OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression of DDR1 and DVL1 and their association with histological type, grading and hormonal status of IDC and ILC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted on IDC and ILC breast tumours. Tumours were immunohistochemically stained for (DDR1) and (DVL1) as well as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and C-erbB2 receptor. Demographic data including age and ethnicity were obtained from patient records.
RESULTS: A total of 51 cases (30 IDCs and 21 ILCs) were assessed. DDR1 and DVL1 expression was not significantly associated with histological type (p=0.57 and p=0.66 respectively). There was no association between DDR1 and DVL1 expression and tumour grade (p=0.32 and p=1.00 respectively), ER (p=0.62 and 0.50 respectively), PR (p=0.38 and p=0.63 respectively) and C-erbB2 expression (p=0.19 and p=0.33 respectively) in IDC. There was no association between DDR1 and DVL1 expression and tumour grade (p=0.52 and p=0.33 respectively), ER (p=0.06 and p=0.76 respectively), PR (p=0.61 and p=0.43 respectively) and C-erbB2 expression (p=0.58 and p=0.76 respectively) in ILC.
CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that DDR1 and DVL1 are present in both IDC and ILC regardless of the tumour differentiation. More studies are needed to assess the potential of these two proteins in distinguishing IDC from ILC in breast tumours.
CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 75-year-old man who presented with symptoms of obstructive jaundice. Ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed an ill-defined lobulated soft tissue lesion at the head/uncinate process of the pancreas measuring 4.5 x 4.9 x 5.8 cm. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for suspected pancreatic head/uncinate process carcinoma. Histopathology and immunohistochemical assessment of the pancreatic lesion established the diagnosis of a low-grade follicular lymphoma.
DISCUSSION: Clinical and imaging features of primary pancreatic lymphoma may often overlap with pancreatic carcinoma. There is a value of obtaining preoperative tissue diagnosis such as tissue biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology with or without flow cytometry to make an accurate diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and alleviate the need of more radical surgery in pancreatic lymphoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the histopathological material and data from 82 breast cancer patients diagnosed over a period of four years who underwent intraoperative frozen section evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes.
RESULTS: Frozen section analysis detected metastasis in 13 out of 82 cases and definitive pathological examination on the paraffin section confirmed these positive findings. There was no false positive case (specificity of 100%). The true positive cases comprised seven macrometastases, five micrometastases and one isolated tumour cells. Sampling error was noted in two cases in which the malignant cells were only present in the deeper final paraffin sections (false negative rate of 13.3%). The test sensitivity was 86.7% and the accuracy rate was 97.5%. These findings are comparable to other published data.
CONCLUSION: Intraoperative frozen section analysis is a safe and reliable method for assessment of sentinel lymph node. Knowledge on limitation of frozen section analysis with diligent evaluation of frozen section specimen will be beneficial in reducing interpretation error.
Materials and Methods: We analyzed 101 cases of prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosed from January 2011 to June 2015 in 100 patients. Immunohistochemical staining of ER-beta and Ki67 was analyzed according to Gleason score categorized into prognostic groups of 1 to 5. Double-immunofluorescent staining of ER-beta and Ki67 was performed in a total of 20 cases to study the co-expression and the relationship between these markers within the same tumor.
Results: A total of 53 of 101 cases (52.5%) were positive for ER-beta expression. There was a positive correlation whereby a high percentage of ER-beta expression was seen in the higher prognostic groups (groups 4 and 5; p=0.007). High Ki67 expression was observed in the higher prognostic group, whereas low Ki67 or negative expression was found in the lower prognostic group (p<0.001). The majority of cases evaluated with double-immunofluorescent staining (14/20) showed co-expression of ER-beta and Ki67 at the individual cell level.
Conclusions: ER-beta and Ki67 are independent tumor markers in high prognostic groups. Hence, co-expression of ER-beta and Ki67 indicates a more aggressive tumor with a poorer prognosis.
CASE REPORT: We report a 54-year-old Caucasian man who presented with chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. He was diagnosed with coeliac disease based on positive serology results and duodenal, jejunal, and ileal biopsies that showed villous atrophy. Despite adherence to a gluten-free diet, there was no clinical remission and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma was suspected. Repeated endoscopic biopsy showed persistent mucosal disease but no evidence of lymphoma. Several weeks later he presented with a perforated jejunum. Histology of the resected jejunum showed diffuse infiltration of submucosa and muscularis propria by malignant lymphoid cells sparing the mucosa. The cells expressed CD20, CD79α, CD10 and BCL6 and ki67 of 80%, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
DISCUSSION: It is suspected that the undetected lymphoma may have contributed to the persistent malabsorption syndrome rendering the patient unresponsive to treatment. Despite thorough clinical and endoscopic evaluation and multiple biopsies, histologic diagnosis of DLBCL was only confirmed following resection of the perforated jejunum.