The toxicities of ROUNDUP and its component chemicals, glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) and polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h following administration to rats. The intratracheal administration of glyphosate (0.2 g/kg), POEA (0.1 g/kg), a mixture of glyphosate (0.2 g/kg) + POEA (0.1 g/kg), or ROUNDUP (containing 0.2 g/kg glyphosate and 0.1 g/kg POEA) elicited immediate respiratory effects which were more severe and which lasted longer in the groups receiving the POEA-containing preparations than in the glyphosate alone group. By 1 h, all test preparations had caused deaths, but more occurred from the POEA-containing preparations than from glyphosate. The po administration of POEA (1 g/kg), the mixture of glyphosate (2 g/kg) +POEA (1 g/kg), or ROUNDUP (containing 2 g/kg glyphosate and 1 g/kg POEA) produced diarrhea and blood-stained weeping from noses. Death was only seen from POEA at 24 h. Glyphosate (2 g/kg po) produced transient diarrhea without nose bleeds; POEA caused diarrhea at 1 h; and the mixture of POEA + glyphosate produced diarrhea later that increased in severity with time. Bloody nose secretions were seen only with the preparations that contained POEA. No deaths, respiratory effects or bloody nose secretions occurred in controls given saline. Both POEA and glyphosate caused lung hemorrhages and lung epithelial cell damage with po or intratracheal exposures. These results indicate POEA and preparations that contained POEA were more toxic than glyphosate.
Differentials in age at first marriage and being married more than once are discussed for a probability sample of West Malaysian currently married women 15-44 years of age. Both marriage ages and the incidence of multiple marriages vary greatly by race, place of current residence, wife's education, and husband's occupation; and the marriage variables are shown to have significant effects on the cumulative fertility of West Malaysian women. Early marriage leads to higher cumulative fertility and multiple marriages lead to lower cumulative fertility. Since the social groups with the highest proportions of early marriages are also those with the highest incidence of multiple marriages, the marriage variables explain some but not all of the variance in cumulative fertility for West Malaysian social groups. After adjustment for the effects of the marriage variables, rural Indian or Pakistani women still have the highest cumulative fertility and urban Chinese women with more than five years of schooling still have the lowest cumulative fertility.
The hepatic and pulmonary effects of nitrofurantoin (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) were determined at 4 and 24 hr following its administration in mice fed for 10 weeks with a vitamin E sufficient, deficient or enriched diet. Liver glutathione (GSH) was reduced by nitrofurantoin at 4 hr but was unchanged 20 hr later. Nitrofurantoin did not affect liver glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase or superoxide dismutase activities. Liver catalase activities were decreased by nitrofurantoin at 4 hr. Lung GSH levels were increased whilst glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased at 4 and 24 hr. Lung glutathione reductase activity was reduced in certain groups. Nitrofurantoin did not affect lung superoxide dismutase, but catalase was decreased at 24 hr. Liver malondialdehyde levels were increased by nitrofurantoin in the vitamin E deficient group whilst lung malondialdehyde levels remained unchanged. Both liver and lung malondialdehyde levels were unaffected by vitamin E supplementation when compared to the vitamin E-sufficient group. These results suggest that nitrofurantoin (40 mg/kg) was deleterious to the liver and lung. Nitrofurantoin-induced lipid peroxidation was seen in vitamin E deficiency but an increase in dietary vitamin E content did not provide additional protection compared to the recommended daily allowance. The antioxidant activities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-enriched tocotrienol were similar.
PIP: 292 village midwives (bidans) in Malaysia were interviewed between January 1969 and December 1970 as they came to report for training. The mean age was 47.3, 80% had had no schooling, 43% had practiced less than 10 years (32% between 10 and 20 years, 21% between 20 and 30 years, and 4% more than 30 years). On the average each bidan reported attending 3 deliveries during the past month and 26 during the past year. The average charge per delivery was about U.S.$2.00. Of 267 who responded to a question concerning other services they provided, 50% said they performed massages, 30% performed massages combined with other services, 12% said they did not do anything other than midwifery and 7% prescribed herbs and performed abortions. 67% said they first had contact with the mother during the seventh to ninth month of pregnancy, 42% between the fourth and sixth month, and 7% at or before the third month. 40% said the postpartum care lasted less than 1 week, 40% from 1-2 weeks and 19% between 2-7 weeks. Only 2 out of 198 bidans disapproved of family planning services. 99% were not worried that this would affect their job in conducting deliveries. 62% had been approached by women about family planning information services during the last 3 months. 95% thought they could help to promote the government's program by recruiting patients and distributing contraceptives. Since oral contraceptives are the most frequently used contraceptive in Malaysia, bidans could resupply the women with the pill. They could play an important role in promoting contraceptive continuation in rural areas by providing women with a continuous motivation through their constant contact. The success of using bidans in rural family planning services will greatly depend on their supervision. They can be paid with a flat salary-type payment, with an incentive scheme alone, or a combination of the two.
We studied the effects of saturated (palm olein) and polyunsaturated (soybean oil) cooking oils on the lipid profiles of Malaysian male adolescents eating normal Malaysian diets for 5 wk. Diets cooked with palm olein did not significantly alter plasma total-cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol concentrations or the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol compared with diets cooked with soybean oil. However, the diet cooked with palm olein significantly increased apolipoprotein A-I (11%) and apolipoprotein B (9%) concentrations. Unexpectedly, soybean-oil-cooked diets caused a significant increase (47%) in plasma triglycerides compared with palm-olein-cooked diets. We conclude that palm olein, when used as cooking oil, has no detrimental effects on plasma lipid profiles in Malaysian adolescents.
The main focus of the study was to examine the effect of palm vitamin E (a tocotrienol-enriched fraction of palm oil) on the healing of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions. The study was divided into three sections.Study 1 determined the gastric content of vitamin E after dietary supplementation with palm vitamin E for 3 weeks. Seven rats were fed a normal diet and another 7 were fed a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (150 mg/kg food). The gastric content of vitamin E levels were higher in rats fed with a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (p<0.01). Study 2 determined the time-dependent effects of palm vitamin E on gastric lesions and gastric acidity postethanol administration. Two groups of rats were fed either a normal rat diet or a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (150 mg/kg food). After 3 weeks, the control and a treated group received a single intragastric dose of 100% ethanol. Assessment of gastric lesions after 1 week showed a lower gastric lesion index in the palm vitamin E group compared with the controls (p<0.05) but there was no difference in the gastric acid content after 1 week between the two groups. Study 3 determined the effects of palm vitamin E on the gastric tissue content of malondialdehyde (MDA), PGE2 and gastric acidity without ethanol administration. The MDA content was lower in the palm vitamin E-treated group (p<0.05). However, the gastric acid and PGE2 content in both groups did not differ. The findings suggest that feeding with a palm vitamin E-enriched diet (150 mg/kg food) for 3 weeks resulted in a significant concentration of vitamin E in the gastric tissue. It was concluded that palm vitamin E may promote the healing of ethanol-induced gastric lesions through minimizing the lipid preoccupation process in the gastric mucous.
It has been shown that lipid peroxidation product levels in the soleus muscles of rats fed palm olein were lower than in the soleus muscles of rats fed soya bean oil. A study was carried out to test our hypothesis that the lower level of lipid peroxidation products in the soleus muscle of palm olein-fed rats is due, at least partly, to the higher amount of vitamin E in their soleus muscles. Experimentally induced hyperthyroid rats were fed either ground rat chow or ground rat chow mixed with palm olein oil or soya bean oil for a period of 8 weeks. Euthyroid rats fed ground rat chow for a similar period served as controls. At the end of the 8-week period, the rats were sacrificed and the α-tocopherol and tocotrienol levels in their soleus muscles were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography. It was found that the levels of α-tocopherol (23.682 ± 0.363), α-tocotrienol (1.974 ± 0.040) and γ-tocotrienol (1.418 ± 0.054) in μg/g tissue wet weight in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed palm olein oil were statistically significantly higher than those found in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed soya bean oil, which were 14.299 ± 0.378, 0.053 ± 0.053 and 0.184 ± 0.120μg/g tissue wet weight, respectively. The result shows that the increased level of a-tocopherol and tocotrienols found in the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed palm olein oil is responsible, at least partly, for the lower amount of lipid peroxidation products in these muscles compared with the soleus muscles of hyperthyroid rats fed soya bean oil in our earlier study.
1. The effect of tocotrienol and tocopherol on glutathione S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. 2. Tocotrienol and tocopherol significantly decreased GGT activities at 5 days in culture but tocotrienol also significantly decreased GGT activities at 1-2 days. 3. Tocotrienol and tocopherol treatment significantly decreased GST activities at 3 days compared to the control but tocotrienol also decreased GST activities at 1-3 days. 4. Tocotrienol showed a more pronounced effect at a dosage of greater than 50 microM tocotrienol at 1-3 days in culture compared to the control.
This study uses social network analysis and modified gravity model methods to empirically analyse the network spatial correlation structure and spatiotemporal development trend of 21 cities in Guangdong Province from 2000 to 2020 based on tourism economic development data. The findings show that, first, Zhuhai has the greatest potential for growth as the centre of the spatial and temporal evolution trend of the network structure of the tourism economy in Guangdong Province, ahead of Shenzhen, Huizhou, Zhaoqing, Zhongshan, Jiangmen and Dongguan. However, Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province, is experiencing a decline in such influence and development. Second, there is a counter-trend growth in the number of tourism-related economic links among the 21 cities. Although Guangdong's tourism economic network intensity is strong, there is still room for further optimisation. Third, the results of the overall network indicators show that there is a need for further improvement in network density, grade and efficiency to help reduce the relative development gap of the cities' tourism and effectively improve the overall development of Guangdong's tourism economy. Finally, based on the core-periphery structure, this study proposes relevant suggestions for the sustainable development of Guangdong's tourism industry.
The effects of tocotrienols on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats fed with 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) were followed morphologically and histologically for a period of 20 wk. No differences between treated and control rats in the morphology and histology of their livers was observed. Cell damage was extensive in the livers of AAF-treated rats but less extensive in the AAF-tocotrienols-treated rats when compared with normal and tocotrienols-treated rats. 2-Acetylaminofluorene significantly increases the activities of both plasma and liver microsomal gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and liver microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). Tocotrienols administered together with AAF significantly decrease the activities of plasma GGT after 12 and 20 wk (P less than 0.01, P less than 0.002, respectively) and liver microsomal UDP-GT after 20 wk (P less than 0.02) when compared with the controls and with rats treated only with tocotrienols. Liver microsomal GGT also showed a similar pattern to liver microsomal UDP-GT but the decrease was not significant. These results suggest that tocotrienols administered to AAF-treated rats reduce the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Three hundred thirty-one consecutive patients presenting with hypertension to the outpatient medical clinic of Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, Malaysia were screened and 150 patients with concurrent diabetes were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The majority of patients were male (60.6%) with a mean age of 60.0 +/- 11.0 years. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 140.9 +/- 20.1 mmHg and the mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 81.7 +/- 9.8 mmHg. Only 38.0% (57/150) of patients had blood pressures within recommended guidelines (130/80 mmHg). The mean blood pressure in this group was 123.7 +/- 8.5/76.4 +/- 5.6 mmHg. The majority of patients were on either 2 (41.3%) or 3 (31.3%) anti-hypertensives. Females had a significantly higher SBP 145.4 +/- 22.7 vs. 138.0 +/- 17.8 mmHg in males (p = 0.026). The level of blood pressure control in diabetics was unsatisfactory, especially in females and the elderly. A reassessment of priorities in the management of patients with concurrent hypertension and diabetes is therefore, urgently needed.
Study site: outpatient medical clinic of Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital,
Over the years, the number of pediatric patients undergoing surgeries are increasing steadily. The types of surgery vary between elective to emergency with involvement of multidisciplinary teams. The development of day care surgery unit is expanding where the patients will only come to the hospital on the day of surgery and discharge home after such as satisfactory parameters achieved, minimal to no pain, minimal to no bleeding from surgical site and able to tolerate fluids. Hospitalization and surgery could contribute to significant psychological disturbance to the children. These issues are not being addressed as children have difficulty in conveying their problems and fear. They do however express it through negative behavioral changes.