Materials and Methods: This questionnaire study was conducted among 460 dental professionals of different age groups. Parameters such as posture of dentists, working alone or with an assistant, and number of breaks were recorded. Type of MSDs and the type and effectiveness were recorded.
Results: BDS students were seventy, interns were 112, general dentists were 186, and specialists were 92. Year of practice was <5 years in 215, 5-10 years in 70, 10-20 years in 35, and >20 years in 140 students. Fourteen percent of students, 18% interns, 45% general practitioners, and 32% of specialists had a prevalence of MSD. Most common MSDs in students were upper back pain seen in 6%, in interns were upper back pain seen in 8%, in general practitioners were shoulder pain seen in 21%, and in specialists were hand/wrist pain seen in 10%. Forty-five percent of students, 67% interns, 72% general dentists, and 80% of specialists had idea about ergonomics. Seventy-four percent of students, 80% of interns, 83% of general dentists, and 87% of specialists think that ergonomics may improve performance. Sitting position was preferred seen in 53% of students, 58% of interns, 65% general dentists, and 60% of specialists. Forty-five percent of students, 47% of interns, 56% of general dentists, and 52% of specialists perform physical activity during work. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Seventy-nine percent of students, 83% of interns, 86% of general dentists, and 88% of specialists show prolong sitting or standing.
Conclusion: Authors found that all prefer to apply ergonomic in clinical practice. There is a lack of knowledge among BDS students and interns about ergonomics.
METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.
RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.
CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.
METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.
RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.
Methods: This was a worldwide multi-institutional survey among members of the International Society of EUS Task Force (ISEUS-TF). The survey was administered by E-mail through the SurveyMonkey website. In some cases, percentage agreement with some statements was calculated; in others, the options with the greatest numbers of responses were summarized. Another questionnaire about the level of recommendation was designed to assess the respondents' answers.
Results: ISEUS-TF members developed a questionnaire containing 17 questions that was sent to 53 experts. Thirty-five experts completed the survey within the specified period. Among them, 40% and 54.3% performed 50-200 and more than 200 EUS sampling procedures annually, respectively. Some practice patterns regarding FNA/FNB were recommended.
Conclusion: This is the first worldwide survey of EUS-FNA and FNB practice patterns. The results showed wide variations in practice patterns. Randomized studies are urgently needed to establish the best approach for optimizing the FNA/FNB procedures.
Methods: A survey regarding the practice of EUS in the evaluation of PCLs was drafted by the committee member of the International Society of EUS Task Force (ISEUS-TF). It was disseminated to experts of EUS who were also members of the ISEUS-TF. In some cases, percentage agreement with some statements was calculated; in others, the options with the greatest numbers of responses were summarized.
Results: Fifteen questions were extracted and disseminated among 60 experts for the survey. Fifty-three experts completed the survey within the specified time frame. The average volume of EUS cases at the experts' institutions is 988.5 cases per year.
Conclusion: Despite the limitations of EUS alone in the morphologic diagnosis of PCLs, the results of the survey indicate that EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration is widely expected to become a more valuable method.