METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will adopt a between-group design. Participants will include Malaysian Malays and Caucasian Australians with and without MDD (N=320). There will be four tasks involved in this study, namely: (1) the facial emotion recognition task, (2) the biological motion task, (3) the subjective experience task and (4) the emotion meaning task. It is hypothesised that there will be cultural differences in how participants with and without MDD respond to these emotion tasks and that, pan-culturally, MDD will influence accuracy rates in the facial emotion recognition task and the biological motion task.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is approved by the Universiti Putra Malaysia Research Ethics Committee (JKEUPM) and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (MUHREC). Permission to conduct the study has also been obtained from the National Medical Research Register (NMRR; NMRR-15-2314-26919). On completion of the study, data will be kept by Universiti Putra Malaysia for a specific period of time before they are destroyed. Data will be published in a collective manner in the form of journal articles with no reference to a specific individual.
METHODS: Young healthy volunteers of either sex aged between 19-24 years, participated in the sessions using URNB/ULNB (n = 52) and FURNB/FULNB (n = 28). The nostril dominance was calculated from signals recorded on the PowerLab equipment, representing pressure changes at the end of the nostrils during respiration. The IOP was measured with Tono-Pen. The subjects were divided into 4 groups viz. right nostril dominant (RND), left nostril dominant (LND), transitional right nostril dominant (TRND) and transitional left nostril dominant (TLND) groups. The IOP data 'before and after' URNB/ULNB or FURNB/FULNB were compared by using paired t-test. The baseline data of IOP between the groups were analysed by using independent samples t-test.
RESULTS: The URNB decreased the IOP in the LND and TLND (p < 0.01) and also in the RND (p < 0.05) groups but not significantly in the TRND group. The ULNB decreased the IOP in the RND group (p < 0.01) only. The FURNB significantly reduced the IOP (p < 0.05) only in the LND and RND groups. The FULNB decreased the IOP but not significantly. The baseline IOP did not differ significantly between the LND, RND, TLND and TRND groups.
CONCLUSION: The URNB/FURNB reduced the IOP, while ULNB/FULNB failed to increase the IOP significantly. It is suggested that the lowering of IOP by URNB indicated sympathetic stimulation.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the toxicity of acrylate-based restorative composite resins filled with hydroxyapatite and a silica/hydroxyapatite combination.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five different restorative materials based on bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) and tri-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were developed: unfilled (H0), hydroxyapatite-filled (H30, H50), and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled (SH30, SH50) composite resins. These were tested for in vitro cytotoxicity by using human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Surface morphology, elemental composition, and functional groups were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The spectra normalization, baseline corrections, and peak integration were carried out by OPUS v4.0 software.
RESULTS: Both in vitro cytotoxicity results and SEM analysis indicated that the composite resins developed were nontoxic and supported cell adherence. Elemental analysis with EDX revealed the presence of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silicon, and gold, while the presence of methacrylate, hydroxyl, and methylene functional groups was confirmed through FTIR analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The characterization and compatibility studies showed that these hydroxyapatite-filled and silica/hydroxyapatite-filled bis-GMA/TEGDMA-based restorative composite resins are nontoxic to human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and show a favorable biologic response, making them potential biomaterials.