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  1. Kow, Ren Yi, Aziah Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Firdaus Abas, Low, Chooi Leng, Akmal Azim Ahmad Alwi
    MyJurnal
    The human foot serves as an important part to support
    the body weight and accounts for the majority of our
    movements. A mangled limb involves injury to at least
    three out of four systems, namely the soft tissues, nerves,
    blood supply and bone. While amputation is indicated in
    some cases of mangled limb, with proper planning, limb
    salvaging surgical management is also a viable option.
    Special consideration to the skeletal stabilization, control
    of infection, vascular status and soft tissue coverage is
    paramount to the success of limb salvaging surgery. We
    present a case of mangled limb which was successfully
    treated with limb salvaging surgical management. Initial
    debridement, Kirschner wires insertion and cross ankle
    external fixation were used for skeletal stabilization. An
    antibiotic spacer was inserted for local antibiotic and to
    maintain the length left due to the loss of medial and
    intermediate cuneiform bones. The anterior tibialis
    artery and its venae comitantes were utilized for free
    vascularized fibular graft to provide bony reconstruction
    as well as soft tissue coverage for the mangled foot.
  2. Hazwan Ab. Wahid, Kow, Ren Yi, Khan, Ed Simor, Komahen, Colin
    MyJurnal
    The occurrence of atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation is fairly uncommon; however, it is
    more common to be encountered in the paediatric population, typically seen after a
    retropharyngeal inflammation or after a minor trauma. Ligamentous laxity, shallower
    and more horizontally oriented facet joints especially at the C1-2 joint making them
    prone to have atlantoaxial subluxation or dislocation. (Copied from article).
  3. Kow, Ren Yi, Dhiauddin Hai Ismail, Jamaluddin Shafie, Ruben Jaya Kumar, Nor Hafliza Md Salleh, Low, Chooi Leng
    MyJurnal
    Marjolin’s ulcer is a malignant cutaneous ulcer
    that undergoes transformation from a previously
    traumatized or chronically inflammed skin.1 Causes
    leading to ulcerations can be burn injury, trauma,
    chronic osteomyelitis and varicose ulcers.2 It is named
    after a French surgeon, Jean Nicolas Marjolin, who
    first described the condition in patients who developed
    malignant ulcers from burn scars.3 We report a case of
    a chronic non-healing foot ulcer that has become a
    Marjolin’s ulcer after 12 years. (Copied from article).
  4. Kow, Ren Yi, Hazwan Ab Wahid, Ed Simor Khan Mor Japar Khan, Colin Komahen, Low, Chooi Leng, Ruben Jaya Kumar
    MyJurnal
    Cervical spine injury is commonly associated with
    road-traffic accidents. The true incidence of cervical
    spine injuries is unknown due to under-reporting of
    such injuries. Cervical spine injury is associated with
    high morbidity and mortality if it is missed. With the
    advancement of imaging modalities, the number of
    missed cervical injuries has reduced. Nevertheless, some
    clinicians are dependent solely on imaging tools to rule
    out cervical spine injury in a trauma victim. We report
    two cases of “near miss” C6 fracture to highlight the
    importance of a detailed clinical history and clinical
    examination with imaging as an adjunct to rule out
    cervical injury.
  5. Kow RY, Mustapha Zakaria Z, Khan ESKM, Low C
    J Orthop Case Rep, 2019 3 28;8(6):65-67.
    PMID: 30915298 DOI: 10.13107/jocr.2250-0685.1262
    Introduction: Fracture of the ulnar coronoid process is uncommon. It is commonly associated with posterior dislocation of the elbow, but it may also present as an isolated fracture. In general, all ulnar coronoid process fractures with elbow joint instability and large fracture fragments are fixed surgically. We report two cases of the rare isolated Regan-Morrey type III ulnar coronoid process fractures and their outcomes.

    Case Report: Case Report 1: Mrs P, a 27-year-old right-hand dominant female, was involved in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and sustained an isolated Regan-Morrey type III ulnar coronoid process fracture. In view of the large coronoid process fragment causing elbow joint instability, she underwent an open reduction and internal fixation when the elbow swelling had subsided. An anterior approach was used to identify the fracture fragment and it was fixed with two half-threaded cancellous lag screws with washers to achieve an anatomical reduction. Postoperatively, she recovered with excellent outcome based on the Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS).Case Report 2: Mr M, a 23-year-old right-hand dominant gentleman, was involved in a MVA and sustained an isolated Regan-Morrey type III ulnar coronoid process fracture. During examination under general anesthesia, passive range of the movement of his right elbow was noted to be <90°due to the impaction of the fracture fragment. An open reduction through an anterior approach was performed and Kirschner wires were inserted to fix the coronoid process fracture. Kirschner wires were opted for the ease of post-operative removal as the patient was not keen to have a retained implant after recovery. He recovered with good outcome based on the MEPS.

    Conclusion: Isolated fracture of the ulnar coronoid process is rare. Open reduction and internal fixation is mandatory for patients with coronoid process fracture and unstable elbow joint to achieve good functional outcomes.

  6. Khan ES, Kow RY, Arifin KBBM, Komahen C, Low CL, Lim BC
    Cureus, 2019 Apr 03;11(4):e4377.
    PMID: 31218142 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.4377
    Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common healthcare-related infection in surgical patients. Patients who have undergone spinal surgeries and have contracted postoperative SSI face increased morbidity and mortality, which invariably leads to additional burden on the healthcare system and higher costs. The risk factors for the increase in SSI in patients who have undergone spinal surgery have been investigated in numerous studies but no studies have been performed in Malaysia. The aim of this pilot study is to determine the incidence and factors associated with deep SSIs in patients that have undergone spinal surgeries. Methods This retrospective study includes all patients who underwent spinal surgeries at Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017. Patients with an active spinal infection, polytrauma, and open fractures were excluded from this study. Patient characteristics and laboratory investigations were extracted to determine the risk factors for deep SSI events. Associations between SSI and risk factors were analyzed with SPSS V21.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Results The univariate analysis indicated that fracture dislocation at the thoraco-lumbar junction (p=0.008) and a history of preoperative blood product transfusion (p=0.003) were associated with deep SSI. Other factors such as age (p=0.162), gender (p=0.262), body mass index (p=0.215), smoking status (0.272), number of vertebrae involved in the surgery (p=0.837), spinal cord involvement (p=0.259), postoperative hemoglobin reduction (p=0.816), and preoperative white blood cell count (p=0.278) were not associated with deep SSI. Conclusions This pilot study highlights the factors associated with deep SSI in spinal surgeries. A larger study is needed to further confirm these findings.
  7. Kow RY, Yuen JC, Ahmad Alwi AA, Abas MF, Low CL
    JBJS Case Connect, 2019 6 25;9(2):e0163.
    PMID: 31233428 DOI: 10.2106/JBJS.CC.18.00163
    CASE: A 17-year-old male sustained an open fracture of the right medial malleolus (MM) with significant bone and soft tissue loss following a motor-vehicle accident. Following serial wound debridement, his ankle was effectively reconstructed with MM antiglide plate stabilization, iliac autogenous bone graft, and a free radial forearm soft tissue flap.

    CONCLUSIONS: Open MM fracture with bone and soft tissue loss is rare. It is feasible to treat this injury with a novel surgical reconstruction technique involving autogenous bicortical iliac bone graft and radial forearm free flap.

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