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  1. Kumar M, Mishra G, Vaibhav R, Priyadarshini S, Simran, Turagam N
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2021 Jun;13(Suppl 1):S391-S394.
    PMID: 34447117 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_591_20
    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are commonly occurring disorders nowadays. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining MSDs in dentists and to assess knowledge about ergonomics.

    Materials and Methods: This questionnaire study was conducted among 460 dental professionals of different age groups. Parameters such as posture of dentists, working alone or with an assistant, and number of breaks were recorded. Type of MSDs and the type and effectiveness were recorded.

    Results: BDS students were seventy, interns were 112, general dentists were 186, and specialists were 92. Year of practice was <5 years in 215, 5-10 years in 70, 10-20 years in 35, and >20 years in 140 students. Fourteen percent of students, 18% interns, 45% general practitioners, and 32% of specialists had a prevalence of MSD. Most common MSDs in students were upper back pain seen in 6%, in interns were upper back pain seen in 8%, in general practitioners were shoulder pain seen in 21%, and in specialists were hand/wrist pain seen in 10%. Forty-five percent of students, 67% interns, 72% general dentists, and 80% of specialists had idea about ergonomics. Seventy-four percent of students, 80% of interns, 83% of general dentists, and 87% of specialists think that ergonomics may improve performance. Sitting position was preferred seen in 53% of students, 58% of interns, 65% general dentists, and 60% of specialists. Forty-five percent of students, 47% of interns, 56% of general dentists, and 52% of specialists perform physical activity during work. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Seventy-nine percent of students, 83% of interns, 86% of general dentists, and 88% of specialists show prolong sitting or standing.

    Conclusion: Authors found that all prefer to apply ergonomic in clinical practice. There is a lack of knowledge among BDS students and interns about ergonomics.

  2. Kumar H, Mishra G, Sharma AK, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Pharm Nanotechnol, 2017;5(3):203-214.
    PMID: 28521670 DOI: 10.2174/2211738505666170515113936
    BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo; to overcome this barrier, intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain.

    METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.

    RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.

    CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.

  3. Awasthi R, Singh AK, Mishra G, Maurya A, Chellappan DK, Gupta G, et al.
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2018 9 28;1087:3-14.
    PMID: 30259353 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1426-1_1
    Circular RNAs (cirRNAs) are long, noncoding endogenous RNA molecules and covalently closed continuous loop without 5'-3' polarity and polyadenylated tail which are largely concentrated in the nucleus. CirRNA regulates gene expression by modulating microRNAs and functions as potential biomarker. CirRNAs can translate in vivo to link between their expression and disease. They are resistant to RNA exonuclease and can convert to the linear RNA by microRNA which can then act as competitor to endogenous RNA. This chapter summarizes the evolutionary conservation and expression of cirRNAs, their identification, highlighting various computational approaches on cirRNA, and translation with a focus on the breakthroughs and the challenges in this new field.
  4. Khan I, Kumar H, Mishra G, Gothwal A, Kesharwani P, Gupta U
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(35):5315-5326.
    PMID: 28875848 DOI: 10.2174/1381612823666170829164828
    BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease. Nanotechnology has opened a new area in the effective treatment of breast cancer due to the several benefits offered by this technology.

    METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.

    RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.

  5. Singh AK, Rai SN, Maurya A, Mishra G, Awasthi R, Shakya A, et al.
    PMID: 34211570 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5578574
    Since primitive times, herbs have been extensively used in conventional remedies for boosting cognitive impairment and age-associated memory loss. It is mentioned that medicinal plants have a variety of dynamic components, and they have become a prominent choice for synthetic medications for the care of cognitive and associated disorders. Herbal remedies have played a major role in the progression of medicine, and many advanced drugs have already been developed. Many studies have endorsed practicing herbal remedies with phytoconstituents, for healing Alzheimer's disease (AD). All the information in this article was collated from selected research papers from online scientific databases, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. The aim of this article is to convey the potential of herbal remedies for the prospect management of Alzheimer's and related diseases. Herbal remedies may be useful in the discovery and advancement of drugs, thus extending new leads for neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. Nanocarriers play a significant role in delivering herbal medicaments to a specific target. Therefore, many drugs have been described for the management of age-linked complaints such as dementia, AD, and the like. Several phytochemicals are capable of managing AD, but their therapeutic claims are restricted due to their lower solubility and metabolism. These limitations of natural therapeutics can be overcome by using a targeted nanocarrier system. This article will provide the primitive remedies as well as the development of herbal remedies for AD management.
  6. Guo J, Sahai AV, Teoh A, Arcidiacono PG, Larghi A, Saftoiu A, et al.
    Endosc Ultrasound, 2020 9 5;9(5):319-328.
    PMID: 32883921 DOI: 10.4103/eus.eus_56_20
    Background and Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) are effective techniques that are widely used for tissue acquisition. However, it remains unclear how to obtain high-quality specimens. Therefore, we conducted a survey of EUS-FNA and FNB techniques to determine practice patterns worldwide and to develop strong recommendations based on the experience of experts in the field.

    Methods: This was a worldwide multi-institutional survey among members of the International Society of EUS Task Force (ISEUS-TF). The survey was administered by E-mail through the SurveyMonkey website. In some cases, percentage agreement with some statements was calculated; in others, the options with the greatest numbers of responses were summarized. Another questionnaire about the level of recommendation was designed to assess the respondents' answers.

    Results: ISEUS-TF members developed a questionnaire containing 17 questions that was sent to 53 experts. Thirty-five experts completed the survey within the specified period. Among them, 40% and 54.3% performed 50-200 and more than 200 EUS sampling procedures annually, respectively. Some practice patterns regarding FNA/FNB were recommended.

    Conclusion: This is the first worldwide survey of EUS-FNA and FNB practice patterns. The results showed wide variations in practice patterns. Randomized studies are urgently needed to establish the best approach for optimizing the FNA/FNB procedures.

  7. Ge N, Brugge WR, Saxena P, Sahai A, Adler DG, Giovannini M, et al.
    Endosc Ultrasound, 2019 9 26;8(6):418-427.
    PMID: 31552915 DOI: 10.4103/eus.eus_61_19
    Background and Objectives: Currently, pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) are recognized with increasing frequency and have become a more common finding in clinical practice. EUS is challenging in the diagnosis of PCLs and evidence-based decisions are lacking in its application. This study aimed to develop strong recommendations for the use of EUS in the diagnosis of PCLs, based on the experience of experts in the field.

    Methods: A survey regarding the practice of EUS in the evaluation of PCLs was drafted by the committee member of the International Society of EUS Task Force (ISEUS-TF). It was disseminated to experts of EUS who were also members of the ISEUS-TF. In some cases, percentage agreement with some statements was calculated; in others, the options with the greatest numbers of responses were summarized.

    Results: Fifteen questions were extracted and disseminated among 60 experts for the survey. Fifty-three experts completed the survey within the specified time frame. The average volume of EUS cases at the experts' institutions is 988.5 cases per year.

    Conclusion: Despite the limitations of EUS alone in the morphologic diagnosis of PCLs, the results of the survey indicate that EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration is widely expected to become a more valuable method.

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