Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Mok PL, Koh AE, Farhana A, Alsrhani A, Alam MK, Suresh Kumar S
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 Apr;28(4):2502-2509.
    PMID: 33551661 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.051
    COVID-19 is a rapidly emerging infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus currently spreading throughout the world. To date, there are no specific drugs formulated for it, and researchers around the globe are racing against the clock to investigate potential drug candidates. The repurposing of existing drugs in the market represents an effective and economical strategy commonly utilized in such investigations. In this study, we used a multiple-sequence alignment approach for preliminary screening of commercially-available drugs on SARS-CoV sequences from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) isolates. The viral genomic sequences from KSA isolates were obtained from GISAID, an open access repository housing a wide variety of epidemic and pandemic virus data. A phylogenetic analysis of the present 164 sequences from the KSA provinces was carried out using the MEGA X software, which displayed high similarity (around 98%). The sequence was then analyzed using the VIGOR4 genome annotator to construct its genomic structure. Screening of existing drugs was carried out by mining data based on viral gene expressions from the ZINC database. A total of 73 hits were generated. The viral target orthologs were mapped to the SARS-CoV-2 KSA isolate sequence by multiple sequence alignment using CLUSTAL OMEGA, and a list of 29 orthologs with purchasable drug information was generated. The results showed that the SARS CoV replicase polyprotein 1a had the highest sequence similarity at 79.91%. Through ZINC data mining, tanshinones were found to have high binding affinities to this target. These compounds could be ideal candidates for SARS-CoV-2. Other matches ranged between 27 and 52%. The results of this study would serve as a significant endeavor towards drug discovery that would increase our chances of finding an effective treatment or prevention against COVID19.
  2. Ding SLS, Koh AE, Kumar S, Ali Khan MS, Alzahrani B, Mok PL
    PMID: 31060031 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.04.008
    Dysfunctional or death of retinal photoreceptors is an irreversible phenomenon that is closely associated with a broad range of retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), resulting in successive loss of visual function and blindness. In search for viable treatment for retinal degenerative diseases, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has demonstrated promising therapeutic capabilities to repair and replace damaged photoreceptor cells in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Nevertheless, the dearth of MSC differentiation capacity into photoreceptors has limited its use in cell replacement therapy. Erythropoietin (EPO) has vital role in early neural retinal cell differentiation and demonstrated rescue potential on dying photoreceptor cells. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the differentiation capacity of MSCs into photoreceptor cells in the presence of human EPO protein. We derived the MSC from human Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord and transduced the cells with lentivirus particles encoding EPO and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as reporter gene. The transduced cells were selectively cultured and induced to differentiate into photoreceptors by exposing to photoreceptor differentiation cocktail. Our preliminary results showed that transduced cells exposed to induction medium had an enhanced differentiation capacity when compared to non-transduced cells. Our results demonstrated a novel strategy to increase the yield of in vitro photoreceptor differentiation and may be potentially useful in improving the efficiency of stem cell transplantation for ocular disorders.
  3. Koh AE, Subbiah SK, Farhana A, Alam MK, Mok PL
    Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021;9:652065.
    PMID: 33937251 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.652065
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have shown promise in restoring the vision of patients in clinical trials. However, this therapeutic effect is not observed in every treated patient and is possibly due to the inefficacies of cell delivery and high cell death following transplantation. Utilizing erythropoietin can significantly enhance the regenerative properties of MSCs and hence improve retinal neuron survivability in oxidative stress. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the efficacy of conditioned medium (CM) obtained from transgenic human erythropoietin-expressing MSCs (MSC EPO ) in protecting human retinal pigment epithelial cells from sodium iodate (NaIO3)-induced cell death. Human MSC and MSC EPO were first cultured to obtain conditioned media (CM). The IC50 of NaIO3 in the ARPE-19 culture was then determined by an MTT assay. After that, the efficacy of both MSC-CM and MSC-CM EPO in ARPE-19 cell survival were compared at 24 and 48 h after NaIO3 treatment with MTT. The treatment effects on mitochondrial membrane potential was then measured by a JC-1 flow cytometric assay. The MTT results indicated a corresponding increase in cell survivability (5-58%) in the ARPE-19 cell cultures. In comparison to MSC-CM, the use of conditioned medium collected from the MSC-CM EPO further enhanced the rate of ARPE-19 survivability at 24 h (P < 0.05) and 48 h (P < 0.05) in the presence of NaIO3. Furthermore, more than 90% were found viable with the JC-1 assay after MSC-CM EPO treatment, showing a positive implication on the mitochondrial dynamics of ARPE-19. The MSC-CM EPO provided an enhanced mitigating effect against NaIO3-induced ARPE-19 cell death over that of MSC-CM alone during the early phase of the treatment, and it may act as a future therapy in treating retinal degenerative diseases.
  4. Farhana A, Koh AE, Tong JB, Alsrhani A, Kumar Subbiah S, Mok PL
    Molecules, 2021 Sep 06;26(17).
    PMID: 34500845 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26175414
    Molecular crosstalk between the cellular epigenome and genome converge as a synergistic driver of oncogenic transformations. Besides other pathways, epigenetic regulatory circuits exert their effect towards cancer progression through the induction of DNA repair deficiencies. We explored this mechanism using a camptothecin encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin-EDTA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CPT-CEF)-treated HT29 cells model. We previously demonstrated that CPT-CEF treatment of HT29 cells effectively induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, stalling cancer progression. A comparative transcriptome analysis of CPT-CEF-treated versus untreated HT29 cells indicated that genes controlling mismatch repair, base excision repair, and homologues recombination were downregulated in these cancer cells. Our study demonstrated that treatment with CPT-CEF alleviated this repression. We observed that CPT-CEF exerts its effect by possibly affecting the DNA repair mechanism through epigenetic modulation involving genes of HMGB1, APEX1, and POLE3. Hence, we propose that CPT-CEF could be a DNA repair modulator that harnesses the cell's epigenomic plasticity to amend DNA repair deficiencies in cancer cells.
  5. Farhana A, Koh AE, Kothandan S, Alsrhani A, Mok PL, Subbiah SK
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Nov 13;22(22).
    PMID: 34830168 DOI: 10.3390/ijms222212286
    Cancer cells are able to proliferate in an unregulated manner. There are several mechanisms involved that propel such neoplastic transformations. One of these processes involves bypassing cell death through changes in gene expression and, consequently, cell growth. This involves a complex epigenetic interaction within the cell, which drives it towards oncogenic transformations. These epigenetic events augment cellular growth by potentially altering chromatin structures and influencing key gene expressions. Therapeutic mechanisms have been developed to combat this by taking advantage of the underlying oncogenic mechanisms through chemical modulation. Camptothecin (CPT) is an example of this type of drug. It is a selective topoisomerase I inhibitor that is effective against many cancers, such as colorectal cancer. Previously, we successfully formulated a magnetic nanocarrier-conjugated CPT with β-cyclodextrin and iron NPs (Fe3O4) cross-linked using EDTA (CPT-CEF). Compared to CPT alone, it boasts higher efficacy due to its selective targeting and increased solubility. In this study, we treated HT29 colon cancer cells with CPT-CEF and attempted to investigate the cytotoxic effects of the formulation through an epigenetic perspective. By using RNA-Seq, several differentially expressed genes were obtained (p < 0.05). Enrichr was then used for the over-representation analysis, and the genes were compared to the epigenetic roadmap and histone modification database. The results showed that the DEGs had a high correlation with epigenetic modifications involving histone H3 acetylation. Furthermore, a subset of these genes was shown to be associated with the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which is highly upregulated in a large number of cancer cells. These genes could be investigated as downstream therapeutic targets against the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells. Further interaction analysis of the identified genes with the key genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in colorectal cancer identified the direct interactors and a few transcription regulators. Further analysis in cBioPortal confirmed their genetic alterations and their distribution across patient samples. Thus, the findings of this study reveal that colorectal cancer could be reversed by treatment with the CPT-CEF nanoparticle-conjugated nanocarrier through an epigenetic mechanism.
  6. Teh SW, Koh AE, Tong JB, Wu X, Samrot AV, Rampal S, et al.
    Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021;9:634131.
    PMID: 34490233 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.634131
    Bone fractures have a high degree of severity. This is usually a result of the physical trauma of diseases that affect bone tissues, such as osteoporosis. Due to its highly vascular nature, the bone is in a constant state of remodeling. Although those of younger ages possess bones with high regenerative potential, the impact of a disrupted vasculature can severely affect the recovery process and cause osteonecrosis. This is commonly seen in the neck of femur, scaphoid, and talus bone. In recent years, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been used to aid in the regeneration of afflicted bone. However, the cut-off in blood supply due to bone fractures can lead to hypoxia-induced changes in engrafted MSCs. Researchers have designed several oxygen-generating biomaterials and yielded varying degrees of success in enhancing tissue salvage and preserving cellular metabolism under ischemia. These can be utilized to further improve stem cell therapy for bone repair. In this review, we touch on the pathophysiology of these bone fractures and review the application of oxygen-generating biomaterials to further enhance MSC-mediated repair of fractures in the three aforementioned parts of the bone.
  7. Mok PL, Anandasayanam ANK, Oscar David HM, Tong J, Farhana A, Khan MSA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(4):e0250552.
    PMID: 33914777 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250552
    Multiple matrix metalloproteinases have significant roles in tissue organization during lung development, and repair. Imbalance of proteinases may lead to chronic inflammation, changes in tissue structure, and are also highly associated to cancer development. The role of MMP20 is not well studied in lung organogenesis, however, it was previously shown to be present at high level in lung adenocarcinoma. The current study aimed to identify the functional properties of MMP20 on cell proliferation and motility in a lung adenocarcinoma in vitro cell model, and relate the interaction of MMP20 with other molecular signalling pathways in the lung cells after gaining tumoral properties. In this study, two different single guide RNA (sgRNAs) that specifically targeted on MMP20 sites were transfected into human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells by using CRISPR-Cas method. Following that, the changes of PI3-K, survivin, and MAP-K mRNA gene expression were determined by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The occurrence of cell death was also examined by Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide double staining. Meanwhile, the motility of the transfected cells was evaluated by wound healing assay. All the data were compared with non-transfected cells as a control group. Our results demonstrated that the transfection of the individual sgRNAs significantly disrupted the proliferation of the A549 cell line through suppression in the gene expression of PI3-K, survivin, and MAP-K. When compared to non-transfected cells, both experimental cell groups showed reduction in the migration rate, as reflected by the wider gaps in the wound healing assay. The current study provided preliminary evidence that MMP20 could have regulatory role on stemness and proliferative genes in the lung tissues and affect the cell motility. It also supports the notion that targeting MMP20 could be a potential treatment mode for halting cancer progression.
  8. Lam C, Alsaeedi HA, Koh AE, Harun MHN, Hwei ANM, Mok PL, et al.
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2021 02;18(1):143-154.
    PMID: 33415670 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-020-00312-1
    BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used to inject stem cells into the eye for research. We previously explored the intravitreal route. Here, we investigate the efficacy of intravenous and subretinal-transplanted human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in rescuing the photoreceptors of a sodium iodate-induced retinal degeneration model.

    METHODS: Three groups of Sprague Dawley rats were used: intervention, vehicle group and negative control groups (n = 6 in each). Intravenous injection of 60 mg/kg sodium iodate (day 0) induced retinal degeneration. On day 4 post-injection of sodium iodate, the rats in the intervention group received intravenous DPSC and subretinal DPSC in the right eye; rats in the vehicle group received subretinal Hank's balance salt solution and intravenous normal saline; while negative control group received nothing. Electroretinogram (ERG) was performed to assess the retinal function at day 0 (baseline), day 4, day 11, day 18, day 26, and day 32. By the end of the study at day 32, the rats were euthanized, and both their enucleated eyes were sent for histology.

    RESULTS: No significant difference in maximal ERG a-wave (p = 0.107) and b-wave, (p = 0.153) amplitude was seen amongst the experimental groups. However, photopic 30 Hz flicker amplitude of the study eye showed significant differences in the 3 groups (p = 0.032). Within the intervention group, there was an improvement in 30 Hz flicker ERG response of all 6 treated right eyes, which was injected with subretinal DPSC; while the 30 Hz flicker ERG of the non-treated left eyes remained flat. Histology showed improved outer nuclear layer thickness in intervention group; however, findings were not significant compared to the negative and vehicle groups.

    CONCLUSION: Combination of subretinal and intravenous injection of DPSCs may have potential to rescue cone function from a NaIO3-induced retinal injury model.

  9. Mok PL, Leow SN, Koh AE, Mohd Nizam HH, Ding SL, Luu C, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Feb 08;18(2).
    PMID: 28208719 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18020345
    Mesenchymal stem cells are widely used in many pre-clinical and clinical settings. Despite advances in molecular technology; the migration and homing activities of these cells in in vivo systems are not well understood. Labelling mesenchymal stem cells with gold nanoparticles has no cytotoxic effect and may offer suitable indications for stem cell tracking. Here, we report a simple protocol to label mesenchymal stem cells using 80 nm gold nanoparticles. Once the cells and particles were incubated together for 24 h, the labelled products were injected into the rat subretinal layer. Micro-computed tomography was then conducted on the 15th and 30th day post-injection to track the movement of these cells, as visualized by an area of hyperdensity from the coronal section images of the rat head. In addition, we confirmed the cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticles by the mesenchymal stem cells using transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to other methods, the current protocol provides a simple, less labour-intensive and more efficient labelling mechanism for real-time cell tracking. Finally, we discuss the potential manipulations of gold nanoparticles in stem cells for cell replacement and cancer therapy in ocular disorders or diseases.
  10. Danjuma L, Mok PL, Higuchi A, Hamat RA, Teh SW, Koh AE, et al.
    Regen Ther, 2018 Dec;9:100-110.
    PMID: 30525080 DOI: 10.1016/j.reth.2018.09.001
    Introduction: Anti-tuberculosis agent rifampicin is extensively used for its effectiveness. Possible complications of tuberculosis and prolonged rifampicin treatment include kidney damage; these conditions can lead to reduced efficiency of the affected kidney and consequently to other diseases. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can be used in conjunction with rifampicin to avert kidney damage; because of its regenerative and differentiating potentials into kidney cells. This research was designed to assess the modulatory and regenerative potentials of MSCs in averting kidney damage due to rifampicin-induced kidney toxicity in Wistar rats and their progenies. BMMSCs used in this research were characterized according to the guidelines of International Society for Cellular Therapy.

    Methods: The rats (male and female) were divided into three experimental groups, as follows: Group 1: control rats (4 males & 4 females); Group 2: rats treated with rifampicin only (4 males & 4 females); and Group 3: rats treated with rifampicin plus MSCs (4 males & 4 females). Therapeutic doses of rifampicin (9 mg/kg/day for 3-months) and MSCs infusions (twice/month for 3-months) were administered orally and intravenously respectively. At the end of the three months, the animals were bred together to determine if the effects would carry over to the next generation. Following breeding, the rats were sacrificed to harvest serum for biochemical analysis and the kidneys were also harvested for histological analysis and quantification of the glomeruli size, for the adult rats and their progenies.

    Results: The results showed some level of alterations in the biochemical indicators and histopathological damage in the rats that received rifampicin treatment alone, while the control and stem cells treated group showed apparently normal to nearly normal levels of both bio-indicators and normal histological architecture.

    Conclusions: Intravenous administration of MSCs yielded sensible development, as seen from biochemical indicators, histology and the quantitative cell analysis, hence implying the modulatory and regenerative properties of MSCs.

  11. Alsaeedi HA, Lam C, Koh AE, Teh SW, Mok PL, Higuchi A, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2020 Jan;203:111727.
    PMID: 31862637 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111727
    Blindness and vision impairment are caused by irremediable retinal degeneration in affected individuals worldwide. Cell therapy for a retinal replacement can potentially rescue their vision, specifically for those who lost the light sensing photoreceptors in the eye. As such, well-characterized retinal cells are required for the replacement purposes. Stem cell-based therapy in photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium transplantation is well received, however, the drawbacks of retinal transplantation is the limited clinical protocols development, insufficient number of transplanted cells for recovery, the selection of potential stem cell sources that can be differentiated into the target cells, and the ability of cells to migrate to the host tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) belong to a subset of mesenchymal stem cells, and are recently being studied due to its high capability of differentiating into cells of the neuronal lineage. In this review, we look into the potential uses of DPSC in treating retinal degeneration, and also the current data supporting its application.
  12. Koh AE, Alsaeedi HA, Rashid MBA, Lam C, Harun MHN, Saleh MFBM, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2019 Jul;196:111514.
    PMID: 31154277 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111514
    Retinal disorders account for a large proportion of ocular disorders that can lead to visual impairment or blindness, and yet our limited knowledge in the pathogenesis and choice of appropriate animal models for new treatment modalities may contribute to ineffective therapies. Although genetic in vivo models are favored, the variable expressivity and penetrance of these heterogeneous disorders can cause difficulties in assessing potential treatments against retinal degeneration. Hence, an attractive alternative is to develop a chemically-induced model that is both cost-friendly and standardizable. Sodium iodate is an oxidative chemical that is used to simulate late stage retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. In this study, retinal degeneration was induced through systemic administration of sodium iodate (NaIO3) at varying doses up to 80 mg/kg in Sprague-Dawley rats. An analysis on the visual response of the rats by electroretinography (ERG) showed a decrease in photoreceptor function with NaIO3 administration at a dose of 40 mg/kg or greater. The results correlated with the TUNEL assay, which revealed signs of DNA damage throughout the retina. Histomorphological analysis also revealed extensive structural lesions throughout the outer retina and parts of the inner retina. Our results provided a detailed view of NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration, and showed that the administration of 40 mg/kg NaIO3 was sufficient to generate disturbances in retinal function. The pathological findings in this model reveal a degenerating retina, and can be further utilized to develop effective therapies for RPE, photoreceptor, and bipolar cell regeneration.
  13. Cui YC, Qiu YS, Wu Q, Bu G, Peli A, Teh SW, et al.
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood), 2021 May;246(10):1177-1183.
    PMID: 33535809 DOI: 10.1177/1535370220985468
    Osteoblasts play an important role in bone regeneration and repair. The hypoxia condition in bone occurs when bone undergoes fracture, and this will trigger a series of biochemical and mechanical changes to enable bone repair. Hence, it is interesting to observe the metabolites and metabolism changes when osteoblasts are exposed to hypoxic condition. This study has looked into the response of human osteoblast hFOB 1.19 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions by observing the cell growth and utilization of metabolites via Phenotype MicroArrays™ under these two different oxygen concentrations. The cell growth of hFOB 1.19 under hypoxic condition showed better growth compared to hFOB 1.19 under normal condition. In this study, osteoblast used glycolysis as the main pathway to produce energy as hFOB 1.19 in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions showed cell growth in well containing dextrin, glycogen, maltotriose, D-maltose, D-glucose-6-phospate, D-glucose, D-mannose, D-Turanose, D-fructose-6-phosphate, D-galactose, uridine, adenosine, inosine and α-keto-glutaric acid. In hypoxia, the cells have utilized additional metabolites such as α-D-glucose-1-phosphate and D-fructose, indicating possible activation of glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis to metabolize α-D-glucose-1-phosphate. Meanwhile, during normoxia, D-L-α-glycerol phosphate was used, and this implies that the osteoblast may use glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle and oxidative phosphorylation to metabolize glycerol-3-phosphate.
  14. Koh AE, Alsaeedi HA, Rashid MBA, Lam C, Harun MHN, Ng MH, et al.
    Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021;9:652017.
    PMID: 33987180 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.652017
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are highly regarded as a potential treatment for retinal degenerative disorders like retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. However, donor cell heterogeneity and inconsistent protocols for transplantation have led to varied outcomes in clinical trials. We previously showed that genetically-modifying MSCs to express erythropoietin (MSCEPO) improved its regenerative capabilities in vitro. Hence, in this study, we sought to prove its potential in vivo by transplanting MSCsEPO in a rat retinal degeneration model and analyzing its retinal transcriptome using RNA-Seq. Firstly, MSCsEPO were cultured and expanded before being intravitreally transplanted into the sodium iodate-induced model. After the procedure, electroretinography (ERG) was performed bi-weekly for 30 days. Histological analyses were performed after the ERG assessment. The retina was then harvested for RNA extraction. After mRNA-enrichment and library preparation, paired-end RNA-Seq was performed. Salmon and DESeq2 were used to process the output files. The generated dataset was then analyzed using over-representation (ORA), functional enrichment (GSEA), and pathway topology analysis tools (SPIA) to identify enrichment of key pathways in the experimental groups. The results showed that the MSCEPO-treated group had detectable ERG waves (P <0.05), which were indicative of successful phototransduction. The stem cells were also successfully detected by immunohistochemistry 30 days after intravitreal transplantation. An initial over-representation analysis revealed a snapshot of immune-related pathways in all the groups but was mainly overexpressed in the MSC group. A subsequent GSEA and SPIA analysis later revealed enrichment in a large number of biological processes including phototransduction, regeneration, and cell death (P adj <0.05). Based on these pathways, a set of pro-survival gene expressions were extracted and tabulated. This study provided an in-depth transcriptomic analysis on the MSCEPO-treated retinal degeneration model as well as a profile of pro-survival genes that can be used as candidates for further genetic enhancement studies on stem cells.
  15. Alsaeedi HA, Koh AE, Lam C, Rashid MBA, Harun MHN, Saleh MFBM, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2019 Sep;198:111561.
    PMID: 31352000 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111561
    Blindness and vision loss contribute to irreversible retinal degeneration, and cellular therapy for retinal cell replacement has the potential to treat individuals who have lost light sensitive photoreceptors in the retina. Retinal cells are well characterized in function, and are a subject of interest in cellular replacement therapy of photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. However, retinal cell transplantation is limited by various factors, including the choice of potential stem cell source that can show variability in plasticity as well as host tissue integration. Dental pulp is one such source that contains an abundance of stem cells. In this study we used dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) to mitigate sodium iodate (NaIO3) insult in a rat model of retinal degeneration. Sprague-Dawley rats were first given an intravitreal injection of 3 × 105 DPSCs as well as a single systemic administration of NaIO3 (40 mg/kg). Electroretinography (ERG) was performed for the next two months and was followed-up by histological analysis. The ERG recordings showed protection of DPSC-treated retinas within 4 weeks, which was statistically significant (* P ≤ .05) compared to the control. Retinal thickness of the control was also found to be thinner (*** P ≤ .001). The DPSCs were found integrated in the photoreceptor layer through immunohistochemical staining. Our findings showed that DPSCs have the potential to moderate retinal degeneration. In conclusion, DPSCs are a potential source of stem cells in the field of eye stem cell therapy due to its protective effects against retinal degeneration.
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