Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Harun S
    PMID: 19723303 DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-6-18
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex but frequently occurring endocrine abnormality. PCOS has become one of the leading causes of oligo-ovulatory infertility among premenopausal women. The definition of PCOS remains unclear because of the heterogeneity of this abnormality, but it is associated with insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, obesity and dyslipidaemia. The main purpose of this study was to identify possible candidate genes involved in PCOS. Several genomic approaches, including linkage analysis and microarray analysis, have been used to look for candidate PCOS genes. To obtain a clearer view of the mechanism of PCOS, we have compiled data from microarray analyses. An extensive literature search identified seven published microarray analyses that utilized PCOS samples. These were published between the year of 2003 and 2007 and included analyses of ovary tissues as well as whole ovaries and theca cells. Although somewhat different methods were used, all the studies employed cDNA microarrays to compare the gene expression patterns of PCOS patients with those of healthy controls. These analyses identified more than a thousand genes whose expression was altered in PCOS patients. Most of the genes were found to be involved in gene and protein expression, cell signaling and metabolism. We have classified all of the 1081 identified genes as coding for either known or unknown proteins. Cytoscape 2.6.1 was used to build a network of protein and then to analyze it. This protein network consists of 504 protein nodes and 1408 interactions among those proteins. One hypothetical protein in the PCOS network was postulated to be involved in the cell cycle. BiNGO was used to identify the three main ontologies in the protein network: molecular functions, biological processes and cellular components. This gene ontology analysis identified a number of ontologies and genes likely to be involved in the complex mechanism of PCOS. These include the insulin receptor signaling pathway, steroid biosynthesis, and the regulation of gonadotropin secretion among others.
  2. Hawari AH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2010;11:83.
    PMID: 20144236 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-83
    The development and simulation of dynamic models of terpenoid biosynthesis has yielded a systems perspective that provides new insights into how the structure of this biochemical pathway affects compound synthesis. These insights may eventually help identify reactions that could be experimentally manipulated to amplify terpenoid production. In this study, a dynamic model of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway was constructed based on the Hybrid Functional Petri Net (HFPN) technique. This technique is a fusion of three other extended Petri net techniques, namely Hybrid Petri Net (HPN), Dynamic Petri Net (HDN) and Functional Petri Net (FPN).
  3. Seman-Kamarulzaman AF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ng CL, Hassan M
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0161707.
    PMID: 27560927 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161707
    Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold) to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate specificity towards farnesal. Thus, it was suggested that this novel enzyme may be functioning specifically to oxidize farnesal in the later steps of JH III pathway. This report provides a basic understanding for recombinant production of this particular enzyme. Other strategies such as adding His-tag to the protein makes easy the purification of the protein which is completely different to the native protein. Complete sequence, structure and functional analysis of the enzyme will be important for developing insect-resistant crop plants by deployment of transgenic plant.
  4. Govender N, Senan S, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ratnam W
    Genom Data, 2017 Sep;13:11-14.
    PMID: 28626637 DOI: 10.1016/j.gdata.2017.05.008
    Shoot and inflorescence are central physiological and developmental tissues of plants. Flowering is one of the most important agronomic traits for improvement of crop yield. To analyze the vegetative to reproductive tissue transition in Jatropha curcas, gene expression profiles were generated from shoot and inflorescence tissues. RNA isolated from both tissues was sequenced using the Ilumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Differential gene expression analysis identified key biological processes associated with vegetative to reproductive tissue transition. The present data for J. curcas may inform the design of breeding strategies particularly with respect to reproductive tissue transition. The raw data of this study has been deposited in the NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database with the accession number SRP090662.
  5. Govender N, Senan S, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Wickneswari R
    Sci Rep, 2018 Jun 15;8(1):9211.
    PMID: 29907786 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-27493-z
    The plant shoot system consists of reproductive organs such as inflorescences, buds and fruits, and the vegetative leaves and stems. In this study, the reproductive part of the Jatropha curcas shoot system, which includes the aerial shoots, shoots bearing the inflorescence and inflorescence were investigated in regard to gene-to-gene interactions underpinning yield-related biological processes. An RNA-seq based sequencing of shoot tissues performed on an Illumina HiSeq. 2500 platform generated 18 transcriptomes. Using the reference genome-based mapping approach, a total of 64 361 genes was identified in all samples and the data was annotated against the non-redundant database by the BLAST2GO Pro. Suite. After removing the outlier genes and samples, a total of 12 734 genes across 17 samples were subjected to gene co-expression network construction using petal, an R library. A gene co-expression network model built with scale-free and small-world properties extracted four vicinity networks (VNs) with putative involvement in yield-related biological processes as follow; heat stress tolerance, floral and shoot meristem differentiation, biosynthesis of chlorophyll molecules and laticifers, cell wall metabolism and epigenetic regulations. Our VNs revealed putative key players that could be adapted in breeding strategies for J. curcas shoot system improvements.
  6. Ahmad-Sohdi NA, Seman-Kamarulzaman AF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Hassan M
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(11):e0143310.
    PMID: 26600471 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143310
    Juvenile hormones have attracted attention as safe and selective targets for the design and development of environmentally friendly and biorational insecticides. In the juvenile hormone III biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme farnesol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of farnesol to farnesal. In this study, farnesol dehydrogenase was extracted from Polygonum minus leaves and purified 204-fold to apparent homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography using DEAE-Toyopearl, SP-Toyopearl, and Super-Q Toyopearl, followed by three successive purifications by gel filtration chromatography on a TSK-gel GS3000SW. The enzyme is a heterodimer comprised of subunits with molecular masses of 65 kDa and 70 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH were 35°C and pH 9.5, respectively. Activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, metal-chelating agents and heavy metal ions. The enzyme utilized both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes with Km values of 0.74 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Trans, trans-farnesol was the preferred substrate for the P. minus farnesol dehydrogenase. Geometrical isomers of trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol were also oxidized by the enzyme with lower activity. The Km values for trans, trans-farnesol, cis, trans-farnesol and cis, cis-farnesol appeared to be 0.17 mM, 0.33 mM and 0.42 mM, respectively. The amino acid sequences of 4 tryptic peptides of the enzyme were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS spectrometry, and showed no significant similarity to those of previously reported farnesol dehydrogenases. These results suggest that the purified enzyme is a novel NAD(P)+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase. The purification and characterization established in the current study will serve as a basis to provide new information for recombinant production of the enzyme. Therefore, recombinant farnesol dehydrogenase may provide a useful molecular tool in manipulating juvenile hormone biosynthesis to generate transgenic plants for pest control.
  7. Ee SF, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Othman R, Shaharuddin NA, Ismail I, Zainal Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:840592.
    PMID: 24678279 DOI: 10.1155/2014/840592
    Polygonum minus is an aromatic plant, which contains high abundance of terpenoids, especially the sesquiterpenes C15H24. Sesquiterpenes were believed to contribute to the many useful biological properties in plants. This study aimed to functionally characterize a full length sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minus. P. minus sesquiterpene synthase (PmSTS) has a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1689 base pairs encoding a 562 amino acid protein. Similar to other sesquiterpene synthases, PmSTS has two large domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal metal-binding domain. It also consists of three conserved motifs: the DDXXD, NSE/DTE, and RXR. A three-dimensional protein model for PmSTS built clearly distinguished the two main domains, where conserved motifs were highlighted. We also constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed that PmSTS belongs to the angiosperm sesquiterpene synthase subfamily Tps-a. To examine the function of PmSTS, we expressed this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two transgenic lines, designated as OE3 and OE7, were further characterized, both molecularly and functionally. The transgenic plants demonstrated smaller basal rosette leaves, shorter and fewer flowering stems, and fewer seeds compared to wild type plants. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the transgenic plants showed that PmSTS was responsible for the production of β -sesquiphellandrene.
  8. Ee SF, Oh JM, Mohd Noor N, Kwon TR, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ismail I, et al.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2013 Mar;40(3):2231-41.
    PMID: 23187733 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-012-2286-4
    The importance of plant secondary metabolites for both mankind and the plant itself has long been established. However, despite extensive research on plant secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolism and its regulation still remained poorly characterized. In this present study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) transcript profiling was applied to generate the expression profiles of Polygonum minus in response to salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitations. This study reveals two different sets of genes induced by SA and MeJA, respectively where stress-related genes were proved to lead to the expression of genes involved in plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways. A total of 98 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were up-regulated, including 46 from SA-treated and 52 from MeJA-treated samples. The cDNA-AFLP transcripts generated using 64 different Mse1/Taq1 primer combinations showed that treatments with SA and MeJA induced genes mostly involved in scavenging reactive oxygen species, including zeaxanthin epoxidase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 and peroxidase. Of these stress-related genes, 15 % of other annotated TDFs are involved mainly in secondary metabolic processes where among these, two genes encoding (+)-delta cadinene synthase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase were highlighted.
  9. Govender N, Senan S, Sage EE, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Mackeen MM, Wickneswari R
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(9):e0203441.
    PMID: 30240391 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203441
    Jatropha curcas is an oil-rich seed crop with huge potentials for bioenergy production. The inflorescence carries a number of processes that are likely to affect the overall yield potentials; floral development, male-to-female flower ratio, floral abscission and fruit set. In this study, a weighted gene co-expression network analysis which integrates the transcriptome, physical and simple sugar data of J. curcas inflorescence was performed and nine modules were identified by means of hierarchical clustering. Among them, four modules (green4, antiquewhite2, brown2 and lightskyblue4) showed significant correlation to yield factors at p≤0.01. The four modules are categorized into two clusters; cluster 1 of green4 and antiquewhite2 modules correspond to number of flowers/inflorescence, total seed weight/plant, number of seeds/plant, and number of fruits/plant, whereas cluster 2 of brown2 and lightskyblue4 modules correspond to glucose and fructose. Descriptive characterizations of cluster 1 show putative involvement in gibberellin signaling and responses, whereas cluster 2 may have been involved in sugar signaling, signal transductions and regulation of flowerings. Our findings present a list of hub genes for J. curcas yield improvement and reproductive biology enhancement strategies.
  10. Govender N, Senan S, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Isa MNM, Yaakob Z, Ratnam W
    Data Brief, 2018 Dec;21:71-74.
    PMID: 30338276 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.09.081
    Jatropha curcas L. or the physic nut is a monoecious shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The plant is an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production; oil-rich seed (37-42%), has a broad range of growth habitat such as arid, semi-arid and tropical and a relatively feasible process for conversion of crude oil into biodiesel. The major constraint affecting the success of large-scale J. curcas plantation is seed yield inconsistency. Numerous research projects conducted on J. curcas with integrated genetic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches have been applied on the leaf, apical meristem, flower, root and fruit tissues. However, to date, no genomics data of J. curcas shoot system are publicly available, despite its importance in understanding flowering, fruiting and seed set qualities targeted for yield improvement. Here, we present eighteen sets of shoot and inflorescence transcriptomes generated from J. curcas plants with contrasting yields. Raw reads of the RNA-seq data are found in NCBI׳s Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database with the accession number SRP090662 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/?term=SRP090662). This transcriptomic data could be integrated with the present genomic resources for in depth understanding of J. curcas reproductive system.
  11. Tan CS, Hassan M, Mohamed Hussein ZA, Ismail I, Ho KL, Ng CL, et al.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2018 Feb;123:359-368.
    PMID: 29304481 DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.12.033
    Geraniol degradation pathway has long been elucidated in microorganisms through bioconversion studies, yet weakly characterised in plants; enzyme with specific nerol-oxidising activity has not been reported. A novel cDNA encodes nerol dehydrogenase (PmNeDH) was isolated from Persicaria minor. The recombinant PmNeDH (rPmNeDH) is a homodimeric enzyme that belongs to MDR (medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases) superfamily that catalyses the first oxidative step of geraniol degradation pathway in citral biosynthesis. Kinetic analysis revealed that rPmNeDH has a high specificity for allylic primary alcohols with backbone ≤10 carbons. rPmNeDH has ∼3 fold higher affinity towards nerol (cis-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol) than its trans-isomer, geraniol. To our knowledge, this is the first alcohol dehydrogenase with higher preference towards nerol, suggesting that nerol can be effective substrate for citral biosynthesis in P. minor. The rPmNeDH crystal structure (1.54 Å) showed high similarity with enzyme structures from MDR superfamily. Structure guided mutation was conducted to describe the relationships between substrate specificity and residue substitutions in the active site. Kinetics analyses of wild-type rPmNeDH and several active site mutants demonstrated that the substrate specificity of rPmNeDH can be altered by changing any selected active site residues (Asp280, Leu294 and Ala303). Interestingly, the L294F, A303F and A303G mutants were able to revamp the substrate preference towards geraniol. Furthermore, mutant that exhibited a broader substrate range was also obtained. This study demonstrates that P. minor may have evolved to contain enzyme that optimally recognise cis-configured nerol as substrate. rPmNeDH structure provides new insights into the substrate specificity and active site plasticity in MDR superfamily.
  12. Rahaman SN, Mat Yusop J, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ho KL, Teh AH, Waterman J, et al.
    Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun, 2016 Mar;72(Pt 3):207-13.
    PMID: 26919524 DOI: 10.1107/S2053230X16002016
    C1ORF123 is a human hypothetical protein found in open reading frame 123 of chromosome 1. The protein belongs to the DUF866 protein family comprising eukaryote-conserved proteins with unknown function. Recent proteomic and bioinformatic analyses identified the presence of C1ORF123 in brain, frontal cortex and synapses, as well as its involvement in endocrine function and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), indicating the importance of its biological role. In order to provide a better understanding of the biological function of the human C1ORF123 protein, the characterization and analysis of recombinant C1ORF123 (rC1ORF123), including overexpression and purification, verification by mass spectrometry and a Western blot using anti-C1ORF123 antibodies, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein crystals, are reported here. The rC1ORF123 protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method with a reservoir solution comprised of 20% PEG 3350, 0.2 M magnesium chloride hexahydrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 6.5. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to an orthorhombic space group with unit-cell parameters a = 59.32, b = 65.35, c = 95.05 Å. The calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) value of 2.27 Å(3) Da(-1) suggests that there are two molecules per asymmetric unit, with an estimated solvent content of 45.7%.
  13. Loke KK, Rahnamaie-Tajadod R, Yeoh CC, Goh HH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Mohd Noor N, et al.
    Genom Data, 2016 Mar;7:12-3.
    PMID: 26981350 DOI: 10.1016/j.gdata.2015.11.003
    Polygonum minus plant is rich in secondary metabolites, especially terpenoids and flavonoids. Present study generates transcriptome resource for P. minus to decipher its secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. Raw reads and the transcriptome assembly project have been deposited at GenBank under the accessions SRX313492 (root) and SRX669305 (leaf) respectively.
  14. Neoh HM, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Tan XE, B Raja Abd Rahman RM, Hussin S, Mohamad Zin N, et al.
    Genome Announc, 2013 Jan;1(1).
    PMID: 23405328 DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.00103-12
    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of four nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (PPUKM-261-2009, PPUKM-332-2009, PPUKM-377-2009, and PPUKM-775-2009) isolated from a university teaching hospital in Malaysia. Three of the strains belong to sequence type 239 (ST239), which has been associated with sustained hospital epidemics worldwide.
  15. Roslan ND, Yusop JM, Baharum SN, Othman R, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Ismail I, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(3):2692-706.
    PMID: 22489118 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13032692
    P. minus is an aromatic plant, the leaf of which is widely used as a food additive and in the perfume industry. The leaf also accumulates secondary metabolites that act as active ingredients such as flavonoid. Due to limited genomic and transcriptomic data, the biosynthetic pathway of flavonoids is currently unclear. Identification of candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway will significantly contribute to understanding the biosynthesis of active compounds. We have constructed a standard cDNA library from P. minus leaves, and two normalized full-length enriched cDNA libraries were constructed from stem and root organs in order to create a gene resource for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, especially flavonoid biosynthesis. Thus, large-scale sequencing of P. minus cDNA libraries identified 4196 expressed sequences tags (ESTs) which were deposited in dbEST in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI). From the three constructed cDNA libraries, 11 ESTs encoding seven genes were mapped to the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Finally, three flavonoid biosynthetic pathway-related ESTs chalcone synthase, CHS (JG745304), flavonol synthase, FLS (JG705819) and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, LDOX (JG745247) were selected for further examination by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in different P. minus organs. Expression was detected in leaf, stem and root. Gene expression studies have been initiated in order to better understand the underlying physiological processes.
  16. Loke KK, Rahnamaie-Tajadod R, Yeoh CC, Goh HH, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Zainal Z, et al.
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e2938.
    PMID: 28265493 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2938
    BACKGROUND: Polygonum minus is an herbal plant in the Polygonaceae family which is rich in ethnomedicinal plants. The chemical composition and characteristic pungent fragrance of Polygonum minus have been extensively studied due to its culinary and medicinal properties. There are only a few transcriptome sequences available for species from this important family of medicinal plants. The limited genetic information from the public expressed sequences tag (EST) library hinders further study on molecular mechanisms underlying secondary metabolite production.

    METHODS: In this study, we performed a hybrid assembly of 454 and Illumina sequencing reads from Polygonum minus root and leaf tissues, respectively, to generate a combined transcriptome library as a reference.

    RESULTS: A total of 34.37 million filtered and normalized reads were assembled into 188,735 transcripts with a total length of 136.67 Mbp. We performed a similarity search against all the publicly available genome sequences and found similarity matches for 163,200 (86.5%) of Polygonum minus transcripts, largely from Arabidopsis thaliana (58.9%). Transcript abundance in the leaf and root tissues were estimated and validated through RT-qPCR of seven selected transcripts involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. All the transcripts were annotated against KEGG pathways to profile transcripts related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

    DISCUSSION: This comprehensive transcriptome profile will serve as a useful sequence resource for molecular genetics and evolutionary research on secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Polygonaceae family. Transcriptome assembly of Polygonum minus can be accessed at http://prims.researchfrontier.org/index.php/dataset/transcriptome.

  17. A Rahaman SN, Mat Yusop J, Mohamed-Hussein ZA, Aizat WM, Ho KL, Teh AH, et al.
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5377.
    PMID: 30280012 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5377
    Proteins of the DUF866 superfamily are exclusively found in eukaryotic cells. A member of the DUF866 superfamily, C1ORF123, is a human protein found in the open reading frame 123 of chromosome 1. The physiological role of C1ORF123 is yet to be determined. The only available protein structure of the DUF866 family shares just 26% sequence similarity and does not contain a zinc binding motif. Here, we present the crystal structure of the recombinant human C1ORF123 protein (rC1ORF123). The structure has a 2-fold internal symmetry dividing the monomeric protein into two mirrored halves that comprise of distinct electrostatic potential. The N-terminal half of rC1ORF123 includes a zinc-binding domain interacting with a zinc ion near to a potential ligand binding cavity. Functional studies of human C1ORF123 and its homologue in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpEss1) point to a role of DUF866 protein in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.
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