who have both poor academic performance and less-educated parents may yield promising outcomes.

  2. Tah PC, Kee CC, Majid HA
    Nutr Clin Pract, 2020 Oct;35(5):942-950.
    PMID: 31556167 DOI: 10.1002/ncp.10416
    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition among hospitalized patients is closely associated with various medical complications. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of a 3-Minute Nutrition Screening (3-MinNS) tool in identifying the risk of malnutrition among hospitalized patients that can be administered by healthcare professionals.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2012. A total of 350 adult patients in a teaching hospital were screened for risk of malnutrition using 3-MinNS and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). To assess interrater reliability, each patient was screened for risk of malnutrition using 3-MinNS by 2 different nurses on 2 different occasions within 24 hours after admission. To assess the validity of 3-MinNS, the level of risk of malnutrition identified by the nurses using 3-MinNS was compared with the risk of malnutrition as assessed by a dietitian using SGA within 48 hours after the patients' enrolment into the study. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated in detecting patients at risk of malnutrition. Interrater reliability was determined using κ statistics.

    RESULTS: Using SGA, the estimated prevalence of moderate to severe malnutrition was 36.3% (127/350). There was 94% proportional agreement between 2 nurses using 3-MinNS, and interrater reliability was substantial (κ = 0.79, P < .001). The analysis showed that 3-MinNS had moderate sensitivity (61.4%-68.5%) but high specificity (95.1%).

    CONCLUSIONS: The 3-MinNS is a reliable and valid screening tool for use by healthcare professionals for identifying newly admitted medical and surgical patients who are at risk of malnutrition.

  3. Cheah YK, Lim HK, Kee CC
    Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2018 Jun;5(2):49-54.
    PMID: 30805533 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.02.001
    Background and objectives: The objective of the present study is to examine factors affecting time spent in physical activity among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Patients and methods: A nationally representative data of adolescents that consists of 25399 respondents is used. The demographic (age, gender, education) and lifestyle (fruits and vegetables consumption, carbonated soft drink consumption, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, sex behaviour, participation in physical education class, obesity) determinants of physical activity are assessed using binomial regression.

    Results: The results show that age is negatively associated with time spent in physical activity. However, being male and education levels are positively related to time spent in physical activity. Having unhealthy lifestyle and being obese are associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical education seems to promote participation in physical activity.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, demographic and lifestyle factors play an important role in determining levels of physical activity among adolescents. In order to reduce the prevalence of physically inactive adolescents, policy makers should focus primarily on late adolescents, females, adolescents who engage in unhealthy lifestyle and seldom attend physical education classes, as well as obese adolescents.

  4. Cheah YK, Kee CC, Lim KH, Omar MA
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2021 11;62(6):628-637.
    PMID: 34353744 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2021.05.025
    BACKGROUND: Mental health disorders are highly correlated with risk behaviors. The objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between risk behaviors and mental health among school-going students with a focus on ethnic minorities.

    METHODS: The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2017 (n = 8230) was used for analyses. It was a nationwide survey conducted in Malaysia. The dependent variables were measured by three risk behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs). Probit regressions were utilized to examine the effect of mental health on the probability of smoking, drinking and using illicit drugs. Demographic and lifestyle factors were used as the control variables. Truancy was identified as a mediating variable.

    RESULTS: Anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation affected cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and use of illicit drugs through mediation of truancy. After controlling for demographic and lifestyle factors, students with anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation were more likely to smoke, drink and use illicit drugs compared with their peers without any mental health disorders. Furthermore, the likelihood of consuming cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs was found to be higher among students who played truant than those who did not.

    CONCLUSION: Mental health plays an important role in determining participation in risk behaviors among ethnic minority students in Malaysia. Public health administrators and schools have to be aware that students who suffer from mental health disorders are likely to indulge in risk behaviors.

  5. Teh CH, Rampal S, Kee CC, Azahadi O, Tahir A
    Int J Obes (Lond), 2023 Dec;47(12):1302-1308.
    PMID: 37833560 DOI: 10.1038/s41366-023-01391-5
    OBJECTIVE: The global obesity epidemic remains a significant threat to public health and the economy. Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis is one method to model the trajectory of obesity. However, there is scarce published evidence of such analyses among the South East Asian population. This study aims to explore the sex and ethnic variations of BMI and waist circumference trajectories over time among non-institutionalized Malaysian adults aged 18 to 80 years.

    METHODS: Data from four population-based National Health and Morbidity Surveys conducted in 1996, 2006, 2010, and 2015 were pooled. Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort (HAPC) analysis explored the trajectories of BMI and waist circumference across the life course and birth cohorts by sex and ethnicity. These models assumed no period effect.

    RESULTS: Generally, BMI and waist circumference trajectories increased across age and birth cohorts. These trajectories varied by sex and ethnicity. Females have more profound increasing BMI and waist circumference trajectories than their male counterparts as they age and as cohort recency increases. Chinese have less profound BMI and waist circumference increases across the life course and birth cohorts than other ethnic groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: The profound increasing cohort trajectories of obesity, regardless of sex and ethnicity, are alarming. Future studies should focus on identifying factors associated with the less profound cohort effect among the Chinese to reduce the magnitude of trajectories in obesity, particularly among future generations.

  6. Lim KH, Idzwan MF, Sumarni MG, Kee CC, Amal NM, Lim KK, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(1):343-6.
    PMID: 22502698
    Two methods of identifying smokers with high nicotine dependence, the heaviness of smoking index (HSI) and number of cigarettes per day (CPD) were compared with the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). The HSI, CPD and the FTND were administered to 316 adult Malaysian male, daily smokers aged between 25-64 years old in the Malaysian NCD Surveillance-1 Survey using a two-stage stratified random sampling of enumeration blocks and living quarters, via an interview based on a validated questionnaire. The cut-off point for classification of high nicotine dependence on the HSI was a score of four or higher, and for the heavy smoking category, smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. Classification using each method was compared with classification by the FTND (score of six or more) as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity and kappa statistics for concordance between both measures and the FTND were evaluated. The HSI gave a similar prevalence rate of high nicotine dependence as the FTND. There was substantial agreement between the HSI and the FTND (kappa=0.63.), with moderate sensitivity (69.8%) and high specificity (92.5%). However, prevalence of high nicotine dependence using the CPD was 7% lower than the FTND. The heavy smoking category also showed fair agreement with the FTND (kappa=0.45) and moderate sensitivity (67.0%), but specificity was high (86.9%). The findings indicate that the HSI can be used as an alternative to the FTND in screening for high nicotine dependence among daily smokers in large population-based studies, while CPD may not be a suitable alternative to the FTND.
  7. Binti Shuhairi NN, Bt Abdul Jalil A, Lau SH, Bt Mohd Ghazali S, Kee CC
    Int J Paediatr Dent, 2021 Jul;31(4):496-503.
    PMID: 32815206 DOI: 10.1111/ipd.12719
    BACKGROUND: Globally, research on oral and maxillofacial lesions among newborns and infants remains limited.

    AIM: To describe demographic patterns, histopathological findings, and locations of oral and maxillofacial lesions in newborns (birth-1 month) and infants (>1 month-2 years) reported over 51 years.

    DESIGN: A retrospective cross-sectional study on histopathological records of newborns and infants was conducted. Patients' demographic characteristics (age, gender, and race), histopathological diagnosis, and lesion's location were gathered. Pearson's chi-square or Fisher's exact test was performed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and different categories of lesions.

    RESULTS: Out of 66,546 specimens received, 0.44% (290 specimens) were from patients aged 2 years and younger (27 newborns and 263 infants). The most common category was inflammatory/reactive (44.2%), followed by tumour/tumour-like (42.0%), cystic/pseudocystic (6.6%), and miscellaneous lesions (5.5%). Mucous extravasation cysts (23.4%) and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (7.2%) were the most common histopathological diagnoses. Tumour/tumour-like lesions were significant in newborns (P = .021), and majority were congenital epulis (40.7%). Inflammatory/reactive lesions were significantly higher in male (P = .025) and infants (P = 

  8. Lim KH, Sumarni MG, Kee CC, Christopher VM, Noruiza Hana M, Lim KK, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):394-403.
    PMID: 21399579 MyJurnal
    A cross-sectional study was conducted among form four students of secondary schools in the District of Petaling, Selangor, Malaysia from February 2008 to June 2008 with the aim of quantifying the prevalence of smoking and identifying the psychosocial factors related to smoking among adolescents in this district. A two-stage stratified sampling strategy was used to obtain a sample of 1300 students based on an estimated prevalence of 10%. The response rate was 80.5% (1045 out of 1298 students). Results showed that prevalence of smoking was higher among male students (22.3%) compared to females (5.5%) and the median age at smoking initiation was lower among males compared to female smokers (14 years old vs 15 years old). Modifiable risk factors associated with smoking were "percentage of friends who smoke" (OR 2.94, 95% CI [1.71- 5.06]) and "having a brother who smokes" (OR 1.97, 95% CI [1.20-3.31]). There was also a correlation between smoking prevalence and the number of risk factors present. Intensification of health education and anti-smoking programmes and modification of external factors in early adolescence are recommended to prevent smoking initiation.
  9. Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Heng PP, Cheah YK, et al.
    Tob Induc Dis, 2018;16.
    DOI: 10.18332/tid/95188
    Introduction: Understanding the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and the associated factors is beneficial for the formulation of effective measures to reduce exposure to SHS. The purpose of this study was to determine SHS exposure at home and workplace, and its associated factors among non-smoker Malaysian adults. Methods: Data were extracted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M) that involved a representative sample of 5112 Malaysian adults. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between SHS exposure, sociodemographic factors, knowledge on the danger of SHS, and smoking restrictions at home and at work among non-smokers. Results: Among non-smoker Malaysians, age ≥15 years, 27.9% (equivalent to approximately 4.21 million non-smokers) and 33.9% (equivalent to approximately 1.37 million non-smokers) reported that they were exposed to SHS at home and the workplace, at least once a month, respectively. Women (AOR=2.12, 95% CI:, young individuals (AOR=3.06, 95% CI:, Malays (AOR=2.39, 95% CI: or other Bumiputra ethnic groups (AOR=2.40, 95% CI: and those who worked as other than government employees were more likely to report SHS exposure at home (non-government employee: AOR=1.88, 95% CI: Respondents with a total smoking restriction at home did not report any SHS exposure at home. Similarly, those whose workplace had smoking restrictions were less likely to report SHS exposure at the work compared to their counterparts whose workplace had partial (AOR=3.08, 95% CI: or no smoking restrictions (AOR=15.33, 95% CI: Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Malaysian adults were exposed to SHS at home and at work. The findings emphasize the need for policies on smoking restrictions at work and the need to promote the adoption of a completely smoke-free home, among the Malaysian population.
    Study name: Global Adults Tobacco Survey (GATS-2011)
  10. Lim KH, Mohd Ghazali S, Lim HL, Kee CC, Teh CH, Lim JH
    Introduction: Expansion of smoke-free areas in public domains is suspected to displace smoking into the home. However, the scarcity of such information in Malaysia warrants an investigation to determine SHS exposure at home among adults in Malaysia.
    Methods: This study studied 4,250 and 21,445 adults who participated in the 2011 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M) and, the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to compare the odds of SHS exposure at home among adults in 2011 (GATS-M) to odds of SHS exposure at home among adults in 2015 (NHMS 2015).
    Results: Approximately one third of respondents were exposed to SHS at home in 2011 (38.4%) and 2015 (37.9%). MLR analysis revealed the odds of SHS exposure at home was not significantly different from 2011 [AOR 1.14, 95 % CI (0.99-1.31). 2015 exposure to SHS as reference]. This study also indicates no significant displacement of smoking into the home by socio-demographic and smoking status between 2011 and 2015.
    Conclusion: The findings suggest that smoking has not been displaced into the home in the past four years although the number of smoke-free public areas have increased. More public smoke free areas should be established.
    Study name: 2011
    Global Adult Tobacco Survey-Malaysia (GATS-M); National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2015)

  11. Cheah YK, Syed Anera SN, Kee CC, Lim KH, Omar MA
    Hypertens Res, 2022 Feb 16.
    PMID: 35173284 DOI: 10.1038/s41440-022-00858-8
    The prevalence of high sodium-related diseases is increasing across the globe. Knowledge plays an important role in disease prevention. The objective of the present study was to examine sociodemographic factors associated with knowledge of high sodium-related diseases. The Malaysian Community Salt Survey (MyCoSS) was used in the present study for secondary analyses. It is a nationwide cross-sectional survey that was conducted in Malaysia. A non-parametric test to evaluate trends and a negative binomial regression were utilised to assess knowledge of high sodium-related diseases. Income, educational level, gender, ethnicity, house locality and hypertension were found to be significantly associated with knowledge of high sodium-related diseases. In particular, higher income earners, well-educated people, women, Malays, urban dwellers and hypertensive adults were more likely to have acquired a lot of knowledge of high sodium-related diseases compared to that acquired by lower income earners, less-educated people, men, individuals of other ethnic groups, rural dwellers and nonhypertensive adults. In conclusion, sociodemographic factors and hypertension play an important role in knowledge acquired about high sodium-related diseases. The findings of the present study could inform a future policy directed towards increasing knowledge about high sodium-related diseases among the population in Malaysia.
  12. Cheah YK, Lim KK, Ismail H, Mohd Yusoff MF, Kee CC
    J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2023 Aug;18(4):844-854.
    PMID: 36852251 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtumed.2022.12.016
    OBJECTIVES: Physical inactivity, hypertension and non-communicable diseases are major public concerns across the globe. To our knowledge, there is a lack of research that has investigated the moderating effect of age on the relationship between hypertension and physical activity in developing countries. This study had two objectives: (1) investigating hypertension and sociodemographic factors associated with physical activity and (2) investigating whether age moderates the relationship between hypertension and physical activity.

    METHODS: Nationally representative data of Malaysia were used to generate cross-sectional evidence. The sample size was 2156 respondents. An ordered probit regression was utilized to assess factors associated with the practice of physical activity.

    RESULTS: Respondents aged 40-49 years with hypertension were 7.3% less likely to participate in high-level physical activity when compared to those without hypertension. The probability of having a low level of physical activity was 12.3% higher among hypertensive patients aged ≥60. Males, married individuals, less-educated adults, low-income earners, and individuals who were aware of their BMI, had a higher tendency to indulge in a highly active lifestyle than others.

    CONCLUSION: The effect of hypertension on physical activity was moderated by age. Factors influencing physical activity levels among adults were income, gender, marital status, education, employment status, and BMI awareness.

  13. Geeta A, Jamaiyah H, Safiza MN, Khor GL, Kee CC, Ahmad AZ, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Oct;50(10):1013-8.
    PMID: 19907894
    INTRODUCTION: The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey Malaysia 2006 includes a nutritional status assessment of children. This study aimed to assess the inter- and intra-examiner reliability, the technical error of measurement and the validity of instruments for measuring weight, height and waist circumference.
    METHODS: A convenience sample of 130 adults working in a selected office setting was chosen to participate in the study, subject to the inclusion and exclusion study criteria. Two public health nurses, trained to follow a standard protocol, obtained the weight, height and waist circumference measurements. The weight was measured using the Tanita HD-318 digital weighing scale to the nearest 0.1 kg, and Seca Beam Scale to the nearest 0.01 kg. The height was measured using the Seca Bodymeter 206 and Stadiometer, both to the nearest 0.1 cm. The waist circumference was measured using the Seca circumference measuring tape S 201, to the nearest 0.1 cm.
    RESULTS: The intra-examiner reliability in descending order was weight and height followed by waist circumference. The height measurement, on average, using the test instrument, reported a recording of 0.4 cm higher than the reference instrument, with the upper and lower limits at 2.5 cm and 1.6 cm, respectively. The technical error of measurement and coefficient of variation of weight and height for both inter-examiner and intra-examiner measurements were all within acceptable limits (below five percent).
    CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that weight, height and waist circumference measured in adults aged 18 years and above, using the respective above mentioned instruments, are reliable and valid for use in a community survey. Limiting the number of examiners, especially for waist circumference measurements, would yield a higher degree of reliability and validity.
  14. Koo HC, Tan LK, Lim GP, Kee CC, Omar MA
    PMID: 36833764 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph20043058
    This study aimed to report the prevalence of obesity, classified using Asian cut-off, and its relationships with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and hypercholesteremia. We analyzed the nationally representative data from 14,025 Malaysian adults who participated in the NHMS 2015. The relationship between obesity and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and hypercholesteremia was determined using multivariable logistic regressions, and lifestyle risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics were adjusted. The undiagnosed high blood pressure group showed the highest proportionate of overweight/obese (80.0%, 95% CI: 78.1-81.8) and central obesity (61.8%, 95% CI: 59.3-64.2). Inverse association was observed between underweight with undiagnosed high blood pressure (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.26-0.61) and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95) groups. In contrast, positive relationships were shown between overweight/obese and risk of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.31-2.07), high blood pressure (aOR: 3.08, 95% CI: 2.60-3.63), and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.22-1.53). Likewise, central obesity was positively associated with a risk of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (aOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.17-1.67), high blood pressure (aOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 2.45-3.26), and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.42). Our findings indicated the importance of periodical health examinations to assess the risk of non-communicable diseases among the general and abdominal obese Malaysian adults.
  15. Cheah YK, Zainuddin NH, Kee CC, Lim KH, Omar MA, Cheong YL
    Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry, 2023 Oct;28(4):1341-1357.
    PMID: 36428238 DOI: 10.1177/13591045221142497
    Sexual behaviour and mental health among adolescents are major public health issues. This study examines how lifestyles affect sexual behaviour among school-going adolescents in Malaysia, and the potential mediational role of mental health. It is the first to our knowledge to explore the mediating effect of mental health on sexual behaviour with a focus on a fast-growing developing country. Data were obtained from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2017 (n = 27,497). Structural equation modelling was utilized to examine depression and anxiety as mediators of the relationships between sexual behaviour and smoking, alcohol drinking and illicit drug use, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results showed that adolescents who smoked, consumed alcohol, used illicit drugs, and had depression and anxiety were more likely to engage in sexual behaviour than others. Depression and anxiety partially mediated the relationships between sexual behaviour and smoking, and illicit drug use. The association between alcohol drinking and sexual behaviour was fully mediated by depression and anxiety. In conclusion, lifestyles may affect sexual behaviour through mediation of mental health. Therefore, policymakers should take mental health factors into consideration when designing adolescent sexual behaviour preventative interventions.
  16. Tan LK, Chua EH, Mohd Ghazali S, Cheah YK, Jayaraj VJ, Kee CC
    Nutrients, 2023 Dec 08;15(24).
    PMID: 38140302 DOI: 10.3390/nu15245043
    The healthy eating plate concept has been introduced in many countries, including Malaysia, as a visual guide for the public to eat healthily. The relationship between Malaysian Healthy Plate (MHP) and adequate fruit and vegetable (FV) intake among morbid Malaysian adults is unknown. Hence, we investigated the relationship between awareness of the MHP and FV intake among morbid Malaysian adults. National survey data on 9760 morbid Malaysian adults aged 18 years and above were analyzed. The relationship between awareness of MHP and FV intake among Malaysian adults with obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were determined using multivariable logistic regression controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Our data demonstrated that MHP awareness is associated with adequate FV intake among the Malaysian adults with abdominal obesity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-3.29), diabetes mellitus (aOR: 4.88, 95% CI: 2.13-22.18), hypertension (aOR: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.96-9.83), and hypercholesterolemia (aOR: 4.16, 95% CI: 1.48-11.72). Our findings indicated the necessity for ongoing efforts by policymakers, healthcare professionals, and nutrition educators to promote the concept of MHP and ensure that morbid Malaysian adults consume a sufficient intake of FV or adopt a healthy eating pattern to achieve and maintain optimal health.
  17. Subenthiran S, Abdullah NR, Joseph JP, Muniandy PK, Mok BT, Kee CC, et al.
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e64827.
    PMID: 23717663 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064827
    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is used as the first line of treatment of Complex Partial Seizures (CPS) in the Epilepsy Clinic, Neurology Department of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (KLH). More than 30% of the patients remain drug resistant to CBZ mono-therapy. CBZ is transported by the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The P-gp encoded by the ABCB1 and ABCC2 genes are expressed in drug resistant patients with epilepsy. A few studies have shown significant association between CBZ resistant epilepsy and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) with adjacent polymorphisms of these genes. Our study is aimed at determining the correlation between patients' response to CBZ mono-therapy to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms G2677T and C3435T of the ABCB1 gene as well as G1249A and -24C>T of the ABCC2 gene.
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links