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  1. Shu L, Sulaiman AH, Huang YS, Fones Soon Leng C, Crutel VS, Kim YS
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2014 Apr;8:26-32.
    PMID: 24655622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.09.009
    OBJECTIVE: This randomized, double-blind study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of agomelatine, using fluoxetine as an active comparator, in Asian patients suffering from moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD).
    METHOD: Patients were randomly assigned to receive either agomelatine (25-50mg/day, n=314) or fluoxetine (20-40mg/day, n=314) during an 8-week treatment period. The main outcome measure was the change in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 items (HAM-D17) scores. Secondary efficacy criteria included scores on Clinical Global Impression Severity of illness (CGI-S) and Improvement of illness (CGI-I), patient sleeping improvement using the self-rating Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ) and anxiety using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores. Tolerability and safety evaluations were based on emergent adverse events.
    RESULTS: Agomelatine and fluoxetine exert a comparable antidepressant efficacy in the Asian population. Mean changes over 8 weeks were clinically relevant and similar in both groups (-14.8±7.3 and -15.0±8.1 on HAM-D17 scale in agomelatine and fluoxetine groups, respectively). The between-group difference reached statistical significance on non-inferiority test (p=0.015). Clinically relevant decreases in CGI-S and CGI-I scores were observed over the treatment period in both groups. The two treatments were equally effective on the symptoms of both anxiety and sleep. The good tolerability profile and safety of both doses of agomelatine was confirmed in the Asian population.
    CONCLUSIONS: Agomelatine and fluoxetine are equally effective in the treatment of MDD-associated symptoms in Asian depressed patients.
    KEYWORDS: Agomelatine; Antidepressant; Asian population; Fluoxetine
    Study site in Malaysia: Psychiatric clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. Rhi BY, Ha KS, Kim YS, Sasaki Y, Young D, Woon, et al.
    Int J Soc Psychiatry, 1995;41(3):190-209.
    PMID: 8847200
    The patterns of health care seeking behavior of 1061 schizophrenics and the factors that affect the determination of the patterns were studied in 6 areas of 5 nations in east Asia: Hunan and Sichuan Provinces in China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines. The information was gathered through a structured questionnaire developed by the authors. The subjects generally favored psychiatry-oriented health care, but with frequent interruptions or combination with other types of managements. Most Japanese subjects sought care in western medicine, while subjects from Hunan, Sichuan and Korea alternated between western medicine and magicoreligious therapies or traditional herbal medicine. In the Philippines and Malaysia, the majority of the subjects sought magicoreligious therapies first, then later sought western psychiatric care. The choice of western psychiatric care was mostly influenced by the decision maker's knowledge and interpretation of the patient's illness. In determining the choice of management among various types of non-psychiatric management, cost, location, and societal attitudes played substantial roles as well as knowledge and interpretation. Suggestions and opinions were discussed to improve health care services for schizophrenic patients in each community.
  3. Kim YH, Kim KH, Han CS, Park SH, Yang HC, Lee BY, et al.
    J Cosmet Sci, 2008 Sep-Oct;59(5):419-30.
    PMID: 18841306
    Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum has long been used as a rheumatic remedy, as an anti-pyretic and as an anti-ulcer treatment, and for the alleviation of local pain and fever in Korea and Malaysia. In order to investigate the possibility of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract as a cosmetic ingredient, we measured its anti-inflammatory effect by its inhibition of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and the release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. We also measured its anti-allergic effect by its inhibition of beta-hexosamidase release. An HPLC experiment after extraction with 95% EtOH at pH 3.5 showed that Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum was mainly composed of lycorine (up to 1%), a well-known immunosuppressor. The content of lycorine varied, depending on the type of plant tissue analyzed and the extraction method. In an anti-inflammatory assay for inhibition of nitric oxide formation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, the ethanol extract of Crinum asiaticum showed an inhibitory activity of NO production in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 58.5 microg/ml). Additional study by RT-PCR demonstrated that the extract of Crinum asiaticum significantly suppressed the expression of the iNOS gene. Moreover, the extract of Crinum asiaticum did not show any cytotoxicity, but did show a cell proliferation effect against LPS (a 10 approximately 60% increase in cell viability). In an assay to determine inhibition of the H2O2-activated release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human normal fibroblast cell lines, the release of PGE2 and IL-6 was almost completely inhibited above concentrations of 0.05% and 1%, respectively. Moreover, the release of IL-8 was completely inhibited over the entire range of concentration (>0.0025%). In order to investigate the skin-sensitizing potentials of the extract of Crinum asiaticum, a human clinical test was performed after repeated epicutaneous 48-h applications under an occlusive patch (RIPT). The repeated and single cutaneous applications of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract under the occlusive patch did not provoke any cumulative irritation and sensitization reactions. The result showed that the extract of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum has a sufficient anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract may be useful for development as an ingredient in cosmetic products.
  4. Lim JA, Lee ST, Moon J, Jun JS, Kim TJ, Shin YW, et al.
    Ann. Neurol., 2019 Mar;85(3):352-358.
    PMID: 30675918 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25421
    OBJECTIVE: There is no scale for rating the severity of autoimmune encephalitis (AE). In this study, we aimed to develop a novel scale for rating severity in patients with diverse AE syndromes and to verify the reliability and validity of the developed scale.

    METHODS: The key items were generated by a panel of experts and selected according to content validity ratios. The developed scale was initially applied to 50 patients with AE (development cohort) to evaluate its acceptability, reproducibility, internal consistency, and construct validity. Then, the scale was applied to another independent cohort (validation cohort, n = 38).

    RESULTS: A new scale consisting of 9 items (seizure, memory dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, consciousness, language problems, dyskinesia/dystonia, gait instability and ataxia, brainstem dysfunction, and weakness) was developed. Each item was assigned a value of up to 3 points. The total score could therefore range from 0 to 27. We named the scale the Clinical Assessment Scale in Autoimmune Encephalitis (CASE). The new scale showed excellent interobserver (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.97) and intraobserver (ICC = 0.96) reliability for total scores, was highly correlated with modified Rankin scale (r = 0.86, p

  5. Aksu F, Topacoglu H, Arman C, Atac A, Tetik S, Hasanovic A, et al.
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2009 Sep;31 Suppl 1:95-229.
    PMID: 27392492 DOI: 10.1007/BF03371486
    Conference abstracts: Malaysia in affiliation
    (1). PO-211. AGE-SPECIFIC STRESS-MODULATED
    CHANGES OF SPLENIC IMMUNOARCHITECTURE
    IN THE GROWING BODY. Marina Yurievna Kapitonova, Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad, Flossie Jayakaran; Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
    syedbaharom@salam.uitm.edu.my
    (2). PO-213. A DETAILED OSTEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE ANOMALOUS GROOVES NEAR THE
    MASTOID NOTCH OF THE SKULL. ISrijit Das, 2Normadiah Kassim, lAzian Latiff, IFarihah Suhaimi, INorzana Ghafar, lKhin Pa Pa Hlaing, lIsraa Maatoq, IFaizah Othman; I Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2 Department of Anatomy, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. das_sri jit23@rediffmail.com
    (3). PO-21S. FIRST LUMBRICAL MUSCLE OF THE
    PALM: A DETAILED ANATOMICAL STUDY WITH
    CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS. Srijit Das, Azian Latiff, Parihah Suhaimi, Norzana Ghafar, Khin Pa Pa Hlaing, Israa Maatoq, Paizah Othman; Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. das_srijit23@rediffmail.com
    (4). PO-336. IMPROVEMENT IN EXPERIMENTALLY
    INDUCED INFRACTED CARDIAC FUNCTION
    FOLLOWING TRANSPLANTATION OF HUMAN
    UMBILICAL CORD MATRIX-DERIVED
    MESENCHYMAL CELLS. lSeyed Noureddin Nematollahi-Mahani, lMastafa Latifpour, 2Masood Deilami, 3Behzad Soroure-Azimzadeh, lSeyed
    Hasan Eftekharvaghefi, 4Fatemeh Nabipour, 5Hamid
    Najafipour, 6Nouzar Nakhaee, 7Mohammad Yaghoobi, 8Rana Eftekharvaghefi, 9Parvin Salehinejad, IOHasan Azizi; 1 Department of Anatomy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 2 Department of Cardiosurgery, Hazrat-e Zahra Hospital, Kerman, Iran; 3 Department of Cardiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 4 Department of Pathology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 5 Department of Physiology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 6 Department of Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 7 Department
    of Biotechnology, Research Institute of Environmental Science, International Center for Science, High Technology & Environmental Science, Kerman, Iran; 8 Students Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; 9 Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia,
    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 10 Department of Stem Cell, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. nnematollahi@kmu.ac.ir
    (5).
  6. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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