Displaying all 12 publications

  1. Goh PS, Ng BC, Ismail AF, Aziz M, Hayashi Y
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2012 Nov 15;386(1):80-7.
    PMID: 22909959 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2012.07.033
    Mixed matrix hollow fibers composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyetherimide (PEI) were fabricated. Pre-treatment of MWCNTs was carried out prior to the incorporation into the polymer matrix using a simple and feasible two stages approach that involved dry air oxidation and surfactant dispersion. The characterizations of the surface treated MWCNTs using TEM and Raman spectroscopy have evidenced the effectiveness of dry air oxidation in eliminating undesired amorphous carbon and metal catalyst while surfactant dispersion using Triton X100 has suppressed the agglomeration of MWCNTs. The resultant mixed matrix hollow fibers were applied for O(2)/N(2) pure gas separation. Interestingly, it was found that removal of disordered amorphous carbons and metal particles has allowed the hollow structures to be more accessible for the fast and smooth transport of gas molecules, hence resulted in noticeable improvement in the gas separation properties. The composite hollow fibers embedded with the surface modified MWCNTs showed increase in permeability as much as 60% while maintaining the selectivity of the O(2)/N(2) gas pair. This study highlights the necessity to establish an appropriate pre-treatment approach for MWCNTs in order to fully utilize the beneficial transport properties of this material in mixed matrix polymer nanocomposite for gas separation.
  2. Nadeem K, Ng BC, Lim E, Gregory SD, Salamonsen RF, Stevens MC, et al.
    Ann Biomed Eng, 2016 Apr;44(4):1008-18.
    PMID: 26173771 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-015-1388-2
    As a left ventricular assist device is designed to pump against the systemic vascular resistance (SVR), pulmonary congestion may occur when using such device for right ventricular support. The present study evaluates the efficacy of using a fixed right outflow banding in patients receiving biventricular assist device support under various circulatory conditions, including variations in the SVR, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), total blood volume (BV), as well as ventricular contractility. Effect of speed variation on the hemodynamics was also evaluated at varying degrees of PVR. Pulmonary congestion was observed at high SVR and BV. A reduction in right ventricular assist device (RVAD) speed was required to restore pulmonary pressures. Meanwhile, at a high PVR, the risk of ventricular suction was prevalent during systemic hypotension due to low SVR and BV. This could be compensated by increasing RVAD speed. Isolated right heart recovery may aggravate pulmonary congestion, as the failing left ventricle cannot accommodate the resultant increase in the right-sided flow. Compared to partial assistance, the sensitivity of the hemodynamics to changes in VAD speed increased during full assistance. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the introduction of a banding graft with a 5 mm diameter guaranteed sufficient reserve of the pump speed spectrum for the regulation of acceptable hemodynamics over different clinical scenarios, except under critical conditions where drug administration or volume management is required.
  3. Ng BC, Smith PA, Nestler F, Timms D, Cohn WE, Lim E
    Ann Biomed Eng, 2017 03;45(3):567-579.
    PMID: 27543069 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-016-1706-3
    The successful clinical applicability of rotary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has led to research interest in devising a total artificial heart (TAH) using two rotary blood pumps (RBPs). The major challenge when using two separately controlled LVADs for TAH support is the difficulty in maintaining the balance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows. In this study, a starling-like controller (SLC) hybridized with an adaptive mechanism was developed for a dual rotary LVAD TAH. The incorporation of the adaptive mechanism was intended not only to minimize the risk of pulmonary congestion and atrial suction but also to match cardiac demand. A comparative assessment was performed between the proposed adaptive starling-like controller (A-SLC) and a conventional SLC as well as a constant speed controller. The performance of all controllers was evaluated by subjecting them to three simulated scenarios [rest, exercise, head up tilt (HUT)] using a mock circulation loop. The overall results showed that A-SLC was superior in matching pump flow to cardiac demand without causing hemodynamic instabilities. In contrast, improper flow regulation by the SLC resulted in pulmonary congestion during exercise. From resting supine to HUT, overpumping of the RBPs at fixed speed (FS) caused atrial suction, whereas implementation of SLC resulted in insufficient flow. The comparative study signified the potential of the proposed A-SLC for future TAH implementation particularly among outpatients, who are susceptible to variety of clinical scenarios.
  4. Ng BC, Kleinheyer M, Smith PA, Timms D, Cohn WE, Lim E
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0195975.
    PMID: 29677212 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195975
    Despite the widespread acceptance of rotary blood pump (RBP) in clinical use over the past decades, the diminished flow pulsatility generated by a fixed speed RBP has been regarded as a potential factor that may lead to adverse events such as vasculature stiffening and hemorrhagic strokes. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of generating physiological pulse pressure in the pulmonary circulation by modulating the speed of a right ventricular assist device (RVAD) in a mock circulation loop. A rectangular pulse profile with predetermined pulse width has been implemented as the pump speed pattern with two different phase shifts (0% and 50%) with respect to the ventricular contraction. In addition, the performance of the speed modulation strategy has been assessed under different cardiovascular states, including variation in ventricular contractility and pulmonary arterial compliance. Our results indicated that the proposed pulse profile with optimised parameters (Apulse = 10000 rpm and ωmin = 3000 rpm) was able to generate pulmonary arterial pulse pressure within the physiological range (9-15 mmHg) while avoiding undesirable pump backflow under both co- and counter-pulsation modes. As compared to co-pulsation, stroke work was reduced by over 44% under counter-pulsation, suggesting that mechanical workload of the right ventricle can be efficiently mitigated through counter-pulsing the pump speed. Furthermore, our results showed that improved ventricular contractility could potentially lead to higher risk of ventricular suction and pump backflow, while stiffening of the pulmonary artery resulted in increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, the proposed speed modulation strategy produces pulsatile hemodynamics, which is more physiologic than continuous blood flow. The findings also provide valuable insight into the interaction between RVAD speed modulation and the pulmonary circulation under various cardiovascular states.
  5. Nasir AM, Goh PS, Abdullah MS, Ng BC, Ismail AF
    Chemosphere, 2019 Oct;232:96-112.
    PMID: 31152909 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.174
    Heavy metal contamination in aqueous system has attracted global attention due to the toxicity and carcinogenicity effects towards living bodies. Among available removal techniques, adsorptive removal by nanosized materials such as metal oxide, metal organic frameworks, zeolite and carbon-based materials has attracted much attention due to the large active surface area, large number of functional groups, high chemical and thermal stability which led to outstanding adsorption performance. However, the usage of nanosized materials is restricted by the difficulty in separating the spent adsorbent from aqueous solution. The shift towards the use of adsorptive composite membrane for heavy metal ions removal has attracted much attention due to the synergistic properties of adsorption and filtration approaches in a same chamber. Thus, this review critically discusses the development of nanoadsorbents and adsorptive nanocomposite membranes for heavy metal removal over the last decade. The adsorption mechanism of heavy metal ions by the advanced nanoadsorbents is also discussed using kinetic and isotherm models. The challenges and future prospect of adsorptive membrane technology for heavy metal removal is presented at the end of this review.
  6. Zainol Abidin MN, Goh PS, Said N, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Hasbullah H, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2020 Jul 22;12(29):33276-33287.
    PMID: 32589391 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c08947
    The development of wearable artificial kidney demands an efficient dialysate recovery, which relies upon the adsorption process. This study proposes a solution to solve the problem of competitive adsorption between the uremic toxins by employing two adsorptive components in a membrane separation process. Dual-layer hollow fiber (DLHF) membranes, which are composed of a polysulfone (PSf)/activated carbon (AC) inner layer and a PSf/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) outer layer, were prepared for co-adsorptive removal of creatinine and urea from aqueous solution. The DLHF membranes were characterized in terms of morphological, physicochemical, water transport, and creatinine adsorption properties. The membrane was then subjected to an ultrafiltration adsorption study for performance evaluation. The incorporation of AC in membrane, as confirmed by microscopic and surface analyses, has improved the pure water flux up to 25.2 L/(m2 h). A membrane with optimum AC loading (9 wt %) demonstrated the highest maximum creatinine adsorption capacity (86.2 mg/g) based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. In the ultrafiltration adsorption experiment, the membrane removed creatinine and urea with a combined average percent removal of 29.3%. Moreover, the membrane exhibited creatinine and urea uptake recoveries of 98.8 and 81.2%, respectively. The combined action of PMMA and AC in the PSf DLHF membrane has made the adsorption of multiple uremic toxins possible during dialysate recovery.
  7. Abidin MNZ, Goh PS, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Hasbullah H, Said N, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:540-550.
    PMID: 27524052 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.06.039
    Poly (citric acid)-grafted-MWCNT (PCA-g-MWCNT) was incorporated as nanofiller in polyethersulfone (PES) to produce hemodialysis mixed matrix membrane (MMM). Citric acid monohydrate was polymerized onto the surface of MWCNTs by polycondensation. Neat PES membrane and PES/MWCNTs MMMs were fabricated by dry-wet spinning technique. The membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, pure water flux (PWF) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein rejection. The grafting yield of PCA onto MWCNTs was calculated as 149.2%. The decrease of contact angle from 77.56° to 56.06° for PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs membrane indicated the increase in surface hydrophilicity, which rendered positive impacts on the PWF and BSA rejection of the membrane. The PWF increased from 15.8Lm(-2)h(-1) to 95.36Lm(-2)h(-1) upon the incorporation of PCA-g-MWCNTs due to the attachment of abundant hydrophilic groups that present on the MWCNTs, which have improved the affinity of membrane towards the water molecules. For protein rejection, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs MMM rejected 95.2% of BSA whereas neat PES membrane demonstrated protein rejection of 90.2%. Compared to commercial PES hemodialysis membrane, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNTs MMMs showed less flux decline behavior and better PWF recovery ratio, suggesting that the membrane antifouling performance was improved. The incorporation of PCA-g-MWCNTs enhanced the separation features and antifouling capabilities of the PES membrane for hemodialysis application.
  8. Zailani MZ, Ismail AF, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Othman MH, Goh PS, Hasbullah H, et al.
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 05;105(5):1510-1520.
    PMID: 28000366 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35986
    In this study, poly (1,8-octanediol citrate) (POC) was used to modify polyethersulfone (PES)-based membrane to enhance its hemocompatibility. Different compositions of POC (0-3%) were added into the polyethersulfone (PES) dope solutions and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as pore forming agent. The hemocompatible POC modified PES membranes were fabricated through phase-inversion technique. The prepared membranes were characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic-force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, Zeta-potential, membrane porosity and pore size and pure water flux (PWF) and BSA rejection. The hemocompatibility of the modified PES membranes was evaluated by human serum fibrinogen (FBG) protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT), complement (C3a and C5a) activation and Ca2+ absorption on membrane. Results showed that by increasing POC concentration, FBG adsorption was reduced, less platelets adhesion, prolonged APTT and PT, lower TAT, C5a and C3a activation and absorb more Ca2+ ion. These results indicated that modification of PES with POC has rendered improved hemocompatibility properties for potential application in the field of blood purification, especially in hemodialysis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1510-1520, 2017.
  9. Abidin MNZ, Goh PS, Ismail AF, Othman MHD, Hasbullah H, Said N, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2017 Aug 01;77:572-582.
    PMID: 28532067 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2017.03.273
    A novel approach in the design of a safe, high performance hemodialysis membrane is of great demand. Despite many advantages, the employment of prodigious nanomaterials in hemodialysis membrane is often restricted by their potential threat to health. Hence, this work focusses on designing a biocompatible polyethersulfone (PES) hemodialysis membrane embedded with poly (citric acid)-grafted-multi walled carbon nanotubes (PCA-g-MWCNTs). Two important elements which could assure the safety of the nanocomposite membrane, i.e. (i) dispersion stability and (ii) leaching of MWCNTs were observed. The results showed the improved dispersion stability of MWCNTs in water and organic solvent due to the enriched ratio of oxygen-rich groups which subsequently enhanced membrane separation features. It was revealed that only 0.17% of MWCNTs was leached out during the membrane fabrication process (phase inversion) while no leaching was detected during permeation. In terms of biocompatibility, PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane exhibited lesser C3 and C5 activation (189.13 and 5.29ng/mL) and proteins adsorption (bovine serum albumin=4.5μg/cm2, fibrinogen=15.95μg/cm2) as compared to the neat PES membrane, while keeping a normal blood coagulation time. Hence, the PES/PCA-g-MWCNT nanocomposite membrane is proven to have the prospect of becoming a safe and high performance hemodialysis membrane.
  10. Abidin MNZ, Goh PS, Ismail AF, Said N, Othman MHD, Hasbullah H, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2018 Dec 01;201:257-263.
    PMID: 30241818 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.08.069
    Portable dialysis is a need to implement daily and nocturnal hemodialysis. To realize portable dialysis, a dialysate regeneration system comprising superior adsorbents is required to regenerate the used dialysate. This study aims to develop a nano-adsorbent, derived from corn starch for urea removal. Oxidized starch nanoparticles (oxy-SNPs) were prepared via liquid phase oxidation, followed by chemical dissolution and non-solvent precipitation. The oxy-SNPs possessed Z-average size of 177.7 nm with carbonyl and carboxyl contents of 0.068 and 0.048 per 100 glucose units, respectively. The urea adsorption achieved the equilibrium after 4 h with 95% removal. The adsorption mechanism fitted Langmuir isotherm while the adsorption kinetics obeyed pseudo-second-order model. This new material has a maximum adsorption capacity of 185.2 mg/g with a rate constant of 0.04 g/mg.h. Moreover, the oxy-SNPs exhibited the urea uptake recovery of 91.6%. Oxy-SNPs can become a promising adsorbent for dialysate regeneration system to remove urea.
  11. Mansur S, Othman MHD, Ismail AF, Kadir SHSA, Goh PS, Hasbullah H, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Jun;99:491-504.
    PMID: 30889724 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.092
    Polyurethane (PU) with three different functional groups: carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulphonyl group on its molecular structure were synthesised in this work. The synthesised material suppresses blood clotting and exhibits anticoagulant characteristics due to the presence of the important anionic groups. The synthesised PU was blended with polyethersulphone (PES) and fabricated into flat-sheet membrane to study the physico-chemical and biocompatibility properties of the PES membrane for blood purification application. PES-PU flat-sheet membranes were fabricated via the dry-wet phase separation technique. Different loading of PU (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) blended with PES was studied and compared. Based on the in-vitro biocompatibility analysis of the membrane, it can be suggested that the membrane incorporated with PU has better anticoagulant properties compared to the pristine PES membrane. PU incorporation prolonged the clotting time, decreased the formation of thrombin, decreased soluble complement component 3a (C3a) generation and suppressed platelet adhesion and aggregation. The anionic groups on the membrane surface might bind to coagulation factors (antithrombin) and the calcium ions, Ca2+ and thus improve anticoagulant ability. Based on both physico-chemical and in-vitro studied, 4% loading of PU is the optimum loading for incorporation with PES membrane. These results suggested that the blended PES-PU membranes with good haemocompatibility allowed practical application in the field of blood purification.
  12. Yogarathinam LT, Goh PS, Ismail AF, Gangasalam A, Ahmad NA, Samavati A, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan 11;293:133561.
    PMID: 35031248 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133561
    Membrane technology is a sustainable method to remove pollutants from petroleum wastewater. However, the presence of hydrophobic oil molecules and inorganic constituents can cause membrane fouling. Biomass derived biopolymers are promising renewable materials for membrane modification. In this study, fouling resistant biopolymer N-phthaloylchitosan (CS)- based polythersulfone (PES) mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) incorporated with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was fabricated via phase inversion method and applied for produced water (PW) treatment. The morphological and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses of the as-prepared NCC evidenced the formation of fibrous sheet-like structure and the presence of hydrophilic group. The membrane morphology and AFM analysis showed that the NCC altered the surface and cross-sectional morphology of the CS-PES MMMs. The tensile strength of NCC-CS-PES MMMs was also enhanced. 0.5 wt% NCC-CS-PES MMMs displayed a water permeability of 1.11 × 10-7 m/s.kPa with the lowest contact angle value of 61°. It affirmed that its hydrophilicity increased through the synergetic interaction between CS biopolymer and NCC. The effect of process variables such as transmembrane pressure (TMP) and synthetic produced water (PW) concentration were evaluated for both neat PES and NCC-CS-PES MMMs membranes. 0.5 wt% NCC-CS-PES MMMs exhibited the highest PW rejection of 98% when treating 50 mgL-1 of synthetic PW at a transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 200 kPa. The effect of nano silica and sodium chloride on the long-term PW filtration of NCC-CS-PES MMMs was also investigated.
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