Accepted 21 July 2011.
Introduction The extensive and intensive use of pesticides in agricultural practices has exposed farmers to various hazards resulting in varying degrees of health
Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among paddy farmers in Sabak Bernam district, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to gather baseline information on chlorpyrifos blood level and its relationship with pesticides exposure symptoms.
Results We detected chlorpyrifos in farmers’ blood in 7 percent of the respondents, with mean 7.29 nanogram per millilitre blood (sd 5.84 nanogram per millilitre). The percentage of farmers who experienced at least one pesticide exposure symptoms was 75 percent. However, we found no significant association between chlorpyrifos blood level and its exposure symptoms. The farmers had low scores on safe practice of pesticide use even though they have high marks on knowledge and attitude. We found no significant association between the scores on knowledge, attitude and practice on pesticide use and the chlorpyrifos blood level.
Conclusions The presence of pesticide exposure symptoms proved that most of the farmers were exposed to hazardous effects of pesticides. Specific trainings on safe use and handling of pesticides should be given on regular basis to these farmers to ensure they are protected from hazardous effects of pesticides exposure.
The uprising needs of traditional & complementary medicine (T&CM) despite the availability of conventional medical (CVM) treatments has gained a serious concern to the authorities in hospital care delivery systems. It was about suffices the supply and demand for T&CM and its absence may interfere the quality of patient care. Malaysia was not exempted of this phenomenon. Moreover, its rich tropical biodiversity and multi-ethnical medical systems promoted T&CM usage. This research was aimed to determine the overall T& CM preferences, the preferred future patient care services (FPCS) and its socio-demographic and warding characteristics. Using a self-administered standardised questionnaire, instrumented by cross sectional study, a total 132 warded patients in a UKM Medical Center (UKMMC) were interviewed. T&CM preferences were the composite of seven domains. The finding revealed that the T&CM preference was 64.4%, dominated by older age (66.2%), women (68.2%), low education (66.0%), employed (66.7%), high income (67.5%) and married (66.0%). Oncology (81.3%) and orthopaedic (75.7%) ward patients were more in preference compared to other wards. When asked about the FPCS preference, about 80.3% expected integrative medicine services to be provided, whereas the remaining were still exclusively preferred modern medicine (15.2%) and alternative medicine (4.5%) respectively. As conclusion, this study has affirmed that there is a great need towards T&CM among hospitalized patients who are accessible to modern CVM.
Rubella is an acute and contagious disease which is mainly characterized by fever, rash, and cervical lymphadenopathy. This contagious disease spreads easily through nasopharyngeal secretions, droplet or direct contact with patients. Meanwhile clinical features of scarlet fever include a sore throat, skin rash and strawberry tongue. A descriptive study was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristic of diseases at a Training Camp in Mersing. Data obtained on demographic details, onset and time of fever and rash or contact with ill person 14 to 21 days prior to symptoms. Screening and interview conducted for all suspected cases of Rubella. 47.4% of the cases presented on 5th June 2012 followed by 15.8% on 11th June 2012 and 13.5% on 12th June 2012. Maculo papular rash was the predominant presenting symptom among students with acute infection in this outbreak (100%) followed by fever (36.8%). Measles specific IgM was not detected in the serum taken but rubella specific IgM was detected in 66.7% (6/19) of samples. 55% (11/20) were positive for ASOT. 4 trainees had Rubella and Scarlet Fever co-infection. It was found out that the outbreak occurred among 391 residents in the camp who shared common places for activities such as lecture, physical activity and meal. Rapid dissemination was due to overcrowded environment and close contact during common activities of the residents. Theoretically co-infection would be presented with severe clinical symptoms but not in this outbreak where all affected trainees only presented with mild fever and rashes.
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of BSE among female non-medical students in UKM, Bangi. A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered and validated questionnaire among 364 students. The results showed that only 37.1% performs BSE and 45% of the students have good knowledge. Age, marital status, using internet and pamphlets as source of information, personal, and family history of BC, were significantly associated with knowledge level of students. Practice of BSE was significantly associated with knowledge level. From multivariate analysis, BSE was more likely to be done among students with family history, students who using internet and pamphlet as sources of information, also among students with good knowledge. As conclusions, the practice of BSE is inadequate among the respondents in spite of most of them had heard about BSE. The results suggest the need of providing continuing educational programs to increase the knowledge level on BSE which in turn will have a positive effect on students to practice and motivate to perform BSE.
Objective: Truancy is a disciplinary problem, which frequently occurs among school students and it has many contributory as well as inter-related factors. It is a growing problem in this country and it often becomes a prelude to other delinquent behaviours. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of truancy as well as factors related to it including psycho-behavioural factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 556 Malay student’s selected using multi-stage sampling was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of truancy is 30.2%. The predictors to truancy are age, students who frequenting entertainment centre, students who have not completed Quran recital, coping strategies using problems solving methods and time spent watching television/video. There is a significant association between truancy and psycho-behaviour such as watching video/internet pornography,
frequenting entertainment centre, smoking, motorcycle racing and dating a special friend. Conclusion: Truancy is a social issue, which must be given serious attention by all concerned components of the society.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with of Premature Ejaculation &Erectile Dysfunctionamong Malaysian men.A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas using standardized and validated self-administeredquestionnaires.A total of 319 samples were recruited for PE screening. The overall prevalence of PE was 31.7% with 20.7% and 40.8% for urban and rural arearespectively. Depression, anxiety and frequent masturbation were significantly associated with PE. While For ED, infrequent sexual intercourse was the sole factor significantly associated with ED.PE and ED were highly prevalent in both urban and rural areas; with several significant preventable associated factors.
Nurses’ job performance is defined as the effectiveness of a person in carrying out his or her duties related to patient care. Aim of this study is to measure job performance among nurses in a tertiary hospital and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among nurses selected from four departments, which were Obstetrics & Gynecology (O&G), medical, surgical and Cardiac Care Unit (CCU)/High Dependency Unit (HDU). A Malay validated Six-Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance (6-DSNP) questionnaire was used to measure job performance. Nurses who have one child more compared to other nurses had significantly lower total mean score of job performance by -0.06 (95% CI 0.11, 0.01). Nurses working in medical department [adj.β=0.16 (95% CI 0.01, 0.30)] and CCU/HDU [adj.β= 0.33(95% CI: 0.17, 0.50)] had significantly higher total mean scores of jobs performance compared to O&G department. Effective strategies and re-examining work conditions are imperative for better job performance.
Study site: Department of
Medical, Department of Surgical, Department of
Obstetrics & Gynecology (O&G) and Cardiac Care
Unit/ High Dependency Unit (CCU/HDU) of Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
Introduction A study was conducted to determine the level of mothers' perception on children with cleft deformity and its associated factors
Methods This was a cross sectional study involving 110 mothers with children attending the Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery Clinic. Data was gathered from a face to face interview based on a questionnaire that assesses the level of perception and its associated factors. The level of perception was evaluated from a scoring method and divided into four domains namely psychosocial, care management, treatment and education.
Results The level of perception was high in all four domains ranged from 62% for treatment and 80% for education. Factors that were significantly associated with the level of perception were ethnicity, religion, type of cleft deformity and level of information.
Conclusions Information regarding cleft deformity must be tailored toward mothers’ personal characteristics and type of cleft deformity to improve mothers' perception on this problem.
Study site: Plastic And Reconstructive Surgery Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Introduction The Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and a disease with high morbidity and mortality.Young mothers are sub-populations that are at high risk for HIV through sexual activity. In addition, information on the level of knowledge, attitude and practice among young mothers in Malaysia regarding HIV/AIDS prevention is still limited.Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS among young mothers and the factors that influence them.
Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in a city center among 147 young mothers aged 18-30 years old at the Post Natal and Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward (O & G). Data collection was conducted in April-November 2014 and the respondents' selection was based on simple random sampling. A questionnaire containing validated instruments was used in this study. Approval for conducting research has been obtained from the UKM Research Ethics Committee before the data collection procedure is implemented.
Results Majority of the young mothers have good knowledge (78.8%) and practice (71.2%) towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While more than half of them (56.7%) have positive attitude towards the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Living in the urban area and being married are significantly associated with having good knowledge and positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS prevention. While, mothers who are 5 years older compared to the younger ones and being married are significantly associated with having good practice towards HIV/AIDS prevention.
Conclusions The level of knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the associated factors could be the baseline to formulate health intervention to prevent HIV/AIDS among this vulnerable group.
Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health challenge especially in low- and
middle-income countries reflects improper, delayed or missed diagnosis.
Contact screening should be utilized both as an efficient and effective
targeted approach to intensify TB case finding.
Methods Through a comprehensive systematic literature review of online database,
this paper aims at providing an insight into the current practice of TB contact
screening and to provide evidence based practice for formulation of
appropriate policies in low- and middle-income countries. There are 24
articles included in this review from studies published from 2005 to 2014.
Results Findings in literature varies substantially. Generally, contact screening is
better intensified with clear operational guidelines, adequate training, include
close contact outside household as appropriate and follow up at least for 1
year. Prioritizing high risk close contacts is helpful in resource limited
setting. Tuberculin skin test is still of value as screening tool and intensified
case finding must be accompanied with effective management protocol.
Prophylaxis treatment is recommended especially for children especially less
than 5 years old, unvaccinated, malnourished, living with person having HIV
and close contact with MDR-TB.
Conclusions Policy recommendations in improving TB management must incorporate
complementary strategies to enhance case finding, effective management
protocol for follow up or prophylaxis treatment, training for public health
capacity and concerted dedication from various stakeholders
Introduction Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth that infects humans
through contact with soil containing the larvae.
Methods A systematic search was performed for relevant titles, abstract and keywords
in database from Cochrane Library, PLOS One, PubMed and several other
sources in October 2017 based on PICO strategy. Out of 511 papers that were
evaluated for possible inclusion, final assessment for eligibility has yielded a
total of 17 papers to be included which were found suitable for analysis
covering period from 2012 till 2016.
Results A major challenge of giving an overview of prevalence data for S. stercoralis
lies in the low sensitivity of diagnostic method used which resulted in very
low prevalence in certain countries. Cambodia and Laos presented with high
prevalence ranging from 17.4% to 45.9% by using high sensitivity of
diagnostic methods. The current prevalence situation of S. stercoralis in
Southeast Asia still have wide gaps remains due to several reasons.
Conclusions The information we have today only scratches the surface which cannot truly
reflect the true burden of S. stercoralis in Southeast Asia The main risk factor
is personal hygiene practices especially amongst males.
Introduction Pneumococcal disease causes considerable morbidity and mortality,
including among adults. Adult pneumococcal vaccines help to prevent these
burdens, yet, they are underutilized. Our objective is to systematically collect
and summarize the available evidence on the potential factors that lead to
pneumococcal vaccination acceptance among of adult community.
Methods A systematic literature search was conducted involving studies published
from January 1999 to December 2015. The studies were identified by
searching electronic resources (PubMed/MEDLINE and Pro Quest database)
and manual searches of references. The keywords “vaccine/ immunization”,
“uptake/ coverage”, “determinant/ factor”, and “Streptococcus pneumoniae/
pneumococcus/ pneumococcal” were used. Final studies result and data were
reviewed by two independent authors. Disagreement was resolved through
discussion and consensus.
Results A total of 171 studies were identified, only 17 studies were included in final
discussion with 10 domains identified in the paper. 7 studies (41%) had
reported that the provider domain, patients’ perception and
socio-demographic factor have had the most effect on the pneumococcal
vaccination acceptance rate. In addition, only 18% (3) of reviewed papers had
highlighted that socio-economic was a factor influenced the pneumococcal
vaccination acceptance while 24% (4 studies) were attributed to the comorbid
Conclusions Healthcare provider and patients’ perception about pneumococcal vaccination
for adult population are significant domains which influence the acceptance
towards vaccination. Strong recommendations from healthcare provider for
pneumococcal vaccination would be an important step to increase vaccination
acceptance among the population.