The development of wearable artificial kidney demands an efficient dialysate recovery, which relies upon the adsorption process. This study proposes a solution to solve the problem of competitive adsorption between the uremic toxins by employing two adsorptive components in a membrane separation process. Dual-layer hollow fiber (DLHF) membranes, which are composed of a polysulfone (PSf)/activated carbon (AC) inner layer and a PSf/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) outer layer, were prepared for co-adsorptive removal of creatinine and urea from aqueous solution. The DLHF membranes were characterized in terms of morphological, physicochemical, water transport, and creatinine adsorption properties. The membrane was then subjected to an ultrafiltration adsorption study for performance evaluation. The incorporation of AC in membrane, as confirmed by microscopic and surface analyses, has improved the pure water flux up to 25.2 L/(m2 h). A membrane with optimum AC loading (9 wt %) demonstrated the highest maximum creatinine adsorption capacity (86.2 mg/g) based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. In the ultrafiltration adsorption experiment, the membrane removed creatinine and urea with a combined average percent removal of 29.3%. Moreover, the membrane exhibited creatinine and urea uptake recoveries of 98.8 and 81.2%, respectively. The combined action of PMMA and AC in the PSf DLHF membrane has made the adsorption of multiple uremic toxins possible during dialysate recovery.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.